Data Dashboards

Albania
Measurement
Measuring the Change

using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards.

Child labour data is only available for 2010. There is no change to report.

%
Best Target 8.7 Data: Child Labour Rate


The data visualization displays yearly child labour statistics based on a variety of nationally-representative household surveys. All years of data hold up to standards set by interagency collaboration between ILO, UNICEF and World Bank, though, in some cases are not perfectly comparable between years. Detailed information on each data point is provided in the Measurement tab (above).

Data Availability
  • Child labour: ILO/UNICEF Data
  • Forced labour: No nationally representative data
  • Human trafficking: No nationally representative data
Context
Human Development

Human Development Index Score: 0.764 (2015)

Mean School Years: 9.6 years (2015)

Labour Indicators

Vulnerable Employment: 58.1% (2013)

Working Poverty Rate: 0.3% (2016)

Government Efforts
Key Ratifications
  • ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Not ratified
  • ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2001
  • UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Ratified 2002
Social Protections Coverage

General (at least one): No data

Unemployed: 6.9% (2012)

Pension: 77% (2011)

Vulnerable: No data

Children: No data

Disabled: No data

Poor: No data

Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.

Child Labour Rate, Aged 5-17 (Source: ILO)

Based on the international conventions and the International Conference of Labour Statisticians (ICLS) resolution, and consistent with the approach utilized in the ILO global child labour estimates exercise, the statistical definition of child labour used includes:

a) children aged 5-11 years in all forms of economic activity;
b) children aged 12-14 years in all forms of economic activity except permissible “light” work;
c) children and adolescents aged 15-17 years in hazardous work; and
d) children aged 5-14 years performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week.

In Albania, data on the percentage of child labourers is provided for 2010.

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 5-17 in child labour by sex. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups by region is not provided for 2010.

Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Hazardous child labour is the largest category of the worst forms of child labour with an estimated 73 million children aged 5-17 working in dangerous conditions in a wide range of sectors. Worldwide, the ILO estimates that some 22,000 children are killed at work every year.

In Albania, the latest estimates show that 4 percent of children aged 5-14 were engaged in hazardous work in 2010. Only the measure provided for 2010 covers the full definition of hazardous work and cannot be compared directly with data from other sample years.

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 5-14 in hazardous labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is not provided for 2000, 2005 and 2010.

Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 15-17 (Source: ILO)

Children aged 15-17 are permitted to engage in economic activities by international conventions in most cases, except when the work is likely to harm the health, safety or morals of children (Article 3 (d) of ILO Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour, 1999 (No. 182)).

In Albania, the latest estimates show that 14 percent of children aged 15-17 were engaged in hazardous work in 2010.

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 15-17 in hazardous labour by sex. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups by region is not provided for 2010.

Weekly Work Hours, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Children aged 5-11 are considered to be subjected to child labour when engaging in any form of economic activity. Children aged 12-14 are permitted to engage in “light” work that is not considered hazardous and falls below 14 hours per week.

According to the latest 2010 estimates, the average number of hours worked per week by children aged 5-14 in Albania was 14.3 hours. The average number of hours worked has increased from 9.3 hours in 2005.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours that children aged 5-14 work in economic activities by sex and region. The sample includes all children of this age group. Complete disaggregated data is not provided for 2010.

Weekly Work Hours Children Only in Economic Activity, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Children not attending school who are engaged in economic activity can be subjected to longer working hours.

In 2010, the latest year with available data, children in economic activity only, meaning they are not in school, worked an average of 27.9 hours per week. This number has increased since 2005, when the average number of hours worked by this age group was 15.8.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours worked by children aged 5-14 who are not in school, by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is not provided for 2010.

Weekly Hours Household Chores, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Researchers recognize that children involved in economic activities are not the only children working. The ICLS recommended definition of child labour includes children aged 5-14 performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week.

Children aged 5-14, on average, are found to work on household chores 6.4 hours per week according to the 2010 estimate. This estimate represents a decrease in hours worked across all age groups since the last estimate in 2005, which found that children aged 5-14 in Albania worked an average of 6.8 hours per week.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours children aged 5-14 work on household chores by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is not provided for 2010.

Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: Total (Source: ILO)

Identifying the sectors in which the most child labour exists can help policy actors and practitioners target efforts toward those industries.

The latest data available on child labour by sector for Albania is from 2010. By the 2010 estimate, the Agriculture sector had the most child labourers, followed by the Commerce, Hotels and Restaurants sector and the Construction, Mining and Other Industrial Sectors sector.

The chart to the right displays child labour prevalence in each sector for all children. The chart below shows the differences in child labour by sector with comparisons between groups by sex.

Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: Sex (Source: ILO)

Measuring the incidence of forced labour is a much more recent endeavour and presents unique methodological challenges compared to the measurement of child labour.

No nationally representative data is available on forced labour prevalence in Albania.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on new guidelines presented by the International Labour Organization and adopted by the International Conference of Labour Statisticians.

The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.

No nationally representative data is available on human trafficking prevalence in Albania.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page to learn about measuring human trafficking prevalence, including information on collecting data through national referral mechanisms and producing prevalence statistics using Multiple Systems Estimation (MSE).

Case Data: International and Non-Governmental Organizations

Civil society organizations (CSOs) focused on human trafficking victim assistance can serve as crucial sources of data given their ability to reach a population that is notoriously difficult to sample.

Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (CTDC): The International Organization for Migration (IOM), Polaris and Liberty Asia have launched a global data repository on human trafficking, with data contributed by counter-trafficking partner organizations around the world. Not only does the CTDC serve as a central repository for this critical information, it also publishes normed and harmonized data from various organizations using a unified schema. This global dataset facilitates an unparalleled level of cross-border, trans-agency analysis and provides the counter-trafficking movement with a deeper understanding of this complex issue. Equipped with this information, decision makers will be empowered to create more targeted and effective intervention strategies.

Prosecution Data

UNODC compiles a global dataset on detected and prosecuted traffickers, which serves as the basis in their Global Report for country profiles. This information is beginning to paint a picture of trends over time, and case-specific information can assist investigators and prosecutors.

Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.

Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.

The chart displays information on human development in Albania between 1990 and 2015. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex.

The most recent year of the HDI, 2015, shows that the average human development score in Albania is 0.764. This score indicates that human development is high.

HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)

Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.

As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:

“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”

The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in Albania over time.

Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction toward achieving Target 8.7.

HDI Vulnerable Employment (Source: UNDP)

There are reasons to believe that certain types of labour and labour arrangements are more likely to lead to labour exploitation. According to the ILO:

“Own-account workers and contributing family workers have a lower likelihood of having formal work arrangements, and are therefore more likely to lack elements associated with decent employment, such as adequate social security and a voice at work. The two statuses are summed to create a classification of ‘vulnerable employment’, while wage and salaried workers together with employers constitute ‘non-vulnerable employment’.”

Between 2011 and 2013, Albania showed a decrease in the proportion of workers in vulnerable employment as compared to those in secure employment.

Working Poverty Rate (Source: ILO)

Labour income tells us about a household’s vulnerability. As the ILO explains in Profits and Poverty:

“Poor households find it particularly difficult to deal with income shocks, especially when they push households below the food poverty line. In the presence of such shocks, men and women without social protection nets tend to borrow to smooth consumption, and to accept any job for themselves or their children, even under exploitative conditions.”

ILO indicators that measure poverty with respect to the labour force include working poverty rate, disaggregated by sex, with temporal coverage spanning from 2000 to 2016. The chart displays linear trends in working poverty rate over time for all individuals over 15 years of age.

Labour Productivity (Source: ILO)

Labour productivity is an important economic indicator that is closely linked to economic growth, competitiveness, and living standards within an economy.” However, when increased labour output does not produce rising wages, this can point to increasing inequality. As indicated by a recent ILO report (2015), there is a “growing disconnect between wages and productivity growth, in both developed and emerging economies”. The lack of decent work available increases vulnerability to situations of labour exploitation.

Labour productivity represents the total volume of output (measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product, GDP) produced per unit of labour (measured in terms of the number of employed persons) during a given period.

Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.

Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Source: UNHCR)

Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants.

According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children.”

As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements.”

The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in Albania.

Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.

Official Definitions
Forced Labour

Kushtetuta, 1998
Article 26
No one may be required to perform forced labor, except in cases of the execution of a judicial decision, the performance of military service, or for a service that results from a state of emergency, war or natural disaster that threatens human life or health.

Code of Labor of the Republic of Albania, 1995
A. Prohibition against Compulsory Labor
Article 8.1. All forms of compulsory labor are prohibited.
Article 8.1.2. With compulsory or forced labor is meant any job or service imposed on the individual against his/her will, threatening him/her through whatever punishment.
Prohibited is the use of compulsory labor as:

a. a coercive measure or sanction against persons that have or air beliefs running contrary to the ruling political, economic and social order;
b. a method of mobilization or exploitation of labor force for the purpose of economic development;c. a disciplinary measure at work;
d. a punishment for having participated in a strike;
e. a measure of racial, social, national or religious discrimination.

Article 8.1.3. The following are not considered to be compulsory labor:

a. any job or service imposed on the basis of the law on the Armed Forced of the
Republic of Albania, which are designed to serve activities of purely military character;
b. any job or service imposed on the individual as a punishment determined by the court and during which the person is not put at the service of the citizens or private juridical persons, except for the cases provided for in paragraph 2 of this Article.
c. any job imposed in case of war or because of forces majeures, natural calamities,
especially in case of fire, floods, starvation, earthquakes, epidemics and under all circumstances threatening life or normal living conditions of the entire population or of one part of it.

Child Labour

Kushtetuta, 1998
Article 54.1. Children, the young, pregnant women and new mothers have the right to special protection by the state.
Article 54.3. Every child has the right to be protected from violence, ill treatment, exploitation and their use for work, especially under the minimum age for work, which could damage their health and morals or endanger their life or normal development.

Code of Labor of the Republic of Albania, 1995
Article 98.1. The employment of the juveniles under the age of 16 is prohibited. This prohibition does not apply to the juveniles from 14 to 16 years of age, when they are employed during the holidays from school, provided that this employment doesn’t harm their health and growing up.
Article 98.2. The juveniles from 14 to 16 years of age may become subject to vocational advice and training in accordance with the rules set by decision of the Council of Ministers.

Article 99.1. The juveniles between 16 and 18 years of age may be given easy jobs that do not harm their health and growing up.
Article 99.2. The Council of Ministers defines the easy jobs and sets specific rules for the maximum duration and conditions of performing the job.

Ligj 10237 per sigurine dhe shendetin ne pune, 2010
Article 34 Children
1.Children should be protected against any specific risks that might harm their welfare and development arising from their lack of experience, absence of awareness of existing or potential risks, or from their immaturity.
2. The employment of children is prohibited for:

a. work which is objectively beyond their physical or psychological capacity;
b. the work involving harmful exposure to agents which are toxic, carcinogenic, cause heritable genetic damage, or harm to that chronically affect human health;
c. work involving harmful exposure to radiation;
ç. work involving the risk of accidents which it may be assumed cannot be recognized or avoided by children owing to their insufficient attention to safety or lack of experience or training;
d. work in which there is a risk to health from extreme cold or heat, or from noise or vibration.

Worst Forms of Child Labour

Code of Labor of the Republic of Albania, 1995
Article 100
Only the adults over 18 years of age may be employed to carry out difficult jobs or jobs that pose danger for their health or personality.
The Council of Ministers sets specific rules for the duration and conditions of carrying out difficult or dangerous jobs.

Article 101
Forbidden to carry out night work are the employees under 18 years of age and those recognized as invalids on the basis of the medical report and in accordance with the law on social insurance.

Arrêté no 207 relatif à la désignation des travaux difficiles et dangereux. (Decree on Defining Hazardous and Hard Work), 2002
“Contient une liste des différents types de travail considérés comme difficiles et dangereux pour la vie et la santé des travailleurs. Prévoit que les employeurs doivent créer de hautes conditions de sécurité et d’hygiène.”

Arrêté no 384 du Conseil des Ministres pour la protection des mineurs au travail, 1996
“Prévoit que l’employeur doit prendre des mesures pour la protection de la sécurité et de la santé des mineurs en tenant compte des risques spécifiques qui proviennent du manque d’expérience.”

Ligj No 18 Për Të Drejtat Dhe Mbrojtjen E Fëmijës, 2017
Neni 24 Mbrojtja nga shfrytëzimi ekonomik
1. Fëmija mbrohet nga shfrytëzimi ekonomik, sipas parashikimeve të Kodit Penal, që përfshin kryerjen e çdo pune që:

a. paraqet rreziqe për shëndetin fizik dhe mendor, mirëqenien e zhvillimin e tij tërësor;
b. cenon edukimin;
c. është e detyruar.

2. Ndalohet marrja në punë e fëmijës nën moshën 16 vjeç. Fëmija mund të kryejë punë të lehta, që nuk dëmtojnë shëndetin, formimin e tij ose e largojnë atë nga shkolla, sipas përcaktimeve të parashikuara në Kodin e Punës.
3. Fëmija mbrohet nga shfrytëzimi ekonomik, si dhe nga kryerja e çdo pune të detyruar brenda familjes së tij, në shkollë, institucione të rehabilitimit dhe dënimit, ose në aktivitete kulturore, artistike, sportive, modelimi ose për qëllime reklamuese, që paraqet rrezik, cenon edukimin, dëmton shëndetin ose zhvillimin e tij fizik, mendor, shpirtëror, moral ose shoqëror.
4. Ndalohet çdo praktikë, nëpërmjet së cilës fëmija detyrohet të kryejë veprime të përmendura në pikat 2 e 3, të këtij neni, pavarësisht dijenisë ose jo të prindit ose kujdestarit, si dhe pavarësisht faktit nëse është apo jo kundrejt shpërblimit.
5. Në rast se një fëmijë, brenda moshës për të cilën parashikohet arsimi i detyrueshëm, shmang arsimimin, me qëllim kryerjen e aktiviteteve të ndaluara, sipas ligjit, personeli arsimor njofton menjëherë prindin ose kujdestarin, si dhe njësinë e mbrojtjes së fëmijës, të cilët marrin masa të menjëhershme që fëmija të rikthehet në shkollë.

Neni 26
Mbrojtja nga trafikimi dhe çdo lloj forme e shfrytëzimit dhe abuzimit seksual Fëmija mbrohet nga trafikimi, shitja dhe çdo formë e shfrytëzimit dhe e abuzimit seksual, duke përfshirë veprimtarinë e paligjshme seksuale, shfrytëzimin e fëmijës në prostitucion ose në praktika të tjera seksuale të paligjshme, ekspozimi, shfaqja ose përfshirja në materiale pornografike ose abuzimi seksual me fëmijë, sipas përcaktimeve të Kodit Penal dhe akteve të tjera në fuqi.

Human Trafficking

Penal Code, 1995
Article 110.a. Trafficking of adult persons
The recruitment, transport, transfer, hiding or reception of persons through threat or the use of force or other forms of compulsion, kidnapping, fraud, abuse of office or taking advantage of social, physical or psychological condition or the giving or receipt of payments or benefits in order to get the consent of a person who controls another person, with the purpose of exploitation of prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced services or work, slavery or forms similar to slavery, putting to use or transplanting organs, as well as other forms of exploitation, within and beyond the territory of the Republic of Albania, shall be punishable by imprisonment from eight to fifteen years.

International Commitments
National Strategies

Strategy for Combating Trafficking in Persons Action Plan (2014-2017)

“Outlines a plan to improve law enforcement and prosecutions, build the capacity of programs that provide services to trafficking victims, improve interagency coordination, and train professionals working with street children. Reviewed and updated by ONAC and IOM in 2016 to ensure its continued relevance.”

The Action Plan for the Social-Economic Reintegration of Women and Girl Victims (2016-2020)

“Increases resources available to victims and attempts to reintegrate girl trafficking victims by providing education and social services to combat future forced labor and trafficking. Part of the Strategy for Combating Trafficking in Persons Action Plan.”

Instruction no. 10 on Cooperation and Intervention Procedures for Assisting Vulnerable Children for Institutions and Structures in Charge of Child Protection

“Describes child protection responsibilities of the state police, Ministry of Education, regional Directorates of Social Services, regional Departments of Education, schools, municipal governments, CRUs, and CPUs. Requires all agencies to refer known and suspected cases of child abuse and exploitation to CPUs. Outlines principles for case management and evaluation.”

Action Plan for the Identification and Protection of Children in Street Situations (2015-2017)

“Defines the roles and responsibilities of various ministries and stakeholders in identifying and providing assistance to street children, including children working on the street.”

White Paper on the Future of the Integrated Child Protection System in Albania

“Clarifies roles and responsibilities of government agencies involved in child protection, makes government policy recommendations on child protection accountability, addresses mechanisms, and creates a child-friendly justice system.”

National Action Plan for Roma and Egyptian Community Reintegration (2016-2020)

“Aims to provide Roma and Egyptian children full access to education, reduce discrimination, enhance social inclusion, and promote intercultural dialog between different actors in the community.”

International Ratifications

ILO Forced Labour Convention, C029, Ratification 1957

ILO Abolition of Forced Labour Convention, C105, Ratification 1997

ILO Minimum Age Convention, C138, Ratification 1998

ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182, Ratification 2001

Slavery Convention, signed at Geneva on 25 September 1926 and amended by the Protocol, Accession 1957

UN Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, Accession 1958

UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol), Ratification 2002

UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, Ratification 1992

UN Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Accession 2008

UN Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, Accession 2008

Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the perpetration of modern slavery, forced labour, child labour and human trafficking. These actions should be considered in wider societal efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.

Programs and Agencies for Victim Support (Source: U.S. Department of Labor)

Policies for Assistance
Policies for Assistance, General

Penal Code, 1995
Article 52.a. Exemption from serving the sentence or reduction of the sentence for collaborators of justice and victims
The person who promises or gives rewards or other benefits, according to articles 164/a, 244, 244/a, 245, 312, 319, 319/a, 319/b, 319/c and 328 of this Code, may obtain an exemption from serving the sentence or a reduction of the sentence, in the event the person reports and gives assistance during the criminal proceedings of these offences. When issuing the decision, the court shall also consider the time when the report is filed, and the occurrence, or not, of the consequences of the offence.
The victim of criminal offences related to trafficking in human beings, may obtain exemption from the sentence for committing criminal offences during the trafficking period and to the extent the person had been obliged to commit the illegal actions or failure to act.
The person sentenced for one of the criminal offences related to trafficking of narcotics, arms or munitions, trafficking in human beings or criminal offences committed by criminal organisations, who collaborates and assists the criminal prosecuting authorities in fighting against them, or, where appropriate, in uncovering other persons who commit such crimes, cannot be sentenced for a period of more than half of the sentence foreseen for the offence committed by him/her. In particular cases, the person may be excluded from such sentence when mitigating circumstances are in his favour.

Law on Aliens, 2013
Article 53 Issuing residence permits for humanitarian grounds
1. The local authority responsible for border and migration based on humanitarian grounds shall issue type “A” temporary residence permits to the alien even if the conditions laid down in article 34 of this law or other general criteria laid down in this law are not met, if the alien:

b. is victim or potential victim of trafficking;
c. has been subjected to conditions of labour exploitation in the Republic of Albania and collaborates in criminal proceedings against the employer, until the end of the process and until the alien receives the compensation determined by the process.
ç. has collaborated or agrees to collaborate with justice authorities on the proposal of the state bodies or national security authorities;
d. is an abandoned minor, or is under no parental care, legal guardianship, or escort for other reasons.

2. The residence permit in such cases is limited and it may not exceed the 6-month duration and it may not be renewed. The residence permit issued for these reasons serves only for the stay of the alien and it may not enable re-entry to the territory of the Republic of Albania if the alien leaves the country.
3. The alien who is issued with temporary residence permit, according to point 1 of this article shall enjoy the right to stay and move within the territory of the Republic of Albania, guaranteed for the aliens who have temporary residence permit according to normal procedures. He /she shall collaborate with the competent bodies to determine own identity, but the lack of evidence which proves his/her identity shall not be sufficient reason for the issuing of the temporary residence permit. The alien benefits health care, financial assistance and support, based on the legal provisions in force.

Article 54 Issuing of residence permit for victims of trafficking in human beings
1. The local authority responsible for border and migration shall issue type “A” temporary residence permit for a 3-month validity period to any alien, regardless of his/her will to collaborate with justice, if there are reasonable grounds to believe that the alien is a victim or potential victim of trafficking identified as such by the structures responsible for identification and referral of victims of trafficking. Such residence permit is issued to the victim or potential victim of trafficking in order to recover, and to be treated because of the physical and mental conditions, so as to have a well-informed decision on cooperation with the justice authorities.
2. The victim or potential victim of trafficking, during the recovery and reflection period shall enjoy all the rights and services entitled to the victims of trafficking according to the Albanian legislation in force.
3. The residence permit issued for the recovery and reflection period may be revoked if it is proved that the victim or potential victim of trafficking has acquired or claimed this status unfairly, has actively restored relationship, voluntarily and/or own initiative, with persons suspected of trafficking in human beings, or if it considered that his/her stay in the territory constitutes a threat to national security. Revocation of the residence permit for the period of recovery and reflection is communicated to the victim or potential victim of trafficking in written form, in a language of his/her understanding, by informing him/her of the reasons of the cancellation, except for the case when the residence permit is interrupted for national security reasons.
4. The local department responsible for border and migration, shall issue type “B” residence permit to the victims of trafficking in the Republic of Albania, identified as such by the structures responsible for identification and referral of victims of trafficking, in either one or the other, or in both following situations:

a. the competent authority deems that his/her stay is necessary because of the social and personal situation;
b. the competent authority deems that his/her stay is necessary for the purpose of collaboration with the justice authorities during criminal investigation or proceedings.

5. The issue of residence permit shall not be limited to the existence of the sufficient financial means of the victim to cover expenses during the period of stay or to the lack of identification documents of the victim or potential victim of trafficking.

Article 101 Type “C” work permit for special cases
An alien may be provided with a work permit for special categories, for up to one year, when he/she takes part in one or more of the following categories:

d. victims of trafficking or potential victims of trafficking, according to the assessment made by responsible state institutions.

Article 108 Voluntary enforcement of the removal order
1. The authority responsible for border and migration shall not enforce the removal order, if the alien declares voluntary removal from territory. Declaration of voluntary removal of the alien shall be considered by the authority responsible for border and migration and migration when deciding whether to include the restrictive measure of prohibition of entry in the removal order, except for the cases where such declaration may not be considered because of public order and security interests.
2. The local authority responsible for border and migration shall give priority to the enforcement of voluntary return especially for the following category of persons:

d. victims of trafficking in human beings who wish to return to their country of origin;

3. The removal order shall not be enforced until the end of the appeal process and the taking of the final decision, unless otherwise provided for by this law.
4. The authority responsible for border and migration, in cooperation with international organisations involved in issues of aliens, shall undertake joint programmes for the provision of financial means, in order to enable the return of aliens, as mentioned in this article, to the country of origin.

Article 125 Detention of an unaccompanied minor
1. The unaccompanied minor, in exceptional cases, who is subject to a detention order, shall be accommodated in a state social centre opened specifically for this purpose by or at another centre based on cooperation with international organisations dealing with children, victims of trafficking in human beings or other categories of persons in need.

Vendim no 582 per miratimin e procedurave per identifikimin dhe referimin e viktimave te mundshme te trafikimit, 2011
“Définit comme objectif principal l’identification rapide des victimes majeures et mineures de trafic, afin de leur porter aide et protection. Vise à contribuer à la lutte contre la traite des êtres humains, à la prévention des trafics et à la punition des trafiquants.”

Penalties
Penalties, Child Labour

Code of Labor of the Republic of Albania, 1995
Article 202.1. The violation of Articles 9, 10, 39 (the first Paragraph), 40, 41, 43, 44 (the second Paragraph), 69, 75, 98, 100, 101, 103, 108, 181 (points 3, 5 and 7, letters “a”, “b”, and “c”), 184-186 defined by this Code, will be punished with a fine amounting to 50 times of the minimum monthly wage.
Article 202.2. The violation of Articles 21 (the third and the fourth Paragraph), 32 (the third Paragraph), 33, 34, 36, 38, 42, 70-74, 78 (point 1, 2 and 3), 79 (the second Paragraph), 80 (the second Paragraph), 81, 83, 84-87, 90 (the second and the third Paragraph), 91-96, 111, 116, 119 (the first Paragraph), 139, 148 (point 7), 165 (point 1), 167, 99 (point 1), 105/a, 193 (point 2), 197/2 (point 3) of this Code will be punished with a fine amounting to 30 times of the minimum monthly wage.
Article 202.3. The violation of Articles 26 (the fourth Paragraph), 44 (the first Paragraph), 49 (the fourth paragraph), and 50, will be punished with a fine amounting to 20 times of the minimum monthly wage.
Article 202.4. Any violation will be punished with fine. When the violation is a repeated one and to the detriment of several employees, the total amount of fines given will not be greater than 50 times of the maximum fine.
Article 202.5. The employer, on solidarity basis, will be held liable to pay the fine, if the violation is done by a person that he/she has charged with special tasks to represent him/her in the enterprise.
Article 202.6. The violations of the provisions of this Code, if they are considered to be offences, will be punished in compliance with the provisions of the Penal Code.

Penal Code, 1995
Article 124.b. Maltreatment of minors
Physical or psychological maltreatment of minors by their parents, sister, brother, grandfather, grandmother, legal guardian or by any other person who is obliged to look after him, is sentenced by imprisonment from three months up to two years.
Coercing, exploitation, encouragement, or use of a minor to work, to obtain income, to beg, or to perform actions that damage his/her mental and/or physical development, or education, shall be punishable by two to five years of imprisonment.

Article 129 Inducing minors to criminality
Inducing or encouraging minors under the age of fourteen to criminality is sentenced up to five years of imprisonment.

Article 170.a. Illegal employment
Employment without registration with the competent authorities or without guaranteeing employee’s insurance according the regulations, when an administrative measure has been rendered first, is sentenced with a fine up to 10 000 Lek for any case, or with imprisonment of up to one year.
Deliberate omission or camouflage of the infringements connected with the employment or the social security from people tasked with the application and the control of the relevant dispositions, constitutes a criminal contravention and is punished with a fine of up to 100 000. Lek, or imprisonment of up to two years.

Ligj No 18 Për Të Drejtat Dhe Mbrojtjen E Fëmijës, 2017
Neni 69 Kundërvajtjet administrative
1. Shkeljet e të drejtave të parashikuara në nenet 8, 9, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 21, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 29, 32 e 33, të këtij ligji, kur nuk përbëjnë vepër penale përbëjnë kundërvajtje administrative dhe dënohen me gjobë, përkatësisht:

a. personi fizik, nga 40 000 deri në 80 000 lekë;
b. personi juridik, nga 60 000 deri në 100 000 lekë;
c. personi fizik brenda personit juridik, i cili është përgjegjës për shkeljen, nga 40 000 deri në 80 000 lekë;
ç. personi, i cili ushtron funksion publik, nga 60 000 deri në 80 000 lekë.

3. Agjencia Shtetërore për të Drejtat dhe Mbrojtjen e Fëmijës është organi, i cili konstaton kundërvajtjen administrative, vendos dhe ekze- kuton sanksionet administrative.
4. Vendimi i Agjencisë Shtetërore për të Drejtat dhe Mbrojtjen e Fëmijës është titull ekzekutiv. Procedura për shqyrtimin e kundërvajtjeve administrative dhe ekzekutimin e gjobave, të përcaktuara në pikën 1, të këtij neni, bëhet në përputhje me legjislacionin në fuqi për kundër- vajtjet administrative.
5. Procedurat e kryerjes së kontrollit dhe të vendosjes së sanksioneve nga Agjencia Shtetërore për të Drejtat dhe Mbrojtjen e Fëmijës përcaktohen me vendim të Këshillit të Ministrave.

Penalties, Human Trafficking

Penal Code, 1995
Article 7 The applicable law on criminal acts committed by foreign citizens
The foreign citizen who commits a criminal act within the territory of the Republic of Albania is held responsible on the basis of the criminal law of the Republic of Albania.
The criminal law of the Republic of Albania is also applicable to a foreign citizen who, outside of the Republic of Albania, commits one of the following crimes against the interests of the Albanian State or an Albanian citizen:

d. organizing the prostitution, illegal trafficking of human beings, children and women, manufacturing and illegally trafficking arms, drugs, other narcotic and psychotropic substances, nuclear substances, pornographic materials, and illegal traffic of art works, and objects that have historical, cultural, and archaeological values;

Article 110.a. Trafficking of adult persons
The recruitment, transport, transfer, hiding or reception of persons through threat or the use of force or other forms of compulsion, kidnapping, fraud, abuse of office or taking advantage of social, physical or psychological condition or the giving or receipt of payments or benefits in order to get the consent of a person who controls another person, with the purpose of exploitation of prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced services or work, slavery or forms similar to slavery, putting to use or transplanting organs, as well as other forms of exploitation, within and beyond the territory of the Republic of Albania, shall be punishable by imprisonment from eight to fifteen years. .
If such offence is committed against an adult female, it shall be punishable by ten to fifteen years of imprisonment.
The organization, management and financing of the trafficking of persons is punished with imprisonment of from seven to fifteen years and with a fine of from four million to six million Lek.
When such offence is committed in collaboration, more than once, accompanied by maltreatment and making the victim to commit various actions through the use of physical or psychological violence, causing serious consequences to health or threatening his life, is punishable by imprisonment of no less than fifteen years.
When the crime has brought about the death of the victim as a consequence, it is punished with imprisonment of no less than twenty years or with life imprisonment, as well as with a fine of from seven million to ten million Lek.
When the criminal crime is committed through the utilization of a state function or public service, the punishment of imprisonment and the fines are increased by one fourth of the punishment given.

Article 110.b. Benefiting from or using services provided by trafficked persons
Benefiting from or using services provided by trafficked persons, or services which are the object of exploitation of trafficking, being aware that the person is trafficked, shall be punishable by two to five years of imprisonment.
When this offence is committed against a minor, it shall be punishable by three to seven years of imprisonment.

Article 110.c. Actions facilitating trafficking
Forgery, possession, or provision of identity cards, passports, visas or other travel documents, or their retaining, removal, hiding, damaging or destruction in order to enable trafficking of persons over 18 years of age shall constitute criminal offence and shall be punishable by two to five years of imprisonment.
The same offence, when committed in collaboration, more than once, or is committed by the person who has the task to issue the ID card, passport, visa, or the travel document, or has enabled trafficking of children, shall be punishable by four to eight years of imprisonment.
The same offence, if it results in serious consequences, shall be punishable by not less than five years of imprisonment.

Article 114.a. Exploitation of prostitution with aggravated circumstances
When exploitation of prostitution is committed:

1. with minors;
2. against some persons;
3. with persons within close consanguinity, in-laws or custodial relations or by taking advantage of an official rapport;
4. with deception, coercion, violence or by taking advantage of the physical or mental incapability of the person;
5. against a person that has been forced or coerced to exercise prostitution out of the territory of the Republic of Albania;
6. It is committed with accomplices or more than once or by persons who have state and public functions/duties; is punished from seven up to fifteen years of imprisonment.

Article 114.b. Trafficking of Women
The recruitment, transport, transfer, hiding or reception of women through threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, kidnapping, fraud, abuse of office or taking advantage of social, physical or psychological condition or the giving or receipt of payments or benefits, in order to get the consent of a person who controls another person, with the purpose of exploitation of prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced services or work, slavery or forms similar to slavery, putting to use or transplanting organs, as well as other forms of exploitation, are punished with imprisonment of from seven to fifteen years and with a fine of from three to six million Lek.
The organization, management and financing of the trafficking of woman is punished with imprisonment of from ten to fifteen years and with a fine of from five to seven million Lek. When this crime is committed in collaboration or more than once, or is accompanied by mistreatment and making the victim commit various actions through the use of physical or psychological force, or brings serious consequences to health, it is punished with imprisonment of no less than fifteen years and with a fine of from six to eight million Lek. When the crime has brought about the death of the victim as a consequence, it is punished with imprisonment of no less than twenty years or with life imprisonment, as well as with a fine of from seven to ten million Lek.
When the criminal crime is committed through the utilization of a state function or public service, the punishment of imprisonment and the fines are increased by one fourth of the punishment given.

Article 128.b. Trafficking of Minors
The recruitment, sale, transport, transfer, hiding or reception of minors with the purpose of exploitation for prostitution or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced services or work, slavery or forms similar to slavery, putting to use or transplanting organs, as well as other forms of exploitation, shall be punishable by ten to twenty years of imprisonment.
The organization, management and financing of the trafficking of minors is punished with imprisonment of from ten to twenty years.
When this crime is committed in collaboration or more than once, or is accompanied by maltreatment and making (coercing) the victim to commit various actions through physical or psychological force, or brings serious consequences to health, it is punished with imprisonment of no less than fifteen years and with a fine of from six to eight million Lek. When the crime has brought about the death of the victim as a consequence it is punished with imprisonment of no less than twenty years or with life imprisonment, as well as with a fine of from eight to ten million Lek.
When the criminal crime is committed through the utilization of a state function or public service, the punishment of imprisonment and the fines are increased by one fourth of the punishment given.

Law on Aliens, 2013
Article 9 Persona non grata
1. Minister of the Interior, for major interests of the state, constitutional and legal order, national security and public order, upon a motivated order shall declare an alien persona non grata if he or she:

a. acts or propagates against sovereignty of the Republic of Albania, national security, constitutional order and public order and security;
b. is a member of terrorist organisations or supports and undertakes anarchist actions against the rule of law;
c. is a threat to the country or threatens relations of the Republic of Albania with other countries;
ç. is suspected of entering and staying in the territory of the Republic of Albania to commit a crime or actions which pose a threat to the Republic of Albania;
d. is involved in organised crime, trafficking in human beings, drugs, and any other illicit trafficking, based on the information received by the responsible institutions of national security.

2. The alien shall be declared persona non grata for a period of no less than 5 years from the date of declaration and his or her entry or stay in the Republic of Albania during this period shall be refused.
3. Minister of the Interior, at the request of the alien, may reconsider the application for entry, visa or residence permit, if the alien has committed one of the above mentioned acts when he or she was a minor.

Programs and Agencies for Enforcement (Source: U.S. Department of Labor)

Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk for exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.

Social Protections: General (at Least One)
Social Protections (Source: ILO)

The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.

If a country does not appear on a chart, this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.

Social Protections: Unemployed
Social Protections: Pension
Social Protections: Vulnerable Groups
Social Protections: Poor
Social Protections: Children
Social Protections: Disabled

Delta 8.7 has received no Official Response to this dashboard from Albania. If you are a representative of Albania and wish to submit an Official Response, please contact us at info@delta87.org.