Data Dashboards

Antigua and Barbuda
Measurement
Measuring the Change

using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards. Due to lack of nationally representative data, there is no change to report.

%
Best Target 8.7 Data

No data available

Data Availability
  • Child labour: No UCW/ILO Data
  • Forced labour: No nationally representative data
  • Human trafficking: No nationally representative data
Context
Human Development

Human Development Index Score: 0.776 (2018)

Mean School Years: 9.3 years (2018)

Labour Indicators

Vulnerable Employment: No data

Working Poverty Rate: No data

Government Efforts
Key Ratifications
  • ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Not Ratified
  • ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2002
  • UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Ratified 2010
Social Protection Coverage

General (at least one): No data

Unemployed: No data

Pension: 83.5% (2016)

Vulnerable: No data

Children: No data

Disabled: 11.1% (2016)

Poor: No data

Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.

No nationally representative data is available on child labour prevalence in Antigua and Barbuda.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on ILO-SIMPOC methods and guidelines for defining, measuring and collecting data on child labour

Measuring the incidence of forced labour is a much more recent endeavour and presents unique methodological challenges compared to the measurement of child labour.

No nationally representative data is available on forced labour prevalence in Antigua and Barbuda.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on new guidelines presented by the International Labour Organization and adopted by the International Conference of Labour Statisticians.

The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.

No nationally representative data is available on human trafficking prevalence in Antigua and Barbuda.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page to learn about measuring human trafficking prevalence, including information on collecting data through national referral mechanisms and producing prevalence statistics using Multiple Systems Estimation (MSE).

Case Data: International and Non-Governmental Organizations

Civil society organizations (CSOs) focused on human trafficking victim assistance can serve as crucial sources of data given their ability to reach a population that is notoriously difficult to sample.

Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (CTDC): The International Organization for Migration (IOM), Polaris and Liberty Asia have launched a global data repository on human trafficking, with data contributed by counter-trafficking partner organizations around the world. Not only does the CTDC serve as a central repository for this critical information, it also publishes normed and harmonized data from various organizations using a unified schema. This global dataset facilitates an unparalleled level of cross-border, trans-agency analysis and provides the counter-trafficking movement with a deeper understanding of this complex issue. Equipped with this information, decision makers will be empowered to create more targeted and effective intervention strategies.

Prosecution Data

UNODC compiles a global dataset on detected and prosecuted traffickers, which serves as the basis in their Global Report for country profiles. This information is beginning to paint a picture of trends over time, and case-specific information can assist investigators and prosecutors.

Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.

Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.

The chart displays information on human development in Antigua and Barbuda between 2005 and 2018. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex. 

The most recent year of the HDI, 2018, shows that the average human development score in Antigua and Barbuda is 0.776. This score indicates that human development is high.

HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)

Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.

As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:

“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”

The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in Antigua and Barbuda over time.

Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in the availability of equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction towards achieving Target 8.7.

Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.

Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Source: UNHCR)

Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants.

According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children. “

As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements, as recognized by Member States in the New York declaration for refugees and migrants of September 2016.”

The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in Antigua and Barbuda.

Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.

Official Definitions
Forced Labour

The Antigua and Barbuda Constitution Order, 1981

“Protection from slavery and forced labour

6.1. No person shall be held in slavery or servitude.
6.2. No person shall be required to perform forced labour.
6.3. For the purposes of this section, the expression “”forced labour”” does not include-

a. any labour required in consequence of the sentence or order of a court;
b. any labour required of any person while he is lawfully detained that, though not required in consequence of the sentence or order of a court, is reasonably necessary in the interests of hygiene or for the maintenance of the place at which he is detained;
c. any labour required of a member of a disciplined force in pursuance of his duties as such or, in the case of a person who has conscientious objections to service as a member of a naval, military or air force, any labour that that person is required by law to perform in place of such service;
d. any labour required during any period of public emergency or, in the event of any other emergency or calamity that threatens the life and well-being of the community, to the extent that the requiring of such labour is reasonably justifiable in the circumstances of any situation arising or existing during that period or as a result of that other emergency or calamity, for the purpose of dealing with that situation.”

Trafficking in Persons (Prevention) Act, 2010

“2. Interpretation
In this Act—
“forced labour” means labour or services obtained or maintained through threats, the use of force, intimidation or other forms of coercion, or physical restraint;”

Child Labour

Antigua and Barbuda Labour Code, 1975

“E2. In this Division, unless the context otherwise requires-
“”child”” means a person under the age of fourteen years;
“”compulsory school age”” is that period during which a child or young person is required to attend school under the Education Act;
“”young person”” means a person who has ceased to be a child and who is under the age of eighteen years.”

“Prohibition of employment of children
E3.1. No child shall be employed or shall work in a public or private agricultural or industrial undertaking or in any branch thereof, or on any ship:
Provided that the above contained prohibition shall not apply-

i. to any undertaking or ship on which only members of the same family are employed;
ii. to members of a recognized youth organization who are engaged collectively in such employment for the purposes of fund raising for such organization; and
iii. to a child who is working together with adult members of his family on the same work and at the same time and place; and
Provided further that any chid so working shall not work within school hours or for a period of more than eight hours in any twenty-four hour period or more than thirty hours in any one hundred and sixty-eight hour period or at night.

E3.2. The provisions of this section shall not apply to the exercise of manual labour by any child under order of detention in a reformatory or industrial school or by any child receiving instructions of manual labour in any school provided that such work is supervised by any government department or public authority.”

Recruiting of Workers Act, 1941

“Non-adults not to be recruited
6. Persons under the age of eighteen years shall not be recruited:
Provided that the Minister may by regulation permit persons under that age, but of or about the age of sixteen years, to be recruited, with the consent of their parents or guardians, for employment upon light work subject to such conditions as he may prescribe.”

The Employment of Children Prohibition Act, 1939

“2. In this Act-
“”child”” means a person who in the opinion of the Court, in a prosecution for an offence against this Act, is under the age of twelve years;
“”guardian”” includes any person who is liable to maintain or has the actual custody of the child.

3. No person shall take into his employment or employ in any occupation whatsoever any child:
Provided that a child may be employed in domestic work or agricultural work of a light nature at home by the parents or guardian of such child.”

Worst Forms of Child Labour

Antigua and Barbuda Labour Code, 1975

“Restrictions in employment of young persons
E5.1. No young person shall be employed unless he has been found fit for the work he is expected to perform after a thorough medical examination; and, thereafter, his employment shall be subject to medical supervision until he is no longer a young person.

E5.2. A person shall not employ a young person who is within the compulsory school age during school hours.

E5.3. Except as hereinafter provided, no young person shall be employed on night work, namely-

a. no young person shall be employed or shall work during eleven consecutive hours any of which are between ten p.m. and five a.m. in any public or private agricultural or industrial undertaking, or in any branch thereof, other than an undertaking in which only members of the same family are employed and any person who employs any young person or permits him to work in contravention of the provisions of this section shall be guilty of an offence;
b. young persons of the age of sixteen years or over may be employed or work between ten p.m. and five a.m. on work which, by reason of the nature of the process, is required to be carried on continuously day and night, but only in undertakings which may be declared to come under an exception created by Order of the Minister.

E5.4. The provisions of subsection (1) shall not apply to such employment or work of young persons of the age of sixteen years or over in cases of emergencies which could not have been controlled or foreseen and which are not of a recurring character.

E5.5. When, in case of serious emergency, the public interest demands it, the Minister may, by order, suspend the prohibition of night work in relation to young persons of the age of sixteen years or over as respects all undertakings for such period as he may deem necessary.

E5.6. Any person who contravenes the requirements of subsections (1) to (3), shall be guilty of an offence, and any such offender, including in the case of a corporation, any director or officer thereof who authorizes, permits, or acquiesces therein shall be guilty of an offence and liable on summary conviction to a fine of three hundred dollars.

E5.7 The Minister may by regulation vary above requirements with respect to bona fide training programmes, under conditions he may deem appropriate.”

Trafficking in Persons (Prevention) Act, 2010

“2. Interpretation
In this Act—
“child” means a person who is under the age of eighteen years, whether born in or out of wedlock;
“trafficking in persons” means the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring, or receiving of a person by means of the threat or use of force or other means of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability, or of giving or receiving of payment or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation;”

Slavery

The Antigua and Barbuda Constitution Order, 1981

“Protection from slavery and forced labour
6.1. No person shall be held in slavery or servitude.
6.2. No person shall be required to perform forced labour.
6.3. For the purposes of this section, the expression “”forced labour”” does not include-

a. any labour required in consequence of the sentence or order of a court;
b. any labour required of any person while he is lawfully detained that, though not required in consequence of the sentence or order of a court, is reasonably necessary in the interests of hygiene or for the maintenance of the place at which he is detained;
c. any labour required of a member of a disciplined force in pursuance of his duties as such or, in the case of a person who has conscientious objections to service as a member of a naval, military or air force, any labour that that person is required by law to perform in place of such service;
d. any labour required during any period of public emergency or, in the event of any other emergency or calamity that threatens the life and well-being of the community, to the extent that the requiring of such labour is reasonably justifiable in the circumstances of any situation arising or existing during that period or as a result of that other emergency or calamity, for the purpose of dealing with that situation.”

Trafficking in Persons (Prevention) Act, 2010

“2. Interpretation
In this Act—
“slavery” means reducing a person by any means to a state of submitting to the control of another person as if that other person were the owner of the first-mentioned person;”

Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the  perpetration of forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour. These actions should be considered in wider societal efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.

Programs and Agencies for Victim Support
Policies for Assistance
Policies for Assistance, Children

Childcare and Protection Act, 2003

Policies for Assistance, Human Trafficking

Trafficking in Persons (Prevention) Act, 2010

“8. Functions and powers of Committee
(1) The Committee shall perform the functions of coordinating the implementation of this Act.
(2) Without prejudice to the generality of subsection (1), it shall be the responsibility of the Committee to—

(a) formulate policies and programmes to prevent and suppress trafficking in persons, including programmes in rendering assistance to trafficked persons;
(b) formulate protective programmes for trafficked persons;”

“28. Immunity from criminal prosecution
A trafficked person shall not be liable to criminal prosecution in respect of—

(a) his illegal entry into Antigua and Barbuda;
(b) his period of unlawful residence in Antigua and Barbuda; or
(c) his procurement or possession of any fraudulent travel or identity document which he obtained, or with which he was supplied, for the purpose of entering the receiving country;
where such acts are the direct consequence of the offence of trafficking in persons committed against him.”

“PART V
IDENTIFICATION AND PROTECTION OF VICTIMS OF TRAFFICKING”

“57. Summary deportation of victim of trafficking prohibited
(1) The summary deportation of a trafficked person is prohibited.
(2) The Minister responsible for Immigration shall establish a system to effect the return of trafficked persons to their country of citizenship or permanent residence.
(3) In establishing the system under subsection (2), the Minister shall take in account—

(a) the safety of the trafficked person while in Antigua and Barbuda;
(b) the safe return of the trafficked person without undue delay; and
(c) the wishes of the trafficked person as to the country to which he should be sent, in cases where there is a choice.”

“58. Repatriation of trafficked person from Antigua and Barbuda
(1) The Minister responsible for Immigration shall not return a trafficked person to his country of citizenship or permanent residence or the country from where he has been trafficked without giving due consideration to—

(a) the safety of that person during the repatriation process;
(b) the availability and suitability of care arrangements in the country to which the person is to be returned;
(c) the safety of the person in the country to which he is to be returned; and
(d) the possibility that the person might be harmed, killed or trafficked again.

(2) This section does not prohibit the return of a trafficked person who is an adult to his country of citizenship or permanent residence or the country from where he has been trafficked if that person freely elects to do so.”

“59. Repatriation of trafficked person to Antigua and Barbuda
(1) With due regard to the safety of the person and without delay, the Minister responsible for Immigration shall—

(a) in consultation with such Governmental departments as he considers necessary, assess the risks to the safety and life of a trafficked person who is a citizen or permanent resident of Antigua and Barbuda, if he is returned to Antigua and Barbuda;
(b) facilitate the return to Antigua and Barbuda, a trafficked person who is a citizen or permanent resident of Antigua and Barbuda;
(c) take such steps as are necessary for the secure reception of a trafficked person who is a citizen or permanent resident of Antigua and Barbuda at an Antigua and Barbuda port of entry; and
(d) issue travel documents or other authorisations as may be necessary to enable a trafficked person who is a citizen or permanent resident of Antigua and Barbuda to travel to and enter Antigua and Barbuda.

(2) The Minister responsible for Immigration shall at the request of another state that is a party to the UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons or to an agreement relating to trafficking in persons, verify whether a trafficked person is a citizen or permanent resident of Antigua and Barbuda and if so, the age of that person.”

Part VII COMPENSATION

“62. Unlawful disclosure of the identity
A person who without lawful authority discloses to another person any information acquired in the course of his official duties that enables or leads to the identification of a trafficked person or witness of trafficking in persons commits an offence and is liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding ten thousand dollars or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years.”

“64. Right to institute civil action
(1) A trafficked person may initiate civil proceedings to claim damages suffered by him as a result of acts specified as criminal offences under this Act.
(2) The right to pursue a civil claim for damages shall not be affected by the existence of criminal proceedings in connection with the same acts from which the civil claim derives.
(3) The immigration status or the return of the trafficked person to his home country or other absence of the trafficked person from Antigua and Barbuda shall not prevent the court from making an order under this section.
(4) A court may deny a claim for damages where an order under section 60 (1) was made in favour of the claimant and the court is satisfied that the sum ordered under that section was adequate.”

“65. Restriction on media reporting and publication
(1) Notwithstanding any written law to the contrary, any mass media report regarding—

(a) any step taken in relation to a trafficked person in any proceedings whether at the pre- trial, trial or post-trial stage;
(b) a trafficked person in respect of whom protection is accorded under Part V; or
(c) any other matter under this Act;
shall not reveal the name or address, or include any particulars calculated to lead to the identification of a trafficked person whether as a trafficked person or as a witness to any proceedings.

(2) A photograph of—

(a) a trafficked person in any of the matters mentioned in subsection (1); or
(b) any other person, place or thing which may lead to the identification of the trafficked person;
shall not be published in any newspaper or magazine or transmitted through any electronic medium.

(3) A person who contravenes subsection (1) or (2) commits an offence and is liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding fifty thousand dollars or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding three years.”

Penalties
Penalties, Child Labour

Antigua and Barbuda Labour Code, 1975

“Liability of parent or guardian
E4. Any parent or guardian of a child who, by wilful default or by habitually neglecting to exercise due care, has contributed to the commission of the offence of taking a child into employment in contravention of this Division, shall be guilty of an offence.”

“Registers to be kept
E6.1. Every employer in an agricultural or industrial undertaking shall keep a register of all persons under the age of eighteen years employed by him, and every shipmaster shall keep a register, or a list in the articles of agreement of all such persons employed on board his ship.
E6.2. Such register or list, as the case may be, shall contain particulars of the names, addresses, and dates of birth of all such persons, and of the dates on which they enter and leave such employment, and shall on request at any reasonable time be produced for inspection by any public officer duly authorized to that effect.
E6.3. Any employer or shipmaster failing to comply with or acting in contravention of the provisions of this section shall be guilty of an offence and liable on summary conviction to a fine of three hundred dollars.”

“False certificate or representation as to age
E7. Where a child or young person is taken into employment in contravention of this Division on the production, by or with the privity of the parent or guardian, of a false or forged certificate, or on the false representation of his parent or guardian that such child or young person is of an age at which such employment is not in contravention of this Division, that parent or guardian shall be guilty of an offence.”

E12. Any person guilty of an offence against this Division or any regulations made thereunder for which no penalty is expressly provided shall be liable on summary conviction to a fine of seventy-five dollars, and in the case of a second or subsequent offence to a fine of one hundred and fifty dollars.

Recruiting of Workers Act, 1941

11. Any person who acts in contravention of, or fails to comply with, any of the provisions of this Act or any regulations made thereunder, shall be guilty of an offence, and shall be liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding three thousand dollars or to imprisonment not exceeding three months or to both such imprisonment and fine.

The Employment of Children Prohibition Act, 1939

“4. Any person contravening the provisions of this Act
shall on summary conviction be liable to a fine not exceeding five hundred dollars.”

Penalties, Human Trafficking

Trafficking in Persons (Prevention) Act, 2010 amend. 2015

“13. Offence of trafficking in persons
(1) A person commits the offence of trafficking in persons where, for the purpose of exploitation he—

(a) recruits, transports, transfers, harbours or receives another person within Antigua and Barbuda;
(b) recruits, transports or transfers another person from Antigua and Barbuda to another country; or
(c) recruits, transports, transfers, or receives another person from another country into Antigua and Barbuda, by any of the specified means in subsection (2).

(2) The means referred to in subsection (1) are—

(a) threat or use of force or other form of coercion;
(b) abduction;
(c) deception or fraud;
(d) the abuse of—

(i) power; or
(ii) a position of vulnerability;

(e) the giving or receiving of a benefit in order to obtain the consent of a person who has control over another person.

(3) Notwithstanding the absence of the use of any of the means specified in paragraphs (a) to (e) of subsection (2), a person who recruits, transports, transfers, harbours or receives a child for the purpose of exploitation of that child commits the offence of trafficking in persons.
(4) It shall not be a defence for a person who commits the offence of trafficking in persons that the offence was committed with the victim’s consent.
(5) A person who facilitates the offence of trafficking in persons commits an offence.
(6) A person who commits the offence of trafficking in persons or who facilitates that offence is liable on conviction on indictment to a fine not exceeding four hundred thousand dollars or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding twenty years or to both such fine and imprisonment.
(7) Every person who receives a financial or other benefit knowing that it results from the offence of trafficking in persons commits an offence and is liable on conviction on indictment to a fine not exceeding four hundred thousand dollars or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding twenty years or to both such fine and imprisonment.”

“14. Directing, conspiring, inciting etc., the commission of trafficking in person
A person who—

(a) performs an act which is aimed at committing the offence of trafficking in persons;
(b) incites, instigates, commands, directs, aids, advises, recruits, encourages or procures another person to commit the offence of trafficking in persons; or
(c) conspires with another person to commit the offence of trafficking in persons or to aid in the commission thereof;
commits an offence and, subject to sections 15 and 16, is liable on indictment to a fine not exceeding four hundred thousand dollars or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding twenty years or to both.”

“15. Special penalty where trafficked person is a child
(1) Where an offence under section 13 or 14 is committed in relation to a child, subject to subsections (2) and (3) and section 16, the person convicted for that offence is liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding six hundred thousand dollars or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding twenty-five years or to both.
(2) Where an offence under section 13 or 14 is committed for the sexual exploitation of a child, subject to section 16, the person convicted for that offence is liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding one million dollars or to imprisonment for term not exceeding twenty-five years or to both.
(3) A person who—

(a) sexually exploits a child which he knows or ought reasonably to know is a trafficked child;
(b) takes, detains or restricts the personal liberty of a child for the purpose of sexual exploitation;
commits an offence and is liable on indictment to a fine not exceeding one million dollars or to imprisonment for term not exceeding twenty-five years or to both.”

“16. Aggravating circumstances
A person convicted of an offence under section 13 or 14 is liable on indictment to a fine not exceeding one million dollars or to imprisonment for thirty years or to both if any of the following circumstances is present—

(a) the offence involves serious injury or death of the trafficked person or another person, including death as a result of suicide;
(b) the offence involves a trafficked person who is particularly vulnerable, including a pregnant woman;
(c) the offence exposed the trafficked person to a life-threatening illness;
(d) the trafficked person is physically or mentally handicapped;
(e) the offence involves more than one trafficked person;
(f) the offence was committed as part of the activity of an organized criminal group;
(g) drugs, medications or weapons were used in the commission of the offence;
(h) the trafficked person is a child who was adopted for the purpose of trafficking;
(i) the offender has been previously convicted for the same or similar offences;
(j) the convicted person is a public officer and the offence was committed when the officer
was purporting to act officially;
(k) the offender is a spouse or the conjugal partner of the trafficked person;
(l) the offender is in a position of responsibility or trust in relation to the trafficked person;
(m) the offender is in a position of authority concerning the trafficked person who is a child; or
(n) the offence was committed by means of abuse the vulnerability of the trafficked person.”

“17. Debt bondage
A person who intentionally engages in conduct that causes another person to enter into debt bondage commits an offence and is liable—

(a) on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding one hundred and fifty thousand dollars or to imprisonment for two years; or
(b) on conviction on indictment to a fine not exceeding four hundred thousand dollars or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding twenty years or to both.”

“18. Using services of trafficked person
(1) A person commits an offence if he intentionally—

(a) benefits, financially or otherwise, from the services of a trafficked person or of a person he knows or ought reasonably to have known to be a trafficked person; or
(b) uses or enables another person to use the services of a trafficked person or of a person he knows or ought reasonably to have known to be a trafficked person.

(2) A person who commits an offence under subsection (1) is liable—

(a) on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding one hundred and fifty thousand dollars or to imprisonment for two years; or
(b) on conviction on indictment to a fine not exceeding four hundred thousand dollars or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding twenty years or to both.”

“21. Fraudulent travel or identity documents
A person who makes, obtains, gives, sells or possesses a fraudulent travel or identity document for the purpose of facilitating trafficking in persons commits an offence and is liable—

(a) on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding one hundred and fifty thousand dollars or to imprisonment for two years; or
(b) on conviction on indictment to a fine not exceeding four hundred thousand dollars or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding twenty years or to both.

22. Destruction, confiscation, possession, concealment of or tampering with documents
A person who intentionally destroys, confiscates, possesses, conceals or tampers with any actual or purported identification document or travel document of a trafficked person in furtherance of the offence of trafficking in persons commits an offence and is liable—

(a) on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding one hundred and fifty thousand dollars or to imprisonment for two years; or
(b) on conviction on indictment to a fine not exceeding four hundred thousand dollars or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding twenty years or to both.”

“23. Recruiting persons
REPEALED”

“24. Providing facilities in support of trafficking in persons
(1) A person who advertises, publishes, prints, broadcasts, distributes or causes the advertisement, publication, printing, broadcast or distribution of information that facilitates or promotes trafficking in persons by any means, including the use of the Internet or other information technology; commits an offence and is liable on indictment to a fine not exceeding four hundred thousand dollars or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding twenty years.
(2) An Internet service provider operating in Antigua and Barbuda—

(a) shall take all reasonable steps to prevent the use of its service for the hosting of information referred to in subsection (1)(b);
(b) that has knowledge that an Internet address on its server contains information referred to in subsection (1)(b) shall—

(i) without delay report that Internet address, as well as the particulars of the person maintaining or in any manner contributing to that Internet address, to the Commissioner of Police;
(ii) take all reasonable steps to preserve any evidence for purposes of investigation and prosecution by the relevant authorities; and
(iii) without delay take all reasonable steps to prevent access to that Internet address by any person.

(3) An Internet service provider who fails to comply with the provisions of subsection (2) commits an offence and is liable—

(a) on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding one hundred and fifty thousand dollars or to imprisonment for two years; or
(b) on conviction on indictment to a fine not exceeding fifty thousand dollars or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding five years.”

“25. Providing services for purposes of trafficking in persons
REPEALED”

“69. Offence by body corporate
Where an offence against a provision of this Act has been committed by a body corporate, a person who at the time of the commission of the offence was—

(a) a director or manager or other similar officer of the body corporate;
(b) purporting to act in the capacity of a director or manager or other similar officer of the body corporate, or was in any manner responsible for the management of any of the affairs of such body corporate or was assisting in such management;
shall also be liable for that offence unless he proves that the offence was committed without his knowledge, consent or connivance, and that he exercised all such diligence to prevent the commission of the offence as he ought to have exercised, having regard to the nature of his functions in that capacity and to all the circumstances.

70. Offence by employee or agent
(1) In order to establish the liability of an employer or principal for an offence under Part III, the conduct of an employee or agent of or any other person acting on behalf of the employer or principal may be attributed to the employer or principal if that person was acting—

(a) within the scope of his employment;
(b) within the scope of his actual or apparent authority; or
(c) with the consent, whether express or implied, of a director, member or partner of the employer or principal.

(2) Subsection (1) does not exclude the liability of an employee or agent of or any other person acting on behalf of the employer or principal for committing the offence of trafficking in persons.
(3) The court may, upon convicting an employer or principal of an offence under Part III, make an order revoking the licence or registration of the employer or principal to operate the business in the course of which the offence was committed.”

“72. Offences triable either on indictment or summarily
Where a person is charged with an offence that is, by virtue of any section of this act, both an indictable offence and a summary offence, the Director of Public Prosecution shall make a determination whether the charge is to be tried on indictment or summarily and direct accordingly.””

Trafficking in Persons (Prevention) Act, 2010

“19. Consent irrelevant
In a prosecution for an offence under this Part, once any of the means or circumstances set out in the definition of “trafficking in persons” is established, it shall be irrelevant that—

(a) a child who is a trafficked person, or a person having control or authority over a child who is a trafficked person, has consented to the intended exploitation of that child or that the intended exploitation did not occur;
(b) an adult person who is a trafficked person has consented to the intended exploitation or that the intended exploitation did not occur.”

Data Commitments

A Call to Action to End Forced Labour, Modern Slavery and Human Trafficking, Not signed

1.ii. Take steps to measure, monitor and share data on prevalence and response to all such forms of exploitation, as appropriate to national circumstances;

Programs and Agencies for Enforcement

Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk of exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.

Social Protection Coverage: General (at Least One)
Social Protection (Source: ILO)

The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.

If a country does not appear on a chart, this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.

Social Protection Coverage: Unemployed
Social Protection Coverage: Pension
Social Protection Coverage: Vulnerable Groups
Social Protection Coverage: Poor
Social Protection Coverage: Children
Social Protection Coverage: Disabled