Data Dashboards

Armenia Dashboard
Measurement
Measuring the Change

using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards.

Child labour data between 2010 and 2015 is not comparable.

%
Best Target 8.7 Data: Child Labour Rate


The data visualization displays yearly child labour statistics based on a variety of nationally-representative household surveys. All years of data hold up to standards set by interagency collaboration between ILO, UNICEF and World Bank, though, in some cases are not perfectly comparable between years. Detailed information on each data point is provided in the Measurement tab (above).

Data Availability
  • Child labour: ILO/National Data
  • Forced labour: No nationally representative data
  • Human trafficking: No nationally representative data
Context
Human Development

Human Development Index Score: 0.743 (2015)

Mean School Years: 11.3 years (2015)

Labour Indicators

Vulnerable Employment:  41% (2016)

Working Poverty Rate: 2% (2016)

Government Efforts
Key Ratifications
  • ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Not ratified
  • ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2006
  • UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Ratified 2003
Social Protections Coverage

General (at least one): 47.3% (2016)

Unemployed: No data

Pension: 68.5% (2016)

Vulnerable: 16.2% (2016)

Children: 21.4% (2016)

Disabled: 100% (2016)

Poor: 38.2% (2016)

Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.

Child Labour Rate, Aged 5-17 (Source: ILO)

Based on the international conventions and the International Conference of Labour Statisticians (ICLS)  resolution, and consistent with the approach utilized in the ILO global child labour estimates exercise, the statistical definition of child labour used includes:

a) children aged 5-11 years in all forms of economic activity;
b) children aged 12-14 years in all forms of economic activity except permissible “light” work;
c) children and adolescents aged 15-17 years in hazardous work; and
d) children aged 5-14 years performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week.

In Armenia, 9.8 percent of children aged 5-17 were in child labour in 2015. The measure provided for 2010 does not cover the full definition of hazardous work and cannot be compared directly with data from other sample years.

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 5-17 in child labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2010 and 2015.

Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Hazardous child labour is the largest category of the worst forms of child labour with an estimated 73 million children aged 5-17 working in dangerous conditions in a wide range of sectors. Worldwide, the ILO estimates that some 22,000 children are killed at work every year.

In Armenia, the latest estimates show that 6.4 percent of children aged 5-14 were engaged in hazardous work in 2015. The measure provided for 2010 does not cover the full definition of hazardous work and cannot be compared directly with data from other sample years.

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 5-14 in hazardous labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is not provided for 2010.

Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 15-17 (Source: ILO)

Children aged 15-17 are permitted to engage in economic activities by international conventions in most cases, except when the work is likely to harm the health, safety or morals of children (Article 3 (d) of ILO Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour, 1999 (No. 182)).

In Armenia, the latest estimates show that 19.4 percent of children aged 15-17 were engaged in hazardous work in 2015. The measure provided for 2010 does not cover the full definition of hazardous work and cannot be compared directly with data from other sample years.

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 15-17 in hazardous labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is not provided for 2010.

Weekly Work Hours, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Children aged 5-11 are considered to be subjected to child labour when engaging in any form of economic activity. Children aged 12-14 are permitted to engage in “light” work that is not considered hazardous and falls below 14 hours per week.

According to the latest 2015 estimates, the average number of hours worked per week by children aged 5-14 in Armenia was 10.6 hours. The average number of hours worked has increased from 5.4 hours in 2010.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours that children aged 5-14 work in economic activities by sex and region. The sample includes all children of this age group. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2010 and 2015.

Weekly Work Hours Children Only in Economic Activity, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Children not attending school who are engaged in economic activity can be subjected to longer working hours.

In 2015, the latest year with available data, children in economic activity only, meaning they are not in school, worked an average of 24.6 hours per week. This number has increased since 2010, when the average number of hours worked by this age group was 2.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours worked by children aged 5-14 who are not in school, by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is not provided for 2010 and 2015.

Weekly Hours Household Chores, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Researchers recognize that children involved in economic activities are not the only children working. The ICLS recommended definition of child labour includes performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week for children aged 5-14.

Children aged 5-14, on average, are found to work on household chores 4.1 hours per week according to the 2015 estimate. This estimate represents no change in the number of hours children aged 5-14 worked on household chores since the last estimate in 2010.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours children aged 5-14 work on household chores by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2010 and 2015.

Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: Total (Source: ILO)

Identifying the sectors in which the most child labour exists can help policy actors and practitioners target efforts toward those industries.

The latest data available on child labour by sector for Armenia is from 2015. By the 2015 estimate, the Agriculture sector had the most child labourers, followed by the Commerce, Hotels and Restaurants sector and the Other Services sector.

The chart to the right displays child labour prevalence in each sector for all children. The charts below show the differences in child labour by sector with comparisons between groups by sex and region.

Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: Sex (Source: ILO)
Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: Area (Source: ILO)

Measuring the incidence of forced labour is a much more recent endeavour and presents unique methodological challenges compared to the measurement of child labour.

No nationally representative data is available on forced labour prevalence in Armenia.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on new guidelines presented by the International Labour Organization and adopted by the International Conference of Labour Statisticians.

The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.

No nationally representative data is available on human trafficking prevalence in Armenia.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page to learn about measuring human trafficking prevalence, including information on collecting data through national referral mechanisms and producing prevalence statistics using Multiple Systems Estimation (MSE).

Case Data: International and Non-Governmental Organizations

Civil society organizations (CSOs) focused on human trafficking victim assistance can serve as crucial sources of data through their ability to reach a population that is notoriously difficult to sample.

Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (CTDC): The International Organization for Migration (IOM), Polaris and Liberty Asia have launched a global data repository on human trafficking, with data contributed by counter-trafficking partner organizations around the world. Not only does the CTDC serve as a central repository for this critical information, it also publishes normed and harmonized data from various organizations using a unified schema. This global dataset facilitates an unparalleled level of cross-border, trans-agency analysis and provides the counter-trafficking movement with a deeper understanding of this complex issue. Equipped with this information, decision makers will be empowered to create more targeted and effective intervention strategies.

Prosecution Data

UNODC compiles a global dataset on detected and prosecuted traffickers, which serves as the basis in their Global Report for country profiles. This information is beginning to paint a picture of trends over time, and case-specific information can assist investigators and prosecutors.

Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.

Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.

The chart displays information on human development in Armenia between 1990 and 2015. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex.

The most recent year of the HDI, 2015, shows that the average human development score in Armenia is 0.743. This score indicates that human development is high.

HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)

Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.

As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:

“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”

The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in Armenia over time.

Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction toward achieving Target 8.7.

HDI Vulnerable Employment (Source: UNDP)

There are reasons to believe that certain types of labour and labour arrangements are more likely to lead to labour exploitation. According to the ILO:

“Own-account workers and contributing family workers have a lower likelihood of having formal work arrangements, and are therefore more likely to lack elements associated with decent employment, such as adequate social security and a voice at work. The two statuses are summed to create a classification of ‘vulnerable employment’, while wage and salaried workers together with employers constitute ‘non-vulnerable employment’.”

Between 2010 and 2013, Armenia showed an increase in the proportion of workers in vulnerable employment as compared to those in secure employment.

Working Poverty Rate (Source: ILO)

Labour income tells us about a household’s vulnerability. As the ILO explains in Profits and Poverty:

“Poor households find it particularly difficult to deal with income shocks, especially when they push households below the food poverty line. In the presence of such shocks, men and women without social protection nets tend to borrow to smooth consumption, and to accept any job for themselves or their children, even under exploitative conditions.”

ILO indicators that measure poverty with respect to the labour force include working poverty rate, disaggregated by sex, with temporal coverage spanning from 2000 to 2016. The chart displays linear trends in working poverty rate over time for all individuals over 15 years of age.

Labour Productivity (Source: ILO)

Labour productivity is an important economic indicator that is closely linked to economic growth, competitiveness, and living standards within an economy.” However, when increased labour output does not produce rising wages, this can point to increasing inequality. As indicated by a recent ILO report (2015), there is a “growing disconnect between wages and productivity growth, in both developed and emerging economies”. The lack of decent work available increases vulnerability to situations of labour exploitation.

Labour productivity represents the total volume of output (measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product, GDP) produced per unit of labour (measured in terms of the number of employed persons) during a given period.

Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.

Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Source: UNHCR)

Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants.

According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children.”

As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements.”

The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in Armenia.

Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.

Official Definitions
Forced Labour/Compulsory Work

Constitution, 1995
Article 57. Freedom to Choose Employment and Labour Rights

1. Everyone shall have the right to free choice of employment.
5. Compulsory or forced labour shall be prohibited. The following shall not be considered as compulsory or forced labour: (1) work performed, in accordance with law, by a sentenced person;  (2) military or alternative service;  and (3) any work required in emergency situations posing danger to the life or well-being of the population.

Labour Code, 2004
Article 3. Principles of Labor Legislation

1. The main principles of the labor legislation are:

1. freedom of employment, including the right to employment, which should be freely selected or agreed upon by each person; the right to administer the labor capacities, choose the profession and type of activity;
2. prohibition of any type of compulsory work and violence with respect to employees;
3. Legal equality of parties of labor relations irrespective of their gender, race, nation, language, origin, citizenship, social status, religion, marital and family status, age, philosophy, political party, trade union or public organization membership, other factors unrelated to the employee’s professional qualities;
4. provision the right to fair working conditions for each employee, including working conditions meeting safety and healthy working conditions;
5. equality of the rights and opportunities of the workers;
6. provision of the timely and complete remuneration of the employees at the rate not lower than the minimal salary stipulated by the law;
7. provision of the right to freely make union for the protection of the rights and interests of the employees and employers, including the rights to create trade and employers unions or join them;
8. stability of labor relationships;
9. freedom of collective negotiations;
10. responsibility of the parties to the collective contract for their obligations.

2. The State shall ensure the implementation of the labor law rights in accordance with the provisions of this Code and other laws. Labor rights may be restricted only by law, if such restrictions are necessary for public security, public order, public health and morals, rights and interests of the others, honor and good reputation.

Child Labour

Constitution, 1995
Article 57. Freedom to Choose Employment and Labour Rights

4. Admission of children under the age of sixteen to permanent employment shall be prohibited. The procedure and conditions for admission to temporary employment shall be prescribed by law.

Labour Code, 2004
Article 15. Citizens’ Legal and Labor Capacities

2. The labor legal capacity and the capacity to acquire and implement labor rights with his/her activities, to create labor obligations and implement them (labor activity) in full volume are originated from the moment of coming the age of sixteen, except in cases stipulated by this code and other laws.

Article 17. Employee

1. Employee is the capable citizen that has reached the age defined by this Code who performs certain work for the benefit of employer by certain specialty, qualification or position.
2. 14- to16-year old citizens that have not reached their legal age who are working under a labor contract with the consent of one of the parents, adopter or guardian are considered as working citizens.
3. Conclusion of a labor contract with citizens under 14 or employing them is prohibited.

Article 89. Documents required upon Accepting to Work

5. written consent of one of the parents, foster parent or guardian if a juvenile citizen aged 14-16 is employed;

Worst Forms of Child Labour

Labour Code, 2004
Article 257 . Work of Persons under 18 Years of Age
Employment of persons under 18 years of age shall be prohibited for:

1. hard works;
2. work involving possible exposure to agents, which are toxic, carcinogenic or dangerous for health;
3. work involving possible exposure to ionising radiation or other hazardous and harmful agents to health;
4. work involving a higher risk of accidents or occupational diseases, as well as work which young person might not be able to perform safety due to lack of experience or attention safety.

The list of jobs considered as hard and harmful mentioned in this article is defined by the Government of the Republic of Armenia.

Trafficking

Criminal Code

Article 132. Trafficking

1. Recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring, or receipt of persons for the purpose of sexual exploitation or forced labor, by means of the threat or use of force, of fraud, of using the dependence, of blackmail, of threat of destruction or damage to property, if this was done for mercenary purposes, is punished with a fine in the amount of 300 to 500 minimal salaries, or correctional labor for up to 1 year, or arrest for up to 2 months, or imprisonment for the term of 1 to 4 years.
2. The same act committed:

1. by a group of persons with prior agreement;
2. with violence dangerous for life or health, or threat thereof;
3. against a minor;
4. against 2 or more persons;

is punished with correctional labor for up to 2 years, or imprisonment for up to 4 to 7 years.

3. Actions envisaged in parts 1 or 2 of this Article, which:

1. were done by an organized group;
2. caused the death of the aggrieved by negligence or other grave consequences, is punished with imprisonment for 5 to 8 years.

International Commitments
National Strategies

National Plan of Action Against Trafficking in Persons and Exploitation (2016-2018)

“Aims to improve the legal framework and enforcement of legislation related to trafficking in and exploitation of children. Planned activities include developing tools for identification of the worst forms of child labor, as well as a guide for the proper identification and referral of child trafficking victims. In 2016, the Government conducted trainings for law enforcement personnel on legislation prohibiting the worst forms of child labor.”

National Action Plan on Human Rights

Concept on Combating Violence Against Children, 2014

Strategic Program for the Protection of Children’s Rights

“Includes an Action Plan for 2017-2021 that calls for the development and introduction of oversight and monitoring mechanisms to prevent the involvement of children in the worst forms of child labor. The action plan includes a component on developing and introducing oversight and monitoring mechanisms for the protection of children involved in the worst forms of child labor.”

International Ratifications

ILO Forced Labour Convention, C029, Ratification 2004

ILO Abolition of Forced Labour Convention, C105, Ratification 2004

ILO Minimum Age Convention, C138, Ratification 2006 

ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182, Ratification 2006

UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol), Ratification 2003

UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, Accession 1993

UN Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Ratification 2005

UN Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, Ratification 2005

Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the perpetration of forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour. These actions should be considered in wider societal efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.

Programs and Agencies for Victim Support (Source: U.S. Department of Labor)

Policies for Assistance

Criminal Procedures Code
Article 98. Obligation to protect the Injured, Defense Attorneys, Witnesses, Accused and Other Persons Participating in the Criminal Proceedings

1. Upon discovery of the need to protect the injured, defense attorneys, witnesses, the accused and other persons participating in the criminal proceedings from criminally punishable encroachments, the body of criminal proceedings, at the request of these persons or by its own initiative, takes measures of necessary protective measures. Protective measures are mandatory to be applied, if the persons participating in the criminal proceedings or their close relatives were physically threatened, in connection with the participation of the latter in the proceedings.
2. The request of the participant of the proceedings for protective measures is considered immediately, but not later than within 24 hours from its receipt. The decision that has been made is advised to the applicant and the copy of the decision is sent to him.
3. The applicant is entitled to file an appeal against a decision rejecting protective measures, within 5 days, in the court or, if the copy of the decision has not been received within 7 days, to apply to the court with a demand to introduce protective measures.
4. The refusal to apply protective measures does not prevent the participant of the proceedings from to repeatedly apply with a demand to introduce such measures, if he was threatened again or assaulted, or other circumstances not reflected previously emerged.

Article 99. Measures of Protection of Injured, Defense Attorneys, Witnesses, Accused and Other Persons Participating in the Criminal Proceedings

1. The following is implemented in the capacity of the measures of protection of injured, witnesses and other persons, participating in the criminal proceedings:

1. the adoption by the court or the prosecutor an official warning to a person, from whom the threat of violence or other deed forbidden by the criminal law originates, on possible imposition of criminal responsibility on him/her;
2. the limitation of the access to the information on the person under protection;
3. provision of the security of the person under protection.

2. Upon passing the official warning the person, in respect of which it is passed, is summoned to the prosecutor, the investigator, inquiry body official, which declare to him/her an official warning;
3. The limitation of the access to the information on the person under protection consists in the seizure from the materials of the criminal case of all information on the respective person, and in their storage separately from the main proceedings. In this case the materials, separated from the main proceedings are accessible for acquainting of the court only, and also to the bodies of criminal prosecution, and other participants of the trial may acquaint themselves only upon the permission of the body, conducting the criminal trial, if it could be proved, that the disclosure of the respective materials is necessary for the implementation of the protection of the suspect and accused or for revealing any circumstances, substantial for the consideration of the criminal case.
4. The ensuring of the security of the protected person consists in application of the one or several of the following measures:

1. personal escort of the protected person or his/her relative;
2. the guarding of the residence or the property, belonging to the guarded person or in his/her use;
3. temporary transportation of the guarded person to a place, where his/her security can be provided;
4. the transportation of the detained person into a facility, where his/her security can be provided.

5. The measures of guarding are terminated by a substantiated resolution of a body, conducting criminal trial, if the necessity of in the application of the measures passes. The guarded persons shall be informed immediately by the body, conducting the criminal trial, on the termination of the measures for his/her protection or the disclosure of information to whoever from the persons, participating in the proceedings of the criminal case, with the exception of the officials of the criminal prosecution bodies.

Penalties
Penalties, Forced Labour

Criminal Code
Article 157. Breach of labor protection rules.

1. Breach of safety rules or labor protection rules by the person in charge of their compliance, if this negligently caused grave or medium-gravity damage to health or caused professional disease, is punished with a fine in the amount of 200 to 400 minimal salaries, correctional labor for up to 2 years, or with imprisonment for the term of up to 2 years.
2. The same action which negligently caused the death of the aggrieved, is punished with imprisonment for the term of up to 5 years, or with deprivation of the right to hold certain posts or practice certain activities for up to 3 years, or without that.

Penalties, Child Labour

Criminal Code
Article 157. Breach of labor protection rules.

1. Breach of safety rules or labor protection rules by the person in charge of their compliance, if this negligently caused grave or medium-gravity damage to health or caused professional disease, is punished with a fine in the amount of 200 to 400 minimal salaries, correctional labor for up to 2 years, or with imprisonment for the term of up to 2 years.
2. The same action which negligently caused the death of the aggrieved, is punished with imprisonment for the term of up to 5 years, or with deprivation of the right to hold certain posts or practice certain activities for up to 3 years, or without that.

Penalties, Worst Forms of Child Labour

Criminal Code
Article 165. Involving a minor into committal of crime.

1. Involvement, by a person who reached 18 years, of a minor who reached the age of criminal liability for the given crime under this Code, into committal of a crime through promises, deception or other ways, is punished with imprisonment for the term of up to 3 years.
2. The same action which was committed by a parent, teacher or other person in charge of rearing the minor, is punished with imprisonment for the term of up to 5 years, with deprivation of the right to hold certain posts or practice certain activities for up to 3 years, or without that.
3. Actions envisaged in parts 1 and 2 of this Article, committed by using violence or threat of violence, are punished with imprisonment for the term of 2 to 7 years.
4. Actions envisaged in parts 1, 2 or 3 of this Article, accompanied with involvement of the minor into an organized group or criminal association or into the committal of a grave or particularly grave crime, are punished with imprisonment for the term of 5 to 7 years.

Article 166. Involving a child into antisocial activity.

1. Involvement, by a person who reached 18 years, of a child into regular use of alcoholic drinks, strong or other narcotic drugs not for medical purposes, into prostitution, vagrancy or beggary, into preparation or dissemination of pornography or pornographic materials, is punished with correctional labor for up to 1 year, or with arrest for the term of 1-2 months, or with imprisonment for the term of 5 years.
2. The same action which was committed by a parent, teacher or other person in charge of rearing the child, is punished with correctional labor for up to 2 years, or arrest for up to 2 months, or imprisonment for the term of up to 5 years, with deprivation of the right to hold certain posts or practice certain activities for up to 3 years, or without that.
3. Actions envisaged in parts 1 and 2 of this Article, which:

1. were committed in relation to 2 or more persons;
2. were accompanied with violence or threat of violence, are punished with imprisonment for the term of up to 6 years.

Penalties, Trafficking

Criminal Code
Article 131. Kidnapping.

1. The recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring, or receipt of persons by means of the threat or use of force, of kidnapping, of fraud, of other deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or bribing to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of prostitution or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labor or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of human organs, is punished with imprisonment for the term of 2 to 5 years.
2. The same action committed:

1. by a group of persons with prior agreement;
2. by using violence dangerous for life or health or threat of using violence;
3. by using weapons or items used as weapons;
4. against a minor;
5. against a pregnant woman;
6. against two or more persons;
7. with mercenary motives,
8. by a person previously convicted for kidnapping, is punished with imprisonment for the term of 4 to 8 years.

3. The act envisaged in part 1 or 2 of this Article, if:

1. it was done by an organized group;
2. by negligence the death of the aggrieved was caused or other grave consequences, or grave damage was inflicted to his health, is punished with imprisonment for the term of 7 to 10 years.

Article 132. Trafficking

1. Recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring, or receipt of persons for the purpose of sexual exploitation or forced labor, by means of the threat or use of force, of fraud, of using the dependence, of blackmail, of threat of destruction or damage to property, if this was done for mercenary purposes, is punished with a fine in the amount of 300 to 500 minimal salaries, or correctional labor for up to 1 year, or arrest for up to 2 months, or imprisonment for the term of 1 to 4 years.
2. The same act committed:

1. by a group of persons with prior agreement;
2. with violence dangerous for life or health, or threat thereof;
3. against a minor;
4. against 2 or more persons;

is punished with correctional labor for up to 2 years, or imprisonment for up to 4 to 7 years.

3. Actions envisaged in parts 1 or 2 of this Article, which:

1. were done by an organized group;
2. caused the death of the aggrieved by negligence or other grave consequences, is punished with imprisonment for 5 to 8 years.

Programs and Agencies for Enforcement (Source: U.S. Department of Labor)

Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk of exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.

Social Protections: General (at Least One)
Social Protections (Source: ILO)

The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.

If a country does not appear on a chart, this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.

Social Protections: Unemployed
Social Protections: Pension
Social Protections: Vulnerable Groups
Social Protections: Poor
Social Protections: Children
Social Protections: Disabled
Official Response

Official Response from the Statistics Committee of the Republic of Armenia

Based on the Official Response from the Statistical Committee (ARMSTAT), the Dashboard for Armenia has been revised as follows:

  • The vulnerable employment figure has been updated to reflect the 2016 value.
    • The Understanding Children’s Work’ project, now housed within the International Labour Organization, identifies and provides a child labour rate with a limited operational definition from the ‘Demographic and Health Survey.’ We acknowledge that the measure is not exactly the same as the measure from the NCLS and we are careful not to make comparisons.
  • The SDG 8.7.1 indicator on child labour has been updated to reflect the data from 2015 National Child Labour Survey.
  • The figures on ‘children in economic activity by sector’ have been updated.
  • The ILAB report was removed as it did not correspond to the results found in the NCLS 2015, and replaced with links to national action plans.
  • A link to the ‘Armenia National Child Labour Survey 2015’ analytical report was added to the dashboard.