Measuring the Change
using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards.
Child labour data with a complete statistical definition is only provided for 2005. There is no change to report.
Best Target 8.7 Data: Child Labour Rate
The data visualization displays yearly child labour statistics based on a variety of nationally-representative household surveys. All years of data hold up to standards set by interagency collaboration between ILO, UNICEF and World Bank, though, in some cases are not perfectly comparable between years. Detailed information on each data point is provided in the Measurement tab (above).
- Child labour: Complete UCW/ILO Data
- Forced labour: No nationally representative data
- Human trafficking: No nationally representative data
Human Development Index Score: 0.754 (2018)
Mean School Years: 10.5 years (2018)
Vulnerable Employment: 55.0% (2018)
Working Poverty Rate: 0.0% (2020)
- ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Not Ratified
- ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2004
- UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Ratified 2003
Social Protection Coverage
General (at least one): 40.3% (2016)
Unemployed: 1.6% (2016)
Pension: 81.% (2016)
Vulnerable: 12.6% (2016)
Children: No data
Disabled: 100% (2016)
Poor: 100% (2016)
Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.
Child Labour Rate, Aged 5-17 (Source: ILO)
Based on the international conventions and the International Conference of Labour Statisticians (ICLS) resolution, and consistent with the approach utilized in the ILO global child labour estimates exercise, the statistical definition of child labour used includes:
a) children aged 5-11 years in all forms of economic activity;
b) children aged 12-14 years in all forms of economic activity except permissible “light” work;
c) children and adolescents aged 15-17 years in hazardous work; and
d) children aged 5-14 years performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week.
In Azerbaijan, data on the percentage of child labourers is provided for 2005.
The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 5-17 in child labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2005.
Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)
Hazardous child labour is the largest category of the worst forms of child labour with an estimated 73 million children aged 5-17 working in dangerous conditions in a wide range of sectors. Worldwide, the ILO estimates that some 22,000 children are killed at work every year.
In Azerbaijan, the latest estimates show that 3.4 percent of children aged 5-14 were engaged in hazardous work in 2005. Only the measure provided for 2005 covers the full definition of hazardous work and cannot be compared directly with data from other sample years.
The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 5-14 in hazardous labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is only provided for 2005.
Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 15-17 (Source: ILO)
Children aged 15-17 are permitted to engage in economic activities by international conventions in most cases, except when the work is likely to harm the health, safety or morals of children (Article 3 (d) of ILO Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour, 1999 (No. 182)).
In Azerbaijan, the latest estimates show that 10.9 percent of children aged 15-17 were engaged in hazardous work in 2005.
The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 15-17 in hazardous labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2005.
Weekly Work Hours, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)
Children aged 5-11 are considered to be subjected to child labour when engaging in any form of economic activity. Children aged 12-14 are permitted to engage in “light” work that is not considered hazardous and falls below 14 hours per week.
According to the latest 2005 estimates, the average number of hours worked per week by children aged 5-14 in Azerbaijan was 14.1 hours. The average number of hours worked has increased from 11.4 hours in 2000.
The chart displays differences in the number of hours that children aged 5-14 work in economic activities by sex and region. The sample includes all children of this age group. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2000 and 2005.
Weekly Work Hours Children Only in Economic Activity, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)
Children not attending school who are engaged in economic activity can be subjected to longer working hours.
In 2005, the latest year with available data, children in economic activity only, meaning they are not in school, worked an average of 16.4 hours per week. This number has increased since 2000, when the average number of hours worked by this age group was 10.4.
The chart displays differences in the number of hours worked by children aged 5-14 who are not in school, by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2000 and 2005.
Weekly Hours Household Chores, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)
Researchers recognize that children involved in economic activities are not the only children working. The ICLS recommended definition of child labour includes children aged 5-14 performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week.
Children aged 5-14, on average, are found to work on household chores 6.9 hours per week according to the 2005 estimate. This estimate represents a decrease in hours worked across all age groups since the last estimate in 2000, which found that children aged 5-14 in Azerbaijan worked an average of 11.1 hours per week.
The chart displays differences in the number of hours children aged 5-14 work on household chores by sex and region. Complete diaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2000 and 2005.
Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: total (Source: ILO)
Identifying the sectors in which the most child labour exists can help policy actors and practitioners target efforts toward those industries.
The latest data available on child labour by sector for Azerbaijan is from 2005. By the 2005 estimate, the Agriculture sector had the most child labourers, followed by the Commerce, Hotels and Restaurants sector, Other Services sector, and Manufacturing sector.
The chart to the right displays child labour prevalence in each sector for all children. The charts below show the differences in child labour by sector with comparisons between groups by sex and region.
Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: sex (Source: ILO)
Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: area (Source: ILO)
Measuring the incidence of forced labour is a much more recent endeavour and presents unique methodological challenges compared to the measurement of child labour.
No nationally representative data is available on forced labour prevalence in Azerbaijan.
Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on new guidelines presented by the International Labour Organization and adopted by the International Conference of Labour Statisticians.
The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.
No nationally representative data is available on human trafficking prevalence in Azerbaijan.
Visit the How to Measure the Change page to learn about measuring human trafficking prevalence, including information on collecting data through national referral mechanisms and producing prevalence statistics using Multiple Systems Estimation (MSE).
Case Data: International and Non-Governmental Organizations
Civil society organizations (CSOs) focused on human trafficking victim assistance can serve as crucial sources of data given their ability to reach a population that is notoriously difficult to sample.
Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (CTDC): The International Organization for Migration (IOM), Polaris and Liberty Asia have launched a global data repository on human trafficking, with data contributed by counter-trafficking partner organizations around the world. Not only does the CTDC serve as a central repository for this critical information, it also publishes normed and harmonized data from various organizations using a unified schema. This global dataset facilitates an unparalleled level of cross-border, trans-agency analysis and provides the counter-trafficking movement with a deeper understanding of this complex issue. Equipped with this information, decision makers will be empowered to create more targeted and effective intervention strategies.
UNODC compiles a global dataset on detected and prosecuted traffickers, which serves as the basis in their Global Report for country profiles. This information is beginning to paint a picture of trends over time, and case-specific information can assist investigators and prosecutors.
Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.
Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.
The chart displays information on human development in Azerbaijan between 1995 and 2018. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex.
The most recent year of the HDI, 2018, shows that the average human development score in Azerbaijan is 0.754. This score indicates that human development is high.
HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)
Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.
As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:
“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”
The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in Azerbaijan over time.
Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in the availability of equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction towards achieving Target 8.7.
HDI Vulnerable Employment (Source: UNDP)
There are reasons to believe that certain types of labour and labour arrangements are more likely to lead to labour exploitation. According to the ILO:
“Own-account workers and contributing family workers have a lower likelihood of having formal work arrangements, and are therefore more likely to lack elements associated with decent employment, such as adequate social security and a voice at work. The two statuses are summed to create a classification of ‘vulnerable employment’, while wage and salaried workers together with employers constitute ‘non-vulnerable employment’.”
Between 1991 and 2018, Azerbaijan showed a decrease in the proportion of workers in vulnerable employment as compared to those in secure employment.
Working Poverty Rate (Source: ILO)
Labour income tells us about a household’s vulnerability. As the ILO explains in Profits and Poverty:
“Poor households find it particularly difficult to deal with income shocks, especially when they push households below the food poverty line. In the presence of such shocks, men and women without social protection nets tend to borrow to smooth consumption, and to accept any job for themselves or their children, even under exploitative conditions.”
ILO indicators that measure poverty with respect to the labour force include working poverty rate, disaggregated by sex, with temporal coverage spanning from 2000 to 2020. The chart displays linear trends in working poverty rate over time for all individuals over 15 years of age.
Labour Productivity (Source: ILO)
“Labour productivity is an important economic indicator that is closely linked to economic growth, competitiveness, and living standards within an economy.” However, when increased labour output does not produce rising wages, this can point to increasing inequality. As indicated by a recent ILO report (2015), there is a “growing disconnect between wages and productivity growth, in both developed and emerging economies”. The lack of decent work available increases vulnerability to situations of labour exploitation.
Labour productivity represents the total volume of output (measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product, GDP) produced per unit of labour (measured in terms of the number of employed persons) during a given period.
Rates of Non-fatal Occupational Injuries (Source: ILO)
Occupational injury and fatality data can also be crucial in prevention and response efforts.
“Data on occupational injuries are essential for planning preventive measures. For instance, workers in occupations and activities of highest risk can be targeted more effectively for inspection visits, development of regulations and procedures, and also for safety campaigns.”
There are serious gaps in existing data coverage, particularly among groups that may be highly vulnerable to labour exploitation. For example, few countries provide information on injuries disaggregated between migrant and non-migrant workers.
Rates of Fatal Occupational Injuries (Source: ILO)
Data on occupational health and safety may reveal conditions of exploitation, even if exploitation may lead to under-reporting of workplace injuries and safety breaches. At present, the ILO collects data on occupational injuries, both fatal and non-fatal, disaggregating by sex and migrant status.
Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.
Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Source: UNHCR)
Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants.
According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children. “
As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements, as recognized by Member States in the New York declaration for refugees and migrants of September 2016.”
The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in Azerbaijan.
Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.
“Article 17. Prohibition of Forced Labor
1. It shall be prohibited to oblige an employee to perform a job not included in his job description through any kind of duress or under the threat of termination of the employment contract. Offenders shall be held liable under legally-established procedure.
2. Forced labor shall be permitted in connection with military and emergency situations if the work is performed under the supervision of relevant national authorities under the relevant law or court order.”
“Article 1. Basic concepts
1.0. The following basic concepts are used in this law:
1.0.3. Forced labor (service) – illicit coercion of a person into performing certain labor (service)”
“Article 42. Parties to Employment Contracts
1. Employment contracts shall be entered into freely. No one shall be compelled to sign an employment contract.
2. The parties to an employment contract shall be the employer and the employee. The person who is not establishing and willing to create employment relations cannot be compelled to sign an employment contract.
3. A person who has reached the age of fifteen may be a party to an employment contract. An employment contract may not be signed by a person considered to be disabled as established by legislation.
4. A completely disabled person may not serve as an employer.”
Article 249. Age limits during acceptance of employment Persons who are under the age of 15 shall not be employed.
Worst Forms of Child Labour
“Article 98. Limitation on Night Work for Certain Categories of Employees
1. The following individuals shall not be permitted to work at night: pregnant women, women with children under the age of three, individuals under the age of 18.
2. Disabled employees may engage in night work only on the basis of their written consent and by taking the opinion of the relevant Executive Authority into account.”
“Article 250. Cases where working of employees under the age of 18 is prohibited
It is prohibited to employ persons younger than 18 years old in jobs with difficult and hazardous work conditions, also in underground tunnels, mines and other underground jobs, also in such places as night clubs, bars, and casinos which could be detrimental to development of his/her wisdom, and also in places where alcoholic beverages and toxic material are carried, kept, or sold and also where circulation of narcotic drugs, psychotropic agents and their precursors is performed. Its prohibited to employ persons younger than 18 years old, who the Law of Compulsory General Education applies to, for execution of jobs which may deprive them of the opportunity to receive this education in corpora.”
“Article 251. Work where limitations on lifting of heavy loads by employees under 18 is applied
Article 254. Prohibition on Employees under the Age of 18 Engaging in Night Work, Overtime, Work on Days off, or Taking Business Trips”
“Article 1. Basic concepts
1.0. The following basic concepts are used in this law:
1.0.9. Child – a person under the age of 18;”
“Article 1. Basic concepts
1.0. The following basic concepts are used in this law:
1.0.1. Trafficking in persons – recruitment, obtaining, keeping, harboring, transporting, giving or receipt of a person by means of threat or use of force, intimidation or other means of coercion, abduction, fraud, deception, abuse of power [influence] or a position of vulnerability, or by giving or receiving payments or benefits, privileges or concessions to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for purposes of exploitation; (recruitment, obtaining, keeping, harboring, transporting, giving or receipt of a minor for purposes of exploitation shall be considered trafficking in persons even if the means set forth in this provision are not used);”
“Article 1. Basic concepts
1.0. The following basic concepts are used in this law:
1.0.3. Forced labor (service) – illicit coercion of a person into performing certain labor (service)
1.0.6. Practices similar to slavery – institutes and traditions indicated in article 1 of the April 30, 1956 Supplementary Convention on elimination of slavery, trading in slaves, and institutions and practices similar to slavery;”
National Action Plans, National Strategies
“Guides government policy on youth development, and includes a provision on increasing awareness of trafficking in persons risks among youth.”
“Aims to identify and combat the causes of vulnerability to human trafficking in Azerbaijan through improved coordination among the government agencies, NGOs, and intergovernmental organizations. Also seeks to improve the identification and provision of services to victims. Places special emphasis on protecting the rights of child victims and preventing child trafficking.”
Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the perpetration of forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour. These actions should be considered in wider societal efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.
Programs and Agencies for Victim Support
Policies for Assistance
Policies for Assistance, Human Trafficking
“Article 9. Responsibilities of Government agencies combating trafficking in persons
9.2. The relevant executive authority of the Republic of Azerbaijan shall protect the rights and interests of its citizens who became victims of trafficking in persons, if the victims are abroad. Foreign diplomatic missions and consulates of the Republic of Azerbaijan shall comprehensively support anti-trafficking in persons measures bodies within their responsibilities and in compliance with the legislation of the host country.”
Article 12. Specialized institutions for the victims of trafficking in persons
Article 13. Interim shelters for lodging of the victims of trafficking in persons
Article 14. Centers for assistance to the victims of trafficking in persons.
Article 15. Social rehabilitation of the victims of trafficking in persons
Article 16. Assisting children who became a victim of trafficking in persons
Article 17. Measures on the protection and assistance of victims of human trafficking
Article 18. Providing for the safety of the victims of trafficking in persons
Article 20. Repatriation of the foreigners and persons without citizenship, who became victims of trafficking in persons.
“Article 22. Forfeiture and use of proceeds of trafficking in persons
22.1. All proceeds of trafficking in persons (real estate, funds, securities and other assets) shall be confiscated by a court decision, and shall be transfer to the specially created trafficking in persons victims’ assistance fund, as it defined by the legislation.
22.2. Proceeds accumulated into the assistance fund for victims of trafficking in persons shall be utilized to pay compensation to the victims of trafficking in persons, their social rehabilitation, medical and other necessary expenses.
22.3. Transparency shall be provided in the utilization and management of the assets of assistance fund for victims of trafficking in persons. A relevant executive authority of the Republic of Azerbaijan shall define the legal basis for the functioning of the fund.
Article 23. Reimbursement of damage caused to the victims of trafficking in persons
23.1. The courts shall resolve the matter of material and moral damages related to the victims of trafficking in persons.
23.2. Damage caused to the victims of trafficking in persons shall be compensated from the assets of human traffickers, or trafficking victims’ assistance funds, if the assets of human traffickers are not enough for compensation.”
“Article 24. Consideration of cases related to trafficking in persons
24.1. Consideration of criminal cases on trafficking in persons, and cases for restitution of losses caused by the trafficking in persons may be conducted in a closed court sessions upon victim’s request and in accordance with legislation of the Republic of Azerbaijan. 24.2. Special testimonial measures such as teleconferencing or use of video-taped statements can be arranged with the purpose of ensuring the safety of the victims of trafficking in persons and preventing human traffickers from influencing them, as well as taking into consideration the emotional and psychological condition of the victim.”
“Article 312. Administrative Action For Violating Labor Law
An employee, employer or other private individual who violates the labor law shall be subject to administrative action pursuant to the cases and manner stipulated by the Code of the Azerbaijan Republic on Administrative Offences.”
“Article 313. Criminal Action for Violating Labor Law
Individuals who, with socially malicious intent, violate standards for the protection of labor as specified in legislation, or who grossly violate in any way the rights and legal interests of employees and employers or the requirements hereof shall be subject to criminal prosecution in accordance with the Criminal Code of the Republic of Azerbaijan.”
Penalties, Human Trafficking
“Article 21. Liability for participation in trafficking in persons
21.1. Individuals participating in trafficking in persons are brought to account under the legislation of the Azerbaijan Republic.
21.2. Action or inaction by officials which can facilitate trafficking in persons is prosecuted under the legislation of the Republic of Azerbaijan.
21.3. Foreigners and persons without citizenship allegedly participating in trafficking in persons shall not be granted an access to the territory of the Republic of Azerbaijan and entry visas issued to them shall be considered void.”
“Article 25. Liability of legal entities for trafficking in persons
25.1. A legal entity (its branch or representative) functioning in the territory of the Azerbaijan Republic can be closed down in accordance with legislation of the Azerbaijan Republic for its links to trafficking in persons.
25.2. Once a legal entity engaged in trafficking in persons is identified and abolished, all its property shall be transferred to the funds on assisting the victims of trafficking in persons.”
“Article 30. Liability for violation of the law
Violation of this law by individuals and legal entities shall result in criminal responsibility in accordance with legislation of the Azerbaijan Republic.”
1.ii. Take steps to measure, monitor and share data on prevalence and response to all such forms of exploitation, as appropriate to national circumstances;
Programs and Agencies for Enforcement
Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk of exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.
Social Protection Coverage: General (at Least One)
Social Protection (Source: ILO)
The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.
If a country does not appear on a chart, this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.