Data Dashboards

Bahrain
Measurement
Measuring the Change

Due to lack of nationally representative data, there is no change to report.

%
Best Target 8.7 Data: Child Labour Rate

No Data Available

Data Availability
  • Child labour: No nationally representative data
  • Forced labour: No nationally representative data
  • Human trafficking: No nationally representative data
Context
Human Development

Human Development Index Score: 0.824 (2015)

Mean School Years: 9.4 years (2015)

Labour Indicators

Vulnerable Employment: no data

Working Poverty Rate: no data

Government Efforts
Key Ratifications
  • ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Not ratified
  • ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2001
  • UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Accession 2004
Social Protection Coverage

General (at least one): No data

Unemployed: 9.80%

Pension: 18% (2016)

Vulnerable: No data

Children: No data

Disabled: 6.5% (2016)

Poor: No data

Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.

No nationally representative data is available on child labour prevalence in Bahrain.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on ILO-SIMPOC methods and guidelines for defining, measuring and collecting data on child labour.

Measuring the incidence of forced labour is a much more recent endeavour and presents unique methodological challenges compared to the measurement of child labour.

No nationally representative data is available on forced labour prevalence in Bahrain.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on new guidelines presented by the International Labour Organization and adopted by the International Conference of Labour Statisticians.

The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.

No nationally representative data is available on human trafficking prevalence in Bahrain.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page to learn about measuring human trafficking prevalence, including information on collecting data through national referral mechanisms and producing prevalence statistics using Multiple Systems Estimation (MSE).

Case Data: International and Non-Governmental Organizations

Civil society organizations (CSOs) focused on human trafficking victim assistance can serve as crucial sources of data given their ability to reach a population that is notoriously difficult to sample.

Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (CTDC): The International Organization for Migration (IOM), Polaris and Liberty Asia have launched a global data repository on human trafficking, with data contributed by counter-trafficking partner organizations around the world. Not only does the CTDC serve as a central repository for this critical information, it also publishes normed and harmonized data from various organizations using a unified schema. This global dataset facilitates an unparalleled level of cross-border, trans-agency analysis and provides the counter-trafficking movement with a deeper understanding of this complex issue. Equipped with this information, decision makers will be empowered to create more targeted and effective intervention strategies.

Prosecution Data

UNODC compiles a global dataset on detected and prosecuted traffickers, which serves as the basis in their Global Report for country profiles. This information is beginning to paint a picture of trends over time, and case-specific information can assist investigators and prosecutors.

Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.

Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.

The chart displays information on human development in Bahrain between 1990 and 2015. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex.

The most recent year of the HDI, 2015, shows that the average human development score in Bahrain is 0.824. This score indicates that human development is very high.

HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)

Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.

As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:

“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”

Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in the availability of equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction towards achieving Target 8.7.

HDI Vulnerable Employment (Source: UNDP)

There are reasons to believe that certain types of labour and labour arrangements are more likely to lead to labour exploitation. According to the ILO:

“Own-account workers and contributing family workers have a lower likelihood of having formal work arrangements, and are therefore more likely to lack elements associated with decent employment, such as adequate social security and a voice at work. The two statuses are summed to create a classification of ‘vulnerable employment’, while wage and salaried workers together with employers constitute ‘non-vulnerable employment’.”

Between 2013- 2018, the proportion of workers in vulnerable employment as compared to those in secure employment was 1.1 percent.

 

Labour Productivity (Source: ILO)

Labour productivity is an important economic indicator that is closely linked to economic growth, competitiveness, and living standards within an economy.” However, when increased labour output does not produce rising wages, this can point to increasing inequality. As indicated by a recent ILO report (2015), there is a “growing disconnect between wages and productivity growth, in both developed and emerging economies”. The lack of decent work available increases vulnerability to situations of labour exploitation.

Labour productivity represents the total volume of output (measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product, GDP) produced per unit of labour (measured in terms of the number of employed persons) during a given period.

Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.

Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Source: UNHCR)

Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants. 

According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children.”

 As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements.”

The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in Bahrain

Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.

Official Definitions
Compulsory Work

Constitution, 2002

Child Labour

Law No. 36 of 2012 Promulgating the Labour Law in the Private Sector.

Worst Forms of Child Labour

Law No. 36 of 2012 Promulgating the Labour Law in the Private Sector.

Ministerial Order No. 23 of 2013 determining the cases, circumstances and any other conditions, governing the employment of minors, and determining the occupations, industries and dangerous and hazardous works in which minors may not be employed or which may be harmful to their health, safety or ethical behavior in accordance with the various age stages.

National Action Charter, 2000

Trafficking in Persons

Law No. 1 of 2008 with respect to Trafficking in Persons

Article 1.
a. For the purpose of implementing the provisions of this Law, trafficking in persons shall mean the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring, or receiving persons, by means of threat or the use of force or other forms of coercion, abduction, fraud, deceit, abuse of power or of position or any other direct or indirect unlawful means.
Exploitation shall include the exploitation of such person or the prostitution of others or any other forms of exploitation, sexual assault, forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs.
b. Recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring, or receiving of persons who are less than eighteen years of age or who are in a condition or personal state in which their consent or freedom of choice cannot be guaranteed shall be deemed as trafficking in persons if the intent is to exploit them even if such act is not accompanied by any of the means provided for in the preceding paragraph.
c. The perpetrator shall be presumed to have knowledge of the real age of the victim who is not eighteen years of age.

Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the perpetration of forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour. These actions should be considered in efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.

Programs and Agencies for Victim Support (Source: U.S. Department of Labor)

Policies for Asisstance
Policies for Assistance, General

مرسوم رقم (13) لسنة 2012 بشأن نظام عمل الصندوق الوطني لتعويض المتضررين

Policies for Assistance, Trafficking in Persons

Law No. 1 of 2008 with respect to Trafficking in Persons

Article 5.
The following actions shall be taken in the stage of investigation or court proceedings in respect of a crime of trafficking in persons:
1. Informing the victim of his legal rights in a language he understands.
2. Enabling the victim to explain his position as a victim of a crime of trafficking in persons, as well as his legal, physical, psychological and social status.
3. The victim shall be examined by a specialist physician if he so requests, or if it transpires that he is in need of medical or psychiatric care.
4. Admitting the victim into a medical or psychiatric centre or a welfare centre if it transpires that his medical or psychological condition or age so requires.
5. Admitting the victim into a special centre for the provision of shelter or qualification with a licensed authority to undertake providing accommodation thereto if it is found that this is required.
6. Arranging security protection for the victim if so required.
7. Contacting the Chairman of the committee provided for in Article 7 of this Law if the victim is a foreigner and it transpires that he is in need of a job, with a view to removing any obstacles in this regard.

Article 7.
There shall be formed by an Order of the Minister of Social Development a committee to be called the “Committee for the Assessment of the Status of Foreigners who are Victims of Trafficking in Persons”, and shall be comprised of representatives from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, General Directorate of Nationality, Passports and Residence, Ministry of Social Development and the Labour Market Regulatory Authority, of whom each shall appoint two persons to represent it. A chairman shall be appointed for such Committee who shall be selected by the Minister of Social Development. The Committee shall adopt its resolutions and recommendations by the absolute majority of votes and in case of a
tie, the Chairman shall have a casting vote. The Committee shall have access to all reports related to the victim and the right to hear all his statements or these of his representative.
The functions of the Committee shall be as follows:
1. Implementing Sub-clause 7 of Article (5) of this Law.
2. Co-ordinating with the Ministry of the Interior for the repatriation of the victim to his home country of which he is a national or to his place of residence in any other country if he
so requests.
3. Making recommendations in case there is a need for a victim to stay in the Kingdom and adjust his legal status with a view to enabling him to get employment. Such recommendation shall be submitted to the Minister of the Interior for his approval, and in case of approval, it shall be subject to a review once every six months as a maximum in accordance with the same procedures.

Article 9.
The Minister of Social Development shall issue a Ministerial Order with respect to the organisation of centres for sheltering the victims of trafficking in persons, and determining the specifications and standards for approving the entities to be entrusted with providing accommodation thereto and the rules for carrying out inspections of sheltering centres and accommodation of the victims of such crimes.

قرار رقم (51) لسنة 2010

بشأن تنظيم مراكز إيواء المجني عليهم في جرائم

الاتجار بالأشخاص وضوابط اعتماد

الجهات التي تتعهد بتوفير السكن لهم

Penalities
Penalties, Forced Labour

Penal Code

Article 198
A punishment of imprisonment for a period not exceeding ten years shall be
inflicted upon every civil servant or officer entrusted with a public service who
employs, by forced labor, workers to work for the Government or one of the
authorities mentioned in Article 107 hereof or unjustifiably withhold all or some of
their wages.

Penalties, Child Labour and Worst Forms of Child Labour

Law No. 36 of 2012 Promulgating the Labour Law in the Private Sector.

Article 186. Any party violating any of the provisions of Title IV of this Law or the decisions issued in implementation thereof shall be sanctioned by a fine not less than two hundred Dinars and not more than five hundred Dinars.

Ministerial Order No. 23 of 2013 determining the cases, circumstances and any other conditions, governing the employment of minors, and determining the occupations, industries and dangerous and hazardous works in which minors may not be employed or which may be harmful to their health, safety or ethical behavior in accordance with the various age stages.

المادة الثامنة

يُعاقب كل من يخالف أحكام هذا القرار بالعقوبة المنصوص عليها في المادة (186) من قانون العمل في القطاع الأهلي الصادر بالقانون رقم (36) لسنة 2012.

Penalties, Trafficking in Persons

Law No. 1 of 2008 with respect to Trafficking in Persons

“Article 2.
Without prejudice to any harsher penalty prescribed by the Penal Code or any other law, any person committing a crime or trafficking in persons shall be punished by imprisonment and a fine of no less than Bahrain Dinars two thousand and not more than Bahrain Dinars ten thousand.
In case of conviction, the perpetrator shall be obliged to pay the costs, including the costs of repatriating the victim to his country where he is a foreigner.
In all cases, the Court shall order the confiscation of the funds, luggage, tools and other items that are used or prepared for use in committing the crime or that resulted therefrom.”
“Article 3.
Each corporate person who commits a crime of trafficking in persons in its name or on its behalf or benefits from any chairman, member of board of directors or another official at such corporate person or affiliate acting in such capacity shall be liable for payment of a fine of no less than Bahrain Dinars ten thousand and not more than Bahrain Dinars one hundred thousand.
This shall not prejudice of the criminal liability of natural persons who work for such corporate person or on its behalf in accordance with the provisions of this Law.
The Court may order the dissolution or the permanent or temporary closure of the corporate person, and such provision shall be applicable to the branches thereof.
In all cases, the Court shall order the confiscation of the funds, luggage, tools and other items that may have been used or intended for use in committing the crime or that resulted therefrom.
The corporate person shall jointly with the natural person be liable for payment of the costs, including the costs of repatriating the victim to his country where he is a foreigner.”
“Article 4.
Subject to the provisions of Chapter 5 of Part 3 of the Penal Code, the following shall be deemed as aggravating circumstances in a crime of trafficking in persons:
1. If the crime is committed by a criminal group.
2. If the victim is below fifteen years of age, a female or a person with special needs.
3. If the crime is of a non-national nature.
4. If the perpetrator is a blood relative of the victim or if he is his guardian or responsible for his supervision or has authority over him, or if the victim is his servant.
5. If the victim suffers an incurable disease as a result of committing the crime.”

Programs and Agencies for Enforcement (Source: U.S. Department of Labor)

Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk for exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.

Social Protection Coverage: (Source: ILO)

The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.

The ILO measures social protections coverage through the Social Security Inquiry (SSI). Every two years, national governments, including responsible ministries, provide data to the SSI on social protections including coverage and expenditure.

There are no visualizations, as there is not a sufficient amount of data provided on social protections for the Arab States region.