Data Dashboards

Bosnia and Herzegovina
Measurement
Measuring the Change

using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards.

Due to the lack of available data, there is no change to report.

%
Best Target 8.7 Data:

No data available

Data Availability
  • Child labour: No nationally representative data
  • Forced labour: No nationally representative data
  • Human trafficking: No nationally representative data
Context
Human Development

Human Development Index Score: 0.750 (2015)

Mean School Years: 9 years (2015)

Labour Indicators

Vulnerable Employment: 25.3% (2013)

Working Poverty Rate: 0.5% (2016)

Government Efforts
Key Ratifications
  • ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Ratified 2018
  • ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2001
  • UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Ratified 2002
Social Protections Coverage

General (at least one): No data

Unemployed: 2% (2011)

Pension: No data

Vulnerable: No data

Children: No data

Disabled: No data

Poor: No data

Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.

Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Hazardous child labour is the largest category of the worst forms of child labour with an estimated 73 million children aged 5-17 working in dangerous conditions in a wide range of sectors. Worldwide, the ILO estimates that some 22,000 children are killed at work every year.

In Bosnia and Herzegovina, the latest estimates show that 0.4 percent of children aged 5-14 were engaged in hazardous work in 2000. The measure provided for 2000 does not cover the full definition of hazardous work.

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 5-14 in hazardous labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups by region is not provided for 2000.

Weekly Work Hours, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Children aged 5-11 are considered to be subjected to child labour when engaging in any form of economic activity. Children aged 12-14 are permitted to engage in “light” work that is not considered hazardous and falls below 14 hours per week.

According to the latest 2006 estimates, the average number of hours worked per week by children aged 5-14 in Bosnia and Herzegovina was 3.7 hours. The average number of hours worked has decreased from 7.4 hours in 2000.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours that children aged 5-14 work in economic activities by sex and region. The sample includes all children of this age group. Complete disaggregated data is provided for 2000 and 2006.

Weekly Work Hours, Children Only in Economic Activity, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Children not attending school who are engaged in economic activity can be subjected to longer working hours.

In 2006, the latest year with available data, children in economic activity only, meaning they are not in school, worked an average of 1.9 hours per week. This number has decreased since 2000, when the average number of hours worked by this age group was 6.4.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours worked by children aged 5-14 who are not in school, by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2000 and 2006.

Weekly Hours Household Chores, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Researchers recognize that children involved in economic activities are not the only children working. The ICLS recommended definition of child labour includes children aged 5-14 performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week.

Children aged 5-14, on average, are found to work on household chores 3 hours per week according to the 2006 estimate. This estimate represents a decrease in hours worked across all age groups since the last estimate in 2000, which found that children aged 5-14 in Bosnia and Herzegovina worked an average of 4.7 hours per week.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours children aged 5-14 work on household chores by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2000 and 2006.

Measuring the incidence of forced labour is a much more recent endeavour and presents unique methodological challenges compared to the measurement of child labour.

No nationally representative data is available on forced labour prevalence in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on new guidelines presented by the International Labour Organization and adopted by the International Conference of Labour Statisticians.

The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.

No nationally representative data is available on human trafficking prevalence in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page to learn about measuring human trafficking prevalence, including information on collecting data through national referral mechanisms and producing prevalence statistics using Multiple Systems Estimation (MSE).

Case Data: International and Non-Governmental Organizations

Civil society organizations (CSOs) focused on human trafficking victim assistance can serve as crucial sources of data given their ability to reach a population that is notoriously difficult to sample.

Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (CTDC): The International Organization for Migration (IOM), Polaris and Liberty Asia have launched a global data repository on human trafficking, with data contributed by counter-trafficking partner organizations around the world. Not only does the CTDC serve as a central repository for this critical information, it also publishes normed and harmonized data from various organizations using a unified schema. This global dataset facilitates an unparalleled level of cross-border, trans-agency analysis and provides the counter-trafficking movement with a deeper understanding of this complex issue. Equipped with this information, decision makers will be empowered to create more targeted and effective intervention strategies.

Prosecution Data

UNODC compiles a global dataset on detected and prosecuted traffickers, which serves as the basis in their Global Report for country profiles. This information is beginning to paint a picture of trends over time, and case-specific information can assist investigators and prosecutors.

Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.

Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.

The chart displays information on human development in Bosnia and Herzegovina between 2005 and 2015. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex.

The most recent year of the HDI, 2015, shows that the average human development score in Bosnia and Herzegovina is 0.750. This score indicates that human development is high.

HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)

Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.

As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:

“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”

The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in Bosnia and Herzegovina over time.

Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction toward achieving Target 8.7.

Vulnerable Employment (Source: UNDP)

There are reasons to believe that certain types of labour and labour arrangements are more likely to lead to labour exploitation. According to the ILO:

“Own-account workers and contributing family workers have a lower likelihood of having formal work arrangements, and are therefore more likely to lack elements associated with decent employment, such as adequate social security and a voice at work. The two statuses are summed to create a classification of ‘vulnerable employment’, while wage and salaried workers together with employers constitute ‘non-vulnerable employment’.”

Between 2010 and 2013, Bosnia and Herzegovina showed a decrease in the proportion of workers in vulnerable employment as compared to those in secure employment.

Working Poverty Rate (Source: ILO)

Labour income tells us about a household’s vulnerability. As the ILO explains in Profits and Poverty:

“Poor households find it particularly difficult to deal with income shocks, especially when they push households below the food poverty line. In the presence of such shocks, men and women without social protection nets tend to borrow to smooth consumption, and to accept any job for themselves or their children, even under exploitative conditions.”

ILO indicators that measure poverty with respect to the labour force include working poverty rate, disaggregated by sex, with temporal coverage spanning from 2000 to 2016. The chart displays linear trends in working poverty rate over time for all individuals over 15 years of age.

Labour Productivity

Labour productivity is an important economic indicator that is closely linked to economic growth, competitiveness, and living standards within an economy.” However, when increased labour output does not produce rising wages, this can point to increasing inequality. As indicated by a recent ILO report (2015), there is a “growing disconnect between wages and productivity growth, in both developed and emerging economies”. The lack of decent work available increases vulnerability to situations of labour exploitation.

Labour productivity represents the total volume of output (measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product, GDP) produced per unit of labour (measured in terms of the number of employed persons) during a given period.

Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.

Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Source: UNHCR)

Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants.

According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children.”

As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements.”

The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.

Official Definitions
Forced Labour

Ustav Bosne i Hercegovine (Constitution of Bosnia and Herzegovina) 1994
Article II: Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms

2. International Standards
The rights and freedoms set forth in the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms and its Protocols shall apply directly in Bosnia and Herzegovina. These shall have priority over all other law.
3. Enumeration of Rights
All persons within the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina shall enjoy the human rights and fundamental freedoms referred to in paragraph 2 above; these include:

c. The right not to be held in slavery or servitude or to perform forced or compulsory labor.

Child Labour

Zakon o radu Federacije Bosne i Hercegovine (The Labour Code of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina) 2016
II. ZAKLJUČIVANJE UGOVORA O RADU Uvjeti za zaključivanje ugovora o radu Član 20.

1. Sa licem mlađim od 15 godina života ne može se zaključiti ugovor o radu, niti se ono može zaposliti na bilo koju vrstu poslova.
2. Lice između 15 i 18 godina života (u daljem tekstu: maloljetnik) može zaključiti ugovor o radu, odnosno zaposliti se uz saglasnost zakonskog zastupnika i pod uvjetom da od ovlaštenog ljekara ili nadležne zdravstvene ustanove pribavi ljekarsko uvjerenje kojim dokazuje da ima opću zdravstvenu sposobnost za rad.

Labour Code of the Republika Srpska, 2015
GLAVA II ZASNIVANjE RADNOG ODNOSA
1. Uslovi za zasnivanje radnog odnosa

Član 26. Radni odnos može da se zasnuje sa licem koje ima najmanje 15 godina, odgovarajuću zdravstvenu sposobnost i koje ispunjava druge uslove utvrđene posebnim zakonom, opštim aktom poslodavca, aktom o sistematizaciji ili posebnom odlukom poslodavca.
Član 27.1. Radni odnos sa licem mlađim od 18 godina može da se zasnuje samo uz pismenu saglasnost roditelja, usvojioca ili staraoca, ako takav rad ne ugrožava njegovo zdravlje, moral i obrazovanje, odnosno ako takav rad nije zabranjen zakonom.

Zakon o radu Brcko Distrikta BiH (Labour Code of the District of Brcko Bih) 2006
II. ZAKLJUĈIVANJE UGOVORA O RADU
Ĉlan 10.1. Ugovor o radu ne može se zaključiti s licem koje nije navršilo petnaest (15) godina života.
Ĉlan 10.2. Maloljetnik se ne smije zaposliti ako nisu prethodno ispunjeni sljedeći uslovi:

1. da je ovlašteni liječnik ili nadležna medicinska ustanova izdala potvrdu koja pokazuje da je maloljetnik pregledan i da je fizički i psihički sposoban ostvarivati zadatke koje zahtijeva to radno mjesto; i
2. da su jedan ili oba roditelja ili zakonski staratelj maloljetnika dali svoj pristanak.

Ĉlan 28.1. Maloljetni zaposlenici ne mogu raditi noću.
Ĉlan 28.2. Za maloljetne zaposlenike koji rade u industriji, rad izmeĎu 19.00 naveče i 7.00 ujutro narednog dana smatra se noćnim radom. Za sve druge maloljetne zaposlenike, rad izmeĎu 20.00 naveče i 6.00 ujutro narednog dana smatra se noćnim radom.
Ĉlan 28.3. Maloljetni zaposlenici privremeno mogu biti izuzeti od zabrane noćnog rada odreĎene stavom 2 ovog člana u slučaju havarija, više sile, vanrednih okolnosti ili zbog zaštite zdravlja i sigurnosti Distrikta, ukoliko je dobijena pismena saglasnost inspektora za rad.

Worst Forms of Child Labour

Zakon o radu Federacije Bosne i Hercegovine (The Labour Code of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina) 2016
Noćni rad maloljetnih radnika Član 42.

1. Zabranjen je noćni rad maloljetnih radnika.
2. Za maloljetne radnike u industriji, rad u vremenu između 19 sati uvečer i 7 sati ujutro idućeg dana, smatra se noćnim radom.
3. Za maloljetne radnike koji nisu zaposleni u industriji, rad u vremenu između 20 sati uvečer i 6 sati ujutro idućeg dana, smatra se noćnim radom.
4. Izuzetno, maloljetni radnici privremeno mogu biti izuzeti od zabrane noćnog rada u slučaju havarija, više sile i zaštite interesa Federacije Bosne i Hercegovine (u daljem tekstu: Federacija., na osnovu saglasnosti inspekcije rada kantona (daljem tekstu: nadležna inspekcija rada.
5. Federalni ministar rada i socijalne politike (u daljem tekstu: Federalni ministar) će pravilnikom propisati koje se djelatnosti smatraju industrijom u smislu stava 2. ovog člana.

Zaštita maloljetnika Član 57.

1. Maloljetnik ne može da radi na naročito teškim fizičkim poslovima, radovima pod zemljom ili pod vodom, ni na ostalim poslovima koji bi mogli štetno i sa povećanim rizikom da utiču na njegov život i zdravlje, razvoj i moral, s obzirom na njegove psihofizičke osobine.
2. Federalni ministar posebnim propisom utvrdit će poslove iz stava 1. ovog člana.
3. Inspektor rada zabranit će rad maloljetnika na poslovima iz stava 1. ovog člana.
4. U slučaju iz stava 3. ovog člana poslodavac je dužan maloljetnom radniku ponuditi zaključivanje ugovora o radu za obavljanje drugih odgovarajućih poslova, a ako takvih poslova nema, dužan mu je ponuditi prekvalifikaciju ili dokvalifikaciju za druge odgovarajuće poslove.
5. Ukoliko nakon prekvalifikacije ili dokvalifikacije iz stava 4, ovog člana ne postoje poslovi koje maloljetni radnik može obavljati poslodavac mu može otkazati ugovor o radu na način i pod uvjetima propisanim ovim zakonom.

Labour Code of the Republika Srpska, 2015
8. Noćni rad i rad u smjenama

Član 70.1. Noćnim radom smatra se rad između 22.00 časa i 06.00 časova narednog dana.
Član 70.2. Za radnike mlađe od 18 godina, noćnim radom smatra se rad između 19.00 časova i 06.00 časova narednog dana.
Član 72.1. Radnicima mlađim od 18 godina zabranjen je noćni rad.
Član 72.2. Izuzetno, radnici mlađi od 18 godina mogu biti privremeno izuzeti od zabrane noćnog rada u slučaju otklanjanja posljedica više sile, havarija i zaštite interesa Republike, na osnovu saglasnosti nadležnog inspektora rada.
Član 72.3. Posebna zaštita mlađih radnika

Član 103.1. Radnik mlađi od 18 godina ne može biti raspoređen da radi na radnim mjestima za koja je utvrđeno da su radna mjesta sa povećanim rizikom, ili na naročito teškim fizičkim poslovima, na radovima koji se obavljaju pod zemljom ili pod vodom, kao ni na drugim poslovima koji bi mogli da predstavljaju povećan rizik po njegov život, zdravlje i psihofizički razvoj.
Član 103.2. Poslove iz stava 1. ovog člana pravilnikom utvrđuje ministar.

Zakon o radu Brcko Distrikta BiH (Labour Code of the District of Brcko Bih) 2006
1. Zaštita maloljetnika

Ĉlan 41.1. Maloljetnik ne može da radi na opasnim poslovima ili teškim fizičkim poslovima, radovima pod zemljom ili pod vodom, ni na drugim poslovima koji bi mogli štetno uticati ili mu znatno ugroziti život, zdravlje, fizički razvoj ili moral.
Ĉlan 41.2. Poslovi iz stava 1 ovog člana regulišu se kolektivnim ugovorom.
Ĉlan 41.3. Inspektor za rad u Brčko distriktu zabranit će rad maloljetnika na poslovima u smislu stava 1 ovog člana.

Human Trafficking

Krivični Zakon Bosne i Hercegovine (Criminal Code of Bosnia and Herzegovina) 2003
Trafficking in Persons Article 186.

1. Whoever, by means of use of force or threat of use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud or deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability, or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, recruits, transports, transfers, harbours or receipts a person, for the purpose of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, slavery or similar status, servitude or the removal of organs or of the other type of exploitation, shall be punished by imprisonment for a term between one and ten years.
2. Whoever recruits, transports, transfers, harbours or receipts a child or a juvenile for the purpose of the exploitation referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article,
shall be punished by imprisonment for a term not less than five years.
3. Whoever organises or directs at any level the group of people for the purpose of perpetration of the criminal offences referred to in paragraphs 1 and 2 of this Article, shall be punished by imprisonment for a term not less than ten years or long-term imprisonment.
4. The circumstance whether a person consented to the exploitation referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article is of no relevance for the existence of a criminal offence of trafficking in persons.

Slavery

Ustav Bosne i Hercegovine (Constitution of Bosnia and Herzegovina) 1994

Article II: Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms

2. International Standards
The rights and freedoms set forth in the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms and its Protocols shall apply directly in Bosnia and Herzegovina. These shall have priority over all other law.
3. Enumeration of Rights
All persons within the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina shall enjoy the human rights and fundamental freedoms referred to in paragraph 2 above; these include:

c. The right not to be held in slavery or servitude or to perform forced or compulsory labor.

International Commitments
National Strategies

National Action Plan to Counter Trafficking (2016-2019)

“Mandates that the Government provide assistance to human trafficking victims, efficiently prosecute trafficking crimes, prevent trafficking in persons, and strengthen collaboration and coordination among stakeholders involved in combating human trafficking in BiH.”

Action Plan for Children of BiH (2015-2018)

“Designed to take a multidisciplinary approach that aims to continue improving the Government’s efforts to protect cihldren’s rights.”

Action Plan for Solving Problems of the Roma in the Fields of Employment, Housing, and Healthcare (2013–2016)

“Aimed to improve the socioeconomic status and social inclusion of Roma. Joint initiative of 12 European countries.”

Policy for the Protection of Children Deprived of Parental Care and Families at Risk of Separation in FBiH (2006–2016) and Action Plan (2013–2016)

“Called for the development of social protection systems to provide sufficient protection to children without parental care and children separated from their parents.”

Council of Europe Action Plan for BiH (2015-2017)

“Outlines a comprehensive strategy for cooperative efforts between the Government and the Council of Europe. Includes components designed to increase inclusive education and decrease discrimination against Roma.”

International Ratifications

ILO Forced Labour Convention, C029, Ratification 1993

ILO Protocol of 2014, P029, to the Forced Labour Convention, C029, Ratification 2018

The Protocol will enter into force for Bosnia and Herzegovina on 09 Aug 2019.

ILO Abolition of Forced Labour Convention, C105, Ratification 2000

ILO Minimum Age Convention, C138, Ratification 1993 (Minimum age specified: 15 years)

ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182, Ratification 2001

Slavery Convention, signed at Geneva on 25 September 1926 and amended by the Protocol, Succession 1993

UN Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, Succession 1993

UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol), Ratification 2002

UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, Succession 1993

UN Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Ratification 2003

UN Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, Ratification 2002

Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the perpetration of modern slavery, forced labour, child labour and human trafficking. These actions should be considered in wider societal efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.

Programs and Agencies for Victim Support (Source: U.S. Department of Labor)

Policies for Assistance

Regulations of 11 June 2007 on the protection of victims of human trafficking (Text No. 404)

Regulation of 20 October 2008 on protection of foreign victims of human trafficking (Text No. 653)

Regulations of 23 June 2004 on the protection of foreigners who are victims of trafficking in persons (Text No. 233)

Zakon o Strancima (Act on Foreigners) 2015
Član 58. (Privremeni boravak po osnovu humanitarnih razloga)

1. Privremeni boravak po osnovu humanitanih razloga radi liječenja, rehabilitacije i boravka u staračkom domu može se odobriti strancu koji ispunjava uslove iz člana 49. (Opći uslovi za odobrenje boravka) ovog zakona i dostavi dokaz da je primljen u ustanovu u BiH na liječenje, rehabilitaciju ili smještaj u starački dom.
2. Privremeni boravak po osnovu humanitarnih razloga može se odobriti i strancu koji ne ispunjava uslove za odobrenje privremenog boravka iz člana 49. (Opći uslovi za odobrenje boravka) ovog zakona, u sljedećim slučajevima:

a. ako je žrtva trgovine ljudima s ciljem:

1. pružanja zaštite i pomoći u oporavku i povratku u državu porijekla ili državu uobičajenog boravka ili u državu koja ga prihvata; ili
2. pružanja zaštite i pomoći ako je njihov boravak neophodan zbog saradnje s nadležnim organima radi istrage u otkrivanju i procesuiranju krivičnog djela trgovine ljudima;

b. maloljetnom djetetu stranca ako je napušteno ili je žrtva organiziranog kriminala, ili je iz drugih razloga ostalo bez roditeljske zaštite, starateljstva ili bez pratnje;
c. licu bez državljanstva;
d. po osnovu drugih opravdanih humanitarnih razloga koje, na prijedlog Ministarstva, određuje podzakonskim propisom Vijeće ministara.

3. Privremeni boravak po osnovu humanitarnih razloga može se odobriti i strancu koji ne ispunjava uslove za odobrenje privremenog boravka iz člana 49. (Opći uslovi za odobrenje boravka) ovog zakona, u slučaju kad stranac sarađuje s organima vlasti radi otkrivanja krivičnog djela ili počinioca, ili je žrtva organiziranog kriminala i njegovo je prisustvo u BiH neophodno za provođenje sudskog postupka.
4. Stranac kojem je odobren privremeni boravak po osnovu humanitanih razloga na osnovu stava 2. tačka a. ovog člana ima pravo na: adekvatan i siguran smještaj, pristup hitnoj medicinskoj zaštiti, psihološku pomoć, informiranje o pravnom statusu, pravnu pomoć u postupku ostvarivanja statusnih pitanja, pristup tržištu rada pod uslovima koji se primjenjuju prema strancu, kao i pristup profesionalnoj obuci i edukaciji. Dijete koje ima odobren privremeni boravak kao žrtva trgovine ljudima ima pravo na pristup obrazovanju.
5. Stranac kojem je odobren privremeni boravak po osnovu humanitarnih razloga na osnovu stava 2. tačka c. ovog člana ima pravo na rad pod istim uslovima koji se primjenjuju prema strancu, a omogućava mu se osnovno obrazovanje pod istim uslovima kao i državljanima BiH.
6. Privremeni boravak po osnovu humanitarnih razloga određen propisom Vijeća ministara iz stava 2. tačka d. ovog člana ne može se ni u kojem slučaju odobriti ako postoje okolnosti iz člana 84. (Odbijanje zahtjeva za odobrenje i zahtjeva za produženje privremenog boravka) stav 1. tač. f. i h. ovog zakona.
7. Privremeni boravak iz stava 1. i stava 2. tač. b., c. i d. ovog člana odobrava se na period do jedne godine i može se produžiti pod istim uslovima pod kojima je boravak odobren.
8. Privremeni boravak iz stava 2. tačka a. ovog člana odobrava se na period najduže do šest mjeseci i može se produžiti pod istim uslovima pod kojim je boravak odobren.
9. Strancu kojem je odobren privremeni boravak na osnovu stava 2. ovog člana, a koji ne posjeduje važeći putni dokument, izdaje se potvrda o identitetu.

Član 60. (Zaštita žrtava trgovine ljudima)

1. Ministarstvo je odgovorno za osiguranje posebne zaštite i pomoći žrtvama trgovine ljudima tokom njihovog prihvata i boravka u centrima za smještaj žrtava trgovine ljudima.
2. Stranac za kojeg postoje osnovi sumnje da je žrtva trgovine ljudima, od dana smještaja u centar za smještaj žrtava trgovine ljudima, stiče status zaštićenog lica na period od 30 dana, što se smatra periodom oporavka i razmišljanja da odluči da li će sarađivati s nadležnim organima u BiH radi istrage u otkrivanju i procesuiranju krivičnog djela trgovine ljudima.

Penalties
Child Labour

Zakon o radu Federacije Bosne i Hercegovine (The Labour Code of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina) 2016
Član 171.1. Novčanom kaznom od 1.000,00 KM do 3.000,00 KM, a u ponovljenom prekršaju novčanom kaznom od 5.000,00 KM do 10.000,00 KM kaznit će se za prekršaj poslodavac – pravno lice, ako:

3. zaključi ugovor o radu, odnosno zaposli na bilo koju vrstu poslova maloljetnika suprotno članu 20. ovog zakona,
25. maloljetnom radniku naredi da radi noću suprotno članu 42. ovog zakona,
36. rasporedi maloljetnika da radi na poslovima suprotno članu 57. stav 1. ovog zakona,

Krivičnog Zakona Federacije Bosne i Hercegovine (Criminal Code of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina) 2003

“Contains provisions on crimes, penal liability, sanctions and various types of measures. Chapter X provides for rules for the sanction of minors and chapter XVI deals with crimes against life and body. Chapter XVII deals with crimes against freedom and human rights of citizens.”

Zakon o radu (Labour Code of the Republika Srpska) 2015
Član 264.1. Novačnom kaznom u iznosu od 2.000 KM do 12.000 KM kazniće se za prekršaj poslodavac:

22. ako naredi, dopusti ili omogući da radnik mlađi od 18 godina obavlja poslove na
kojima mu je zabranjen rad u smislu člana 103. ovog zakona;

Član 266.1. Novčanom kaznom u iznosu od 5.000 do 20.000 konvertibilnih maraka kazniće se za prekršaj poslodavac:

1. ako radniku mlađem od 18. godina odredi da radi noću, suprotno članu 72. ovog zakona;

Zakon o radu Brcko Distrikta BiH (Labour Code of the District of Brcko Bih) 2006

Član 111.1. Novčanom kaznom od 1.000,00 KM do 7.000,00 KM kaznit će se poslodavac- pravno lice za svaki prekršaj predviĎen ovim zakonom, ako:
Član 111.2. Ako je prekršaj iz stava 1 ovog člana učinjen prema maloljetnom zaposleniku najniži i najviši iznos novčane kazne uvećava se dvostruko.

Criminal Code of the District of Brcko BIH, 2003

Violations of Labour Relations Rights Article 274

Whoever, by violating regulations or general enactments or collective bargains on employment or termination of employment, or on salary or other payments, on working hours, on holiday or leave, on protection of women, youth and disabled persons, or on ban on overtime work or night shifts, denies or restricts a right of an employee, shall be fined or sentenced up to one year in prison.

Worst Forms of Child Labour

Krivični Zakonik Republike Srpske (Criminal Code of the Republika Srpska) 2017
Trgovina djecom Član 146.

1. Ko vrbuje, preveze, prebaci, preda, proda, kupi, posreduje u prodaji, sakriva, drži ili prihvati dijete radi iskorištavanja ili eksploatacije njegovog rada, vršenja krivičnog djela, prostitucije ili drugih oblika seksualnog iskorištavanja, pornografije, uspostavljanja ropskog ili nekog sličnog odnosa, prisilnog braka, prisilne sterilizacije, nezakonitog usvojenja ili njemu sličnog odnosa, radi oduzimanja organa ili dijelova tijela, radi korištenja u oružanim snagama ili drugih oblika iskorištavanja, kazniće se kaznom zatvora najmanje pet godina.
2. Ko djelo iz stava 1. ovog člana izvrši primjenom sile, ozbiljne prijetnje ili drugim oblicima prinude, dovođenjem u zabludu, otmicom, ucjenom, zloupotrebom svog položaja, odnosa povjerenja, zavisnosti ili bespomoćnosti, teških prilika drugog, davanjem novca ili druge koristi kako bi se dobio pristanak lica koje ima kontrolu nad drugim licem, kazniće se kaznom zatvora najmanje osam godina.
3. Ko koristi ili omogući drugom korištenje seksualnih usluga ili drugih vidova eksploatacije djeteta, a bio je svjestan da je riječ o žrtvi trgovine ljudima, kazniće se kaznom zatvora najmanje pet godina.
4. Ko oduzme, zadržava, falsifikuje ili uništi lične identifikacione isprave radi vršenja djela iz st. 1. i 2. ovog člana, kazniće se kaznom zatvora od tri do petnaest godina.
5. Ako je djelo iz st. 1, 2, 3. i 4. ovog člana izvršeno u sastavu organizovane kriminalne grupe, učinilac će se kazniti kaznom zatvora najmanje deset godina.
6. Ako djelo iz st. 1, 2, 3. i 4. ovog člana izvrši službeno lice u vršenju službe, kazniće se kaznom zatvora najmanje osam godina.
7. Ako je usljed djela iz st. 1. i 3. ovog člana nastupila teška tjelesna povreda, teško narušavanje zdravlja ili smrt jednog ili više lica, učinilac će se kazniti kaznom zatvora najmanje deset godina.
8. Pristanak maloljetnog lica na bilo koji oblik iskorištavanja iz stava 1. ovog člana ne utiče na postojanje ovog krivičnog djela.
9. Predmeti, prevozna sredstva i objekti korišteni za izvršenje djela iz ovog člana oduzeće se.
10. Protiv žrtve trgovine djecom koju je učinilac krivičnog djela prinudio da učestvuje u izvršenju drugog krivičnog djela, neće se voditi krivični postupak ako je takvo postupanje bilo neposredna posljedica njenog statusa žrtve trgovine ljudima.

Zapuštanje i zlostavljanje djeteta Član 187.

1. Roditelj, usvojilac, staralac ili drugo lice koje grubim zanemarivanjem svoje dužnosti zbrinjavanja i vaspitanja zapusti dijete o kojem je dužno da se stara, kazniće se novčanom kaznom ili kaznom zatvora do tri godine.
2. Roditelj, usvojilac, staralac ili drugo lice koje zlostavlja dijete ili ga prinuđava na pretjeran rad ili rad koji ne odgovara uzrastu maloljetnog lica ili na prosjačenje, ili ga iz koristoljublja navodi na vršenje drugih radnji koje su štetne za njegov razvoj, kazniće se kaznom zatvora od šest mjeseci do pet godina.
3. Ako je usljed djela iz st. 1. i 2. ovog člana nastupila teška tjelesna povreda ili teško narušenje zdravlja djeteta, ili se dijete odalo prostituciji, alkoholu ili drugim oblicima asocijalnog ponašanja, učinilac će se kazniti kaznom zatvora od jedne do osam godina.

Human Trafficking

Krivični Zakon Bosne i Hercegovine (Criminal Code of Bosnia and Herzegovina) 2003
Trafficking in Persons Article 186

1. Whoever, by means of use of force or threat of use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud or deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability, or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, recruits, transports, transfers, harbours or receipts a person, for the purpose of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, slavery or similar status, servitude or the removal of organs or of the other type of exploitation, shall be punished by imprisonment for a term between one and ten years.
2. Whoever recruits, transports, transfers, harbours or receipts a child or a juvenile for the purpose of the exploitation referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article,
shall be punished by imprisonment for a term not less than five years.
3. Whoever organises or directs at any level the group of people for the purpose of perpetration of the criminal offences referred to in paragraphs 1 and 2 of this Article, shall be punished by imprisonment for a term not less than ten years or long-term imprisonment.
4. The circumstance whether a person consented to the exploitation referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article is of no relevance for the existence of a criminal offence of trafficking in persons.

International Procuring in Prostitution Article 187

1. Whoever procures, entices or leads away another person to offer sexual services for profit within a state excluding the one in which such a person has residence or of which he is a citizen,
shall be punished by imprisonment for a term between six months and five years.
2. Whoever, by force or threat to use force or deceit, coerces or induces another person to go to the state in which he has no residence or of which he is not a citizen, for the purpose of offering sexual services upon payment,
shall be punished by imprisonment for a term between six months and five years.
3. If the criminal offence referred to in paragraphs 1 and 2 of this Article is perpetrated against a child or a juvenile, the perpetrator
shall be punished by imprisonment for a term between one and ten years.
4. The fact whether the person procured, enticed, led away, forced or deceived into prostitution has already been engaged in prostitution is of no relevance for the existence of a criminal offence.

Unlawful Withholding of Identity Papers Article 188

Whoever, with an aim of limiting the freedom of movement or exercising power over a person unlawfully withholds another person’s identification or travel paper, shall be punished by imprisonment for a term between six months and five years.

Zakon o Strancima (Act on Foreigners)
Član 39. (Razlozi za poništenje ili ukidanje vize)

1. Viza se strancu poništava ili ukida ako:

a. ima lažnu ili krivotvorenu putnu ispravu;
b. boravi suprotno svrsi planiranog ulaska i boravka;
c. nema sredstava za izdržavanje za vrijeme namjeravanog boravka ili za povratak u državu porijekla ili uobičajenog boravka ili za tranzit u treću državu ili nije u mogućnosti zakonito pribaviti ta sredstva;
d. boravi u BiH duže od 90 dana u bilo kojem periodu od 180 dana koji podrazumijeva uzimanje u obzir perioda od 180 dana koji prethodi svakom danu boravka;
e. ima na snazi mjeru zabrane ulaska u BiH;
f. predstavlja prijetnju javnom poretku, sigurnosti ili međunarodnim odnosima BiH;
g. ne poštuje javni poredak BiH ili preduzme aktivnost koja narušava sigurnost BiH ili je član organizacije koja planira ili preduzme takve aktivnosti ili organizira ili je u vezi s organiziranjem bespravnog ulaska, boravka ili izlaska pojedinca ili grupe u ili iz BiH, ili organizira ili na bilo koji način učestvuje u trgovini ljudima ili na bilo koji način učestvuje u kriminalnoj aktivnosti ili postoji međunarodna potjernica;

Član 96. (Razlozi za otkaz boravka)

1. Boravak stranca u BiH otkazuje se ako:

a. stranac ne poštuje javni poredak BiH iz člana 10. (Obaveza poštivanja javnog poretka Bih. ili preduzme aktivnost narušavanja sigurnosti BiH ili je član organizacije koja preduzme takvu aktivnost;
b. stranac ugrozi interese BiH tako što na bilo koji način učestvuje u krijumčarenju naoružanja ili vojne opreme, radioaktivne ili druge opasne materije ili opojne droge, ili u nedozvoljenom prijevozu ili trgovini materijalom za proizvodnju naoružanja ili drugog sredstva za masovno uništenje, ili u proizvodnji ili posjedovanju opojne droge radi prodaje, ili je član organizacije koja na bilo koji način učestvuje u takvoj aktivnosti;
c. organizira ili je u vezi s organiziranjem nezakonitog ulaska, boravka ili izlaska pojedinca ili grupe u ili iz BiH, ili ako organizira ili na bilo koji način učestvuje u trgovini ljudima;

Krivični Zakonik Republike Srpske (Criminal Code of the Republika Srpska) 2017

Trgovina ljudima Član 145.

1. Ko silom, prijetnjom ili drugim oblicima prinude, otmicom, prevarom ili obmanom, zloupotrebom ovlaštenja ili uticaja, odnosa povjerenja, zavisnosti ili bespomoćnosti, teških prilika drugog lica, davanjem ili primanjem novca ili druge koristi kako bi se dobio pristanak lica koje ima kontrolu nad drugim licem, vrbuje, preveze, prebaci, preda, proda, kupi, posreduje u prodaji, sakrije, primi ili drži drugo lice, a u cilju iskorištavanja ili eksploatacije njegovog rada, vršenja krivičnog djela, prostitucije, korištenja u pornografske svrhe, uspostavljanja ropskog ili nekog sličnog odnosa, prisilnog braka, prisilne sterilizacije, radi oduzimanja organa ili dijelova tijela, radi korištenja u oružanim snagama ili drugih oblika iskorištavanja, kazniće se kaznom zatvora najmanje tri godine.
2. Ko oduzme, zadržava, falsifikuje ili uništi lične identifikacione isprave radi vršenja djela iz stava 1. ovog člana, kazniće se kaznom zatvora od dvije do dvanaest godina.
3. Ako je djelo iz st. 1. i 2. ovog člana izvršeno u sastavu organizovane kriminalne grupe, učinilac će se kazniti kaznom zatvora najmanje pet godina.
4. Ko koristi ili omogući drugom korištenje seksualnih usluga ili drugih vidova eksploatacije, a bio je svjestan da je riječ o žrtvi trgovine ljudima, kazniće se kaznom zatvora od šest mjeseci do pet godina.
5. Ako djelo iz st. 1, 2, 3. i 4. ovog člana izvrši službeno lice u vršenju službe, kazniće se kaznom zatvora najmanje osam godina.
6. Ako je usljed djela iz st. 1. i 3. ovog člana nastupila teška tjelesna povreda, teško narušavanje zdravlja ili smrt jednog ili više lica, učinilac će se kazniti kaznom zatvora najmanje deset godina.
7. Pristanak žrtve na bilo koji oblik iskorištavanja iz stava 1. ovog člana ne utiče na postojanje krivičnog djela trgovine ljudima.
8. Predmeti, prevozna sredstva i objekti korišteni za izvršenje djela iz ovog člana oduzeće se.
9. Protiv žrtve trgovine ljudima koju je učinilac krivičnog djela prinudio da učestvuje u izvršenju drugog krivičnog djela, neće se voditi krivični postupak ako je takvo postupanje bilo neposredna posljedica njenog statusa žrtve trgovine ljudima.

Udruživanje radi vršenja krivičnih djela trgovine ljudima i djecom Član 147.

1. Ko organizuje grupu ili organizovanu kriminalnu grupu za izvršenje krivičnih djela iz čl. 144. i 145. ovog zakonika, kazniće se kaznom zatvora od tri do petnaest godina.
2. Ko postane pripadnik kriminalne grupe ili organizovane kriminalne grupe iz stava 1. ovog člana ili na drugi način pomaže grupu ili organizovanu kriminalnu grupu, kazniće se kaznom zatvora od jedne do deset godina.

Penalties, Slavery

Krivični Zakon Bosne i Hercegovine (Criminal Code of Bosnia and Herzegovina) 2003
Establishment of Slavery and Transport of Slaves Article 185

1. Whoever, in violation of the rules of international law, places another in slavery or in a similar status or keeps him in such a status, buys, sells, hands over to another person or mediates the purchase, sale or handing over of such a person or induces someone else to sell his freedom or the freedom of the person he provides for or takes care of, shall be punished by imprisonment for a term between one and ten years.
2. Whoever, in violation of the rules of international law, buys, sells, hands over to another person or mediates in the purchase, sale or handing over a child or a juvenile for the purpose of adoption, transplantation of organs, exploitation by labour or for other illicit purposes, shall be punished by imprisonment for a term not less than five years.
3. Whoever, in violation of the rules of international law, transports persons who are in a position of slavery or in similar status, shall be punished by imprisonment for a term between six months and five years.

Programs and Agencies for Enforcement (Source: U.S. Department of Labor)

Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk for exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.

Social Protections: General (at Least One)
Social Protections (Source: ILO)

The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.

If a country does not appear on a chart, this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.

Social Protections: Unemployed
Social Protections: Pension
Social Protections: Vulnerable Groups
Social Protections: Poor
Social Protections: Children
Social Protections: Disabled

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