Data Dashboards

Botswana
Measurement
Measuring the Change

using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards.

Due to lack of nationally representative data, there is no change to report.

%
Best Target 8.7 Data: Child Labour Rate

No data available

Data Availability
  • Child labour: No ILO/UNICEF data
  • Forced labour: No nationally representative data
  • Human trafficking: No nationally representative data
Context
Human Development

Human Development Index Score: 0.728 (2018)

Mean School Years: 9.3 years (2018)

Labour Indicators

Vulnerable Employment: 25.3% (2018)

Working Poverty Rate: 9.2% (2020)

Government Efforts
Key Ratifications
  • ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Not Ratified
  • ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2000
  • UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Ratified 2003
Social Protection Coverage

General (at least one): 15.4% (2016)

Unemployed: 31.5% (2016)

Pension: 100% (2016)

Vulnerable: 8.4% (2016)

Children: 5.5% (2016)

Disabled: No data

Poor: No data

Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.

No nationally representative data is available on child labour prevalence in Botswana.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on ILO-SIMPOC methods and guidelines for defining, measuring and collecting data on child labour.

Measuring the incidence of forced labour is a much more recent endeavour and presents unique methodological challenges compared to the measurement of child labour.

No nationally representative data is available on forced labour prevalence in Botswana.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on new guidelines presented by the International Labour Organization and adopted by the International Conference of Labour Statisticians.

The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.

No nationally representative data is available on human trafficking prevalence in Botswana.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page to learn about measuring human trafficking prevalence, including information on collecting data through national referral mechanisms and producing prevalence statistics using Multiple Systems Estimation (MSE).

Case Data: International and Non-Governmental Organizations

Civil society organizations (CSOs) focused on human trafficking victim assistance can serve as crucial sources of data given their ability to reach a population that is notoriously difficult to sample.

Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (CTDC): The International Organization for Migration (IOM), Polaris and Liberty Asia have launched a global data repository on human trafficking, with data contributed by counter-trafficking partner organizations around the world. Not only does the CTDC serve as a central repository for this critical information, it also publishes normed and harmonized data from various organizations using a unified schema. This global dataset facilitates an unparalleled level of cross-border, trans-agency analysis and provides the counter-trafficking movement with a deeper understanding of this complex issue. Equipped with this information, decision makers will be empowered to create more targeted and effective intervention strategies.

Prosecution Data

UNODC compiles a global dataset on detected and prosecuted traffickers, which serves as the basis in their Global Report for country profiles. This information is beginning to paint a picture of trends over time, and case-specific information can assist investigators and prosecutors.

Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.

Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.

The chart displays information on human development in Botswana between 1990 and 2018. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex. 

The most recent year of the HDI, 2018, shows that the average human development score in Botswana is 0.728. This score indicates that human development is high.

 

HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)

Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.

As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:

“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”

The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in Botswana over time.

 

Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in the availability of equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction towards achieving Target 8.7.

HDI Vulnerable Employment (Source: UNDP)

There are reasons to believe that certain types of labour and labour arrangements are more likely to lead to labour exploitation. According to the ILO:

“Own-account workers and contributing family workers have a lower likelihood of having formal work arrangements, and are therefore more likely to lack elements associated with decent employment, such as adequate social security and a voice at work. The two statuses are summed to create a classification of ‘vulnerable employment’, while wage and salaried workers together with employers constitute ‘non-vulnerable employment’.”

Between 1991 and 2018, Botswana showed a decrease in the proportion of workers in vulnerable employment as compared to those in secure employment.

Working Poverty Rate (Source: ILO)

Labour income tells us about a household’s vulnerability. As the ILO explains in Profits and Poverty

“Poor households find it particularly difficult to deal with income shocks, especially when they push households below the food poverty line. In the presence of such shocks, men and women without social protection nets tend to borrow to smooth consumption, and to accept any job for themselves or their children, even under exploitative conditions.”

ILO indicators that measure poverty with respect to the labour force include working poverty rate, disaggregated by sex, with temporal coverage spanning from 2000 to 2020. The chart displays linear trends in working poverty rate over time for all individuals over 15 years of age.

 

Labour Productivity (Source: ILO)

Labour productivity is an important economic indicator that is closely linked to economic growth, competitiveness, and living standards within an economy.” However, when increased labour output does not produce rising wages, this can point to increasing inequality. As indicated by a recent ILO report (2015), there is a “growing disconnect between wages and productivity growth, in both developed and emerging economies”. The lack of decent work available increases vulnerability to situations of labour exploitation. 

Labour productivity represents the total volume of output (measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product, GDP) produced per unit of labour (measured in terms of the number of employed persons) during a given period.

 

Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.

 

Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Source: UNHCR)

Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants.

According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children. “

As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements, as recognized by Member States in the New York declaration for refugees and migrants of September 2016.”

The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in Botswana.

Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.

Official Definitions
Forced Labour

Constitution of Botswana, 1966

“6. Protection from slavery and forced labour
(2) No person shall be required to perform forced labour.
(3) For the purposes of this section, the expression “”forced labour”” does not include

a. any labour required in consequence of the sentence or order of a court;
b. labour required of any person while he or she is lawfully detained that, though not required in consequence of the sentence or order of a court, is reasonably necessary in the interests of hygiene or for the maintenance of the place at which he or she is detained;
c. any labour required of a member of a disciplined force in pursuance of his or her duties as such or, in the case of a person who has conscientious objections to service as a member of a naval, military or air force, any labour that that person is required by law to perform in place of such service;
d. any labour required during any period of public emergency or in the event of any other emergency or calamity that threatens the life and well-being of the community, to the extent that the requiring of such labour is reasonably justifiable in the circumstances of any situation arising or existing during that period or as a result of that other emergency or calamity, for the purpose of dealing with that situation; or
e. any labour reasonably required as part of reasonable and normal communal or other civic obligations.”

Employment Act, 1982

“2. Interpretation
1. In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires-
“”forced labour”” means all work or service which is exacted from any person under the threat of a penalty and for which the person has not offered himself voluntarily, other than labour-

(a) required in consequence of a sentence or order of a court;
(b) required of any person while the person is lawfully detained and that, though not required
in consequence of the sentence or order of a court, is reasonably necessary in the interest of hygiene at the place at which that person is detained;
(c) required of a member of a disciplined force in pursuance of the member’s duties as such or, in the case of a person who has conscientious objections to service as a member of a naval, military or air force, required by law of such person in place of such service;
(d) required during any period of public emergency or in the event of any other emergency or calamity which threatens the life and well-being of the community, to the extent that the requiring of such labour is reasonably justifiable in the circumstances of any situation arising or existing during that period or as a result of that other emergency or calamity, for the purpose of dealing with that situation; or
(e) reasonably required as part of reasonable and normal communal or other civic obligations;

PART:VI FORCED LABOUR SS 6972
72. Saving
Nothing in this Part shall authorize the exaction from any person of any work or service for which such person does not offer himself voluntarily where apart from this Part the exaction of such work or service would be illegal.”

Child Labour

Employment Act, 1982

2. Interpretation
1. In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires-
“child” means a person under the age of 15 years;
“young person” means a person who has attained the age of 15 years but is under the age of 18 years.

47. Contracting age
(1) A child or young person shall not be capable of entering into a contract of employment to which this Part applies:
Provided that a young person may enter into such a contract of employment in any occupation approved by the Minister, by order published in the Gazette, as not being injurious to the moral and physical development of non-adults.
(2) This section shall apply notwithstanding anything contained in Parts XI and XII relating to the employment of children and young persons and females.

61. Prohibition of recruitment of children, etc.
(1) No person shall recruit any child or young person.
(2) Any person who contravenes subsection (1) shall be guilty of an offence and liable to the penalties prescribed by section 151(d).

“PART:XI EMPLOYMENT OF CHILDREN AND YOUNG PERSONS SS 103111
103. Application of Part XI
This Part shall be in addition to and not in derogation from the other provisions of this Act which shall apply unless varied by this
Part. 104. Power of Minister to exempt occupations
ff, having regard to the nature of the work involved in any occupation which forms part of an industrial or agricultural undertaking, the Minister considers that such occupation should be excluded from all or any of the provisions of this Part relating to such undertakings, he may, by order published in the Gazette, provide that employment in such occupation shall be deemed, for the purposes of this Part, not to be employment in such occupation to the extent specified in the order.
105. Employment of children prohibited

(1) Subject to the other provisions of this section, no child shall be employed in any capacity whatsoever.
(2) A child who has attained the age of 14 years and is not attending school may be employed on light work not harmful to his health and development-

(a) by a member of the family of such child; or
(b) if such work is of a character approved by the Commissioner,
but so that, where the employment is other than of a domestic character in connection with which suitable accommodation is provided ,the child shall be readily able to return each night to the house of his parent or guardian or such other persons as may be approved by his parent or guardian:
Provided that no child shall be required or permitted to work more than six hours a day or 30 hours a week.

(3) A child who has attained the age of 14 years and is still attending school may, whilst on vacation from school, be employed on light work not harmful to his health and development of a character approved by the Commissioner for not more than five hours a day between 6am and 4pm
(4) No child shall be required or permitted, in the course of his employment, to lift, carry or move anything so heavy as to be likely to endanger his physical development.
(5) Any person who contravenes this section shall be guilty of an offence and liable to the penalties prescribed by section 151(c).”

Child Act, 2009

“24. Right to protection against harmful labour practices
2. Any employment of a child as permitted by the Employment act shall be for purposes of apprenticeship
3. Any contract for apprenticeship shall be with the written consent of the child’s parent, other relative or guardian.
(4) The duties of an employer towards an apprentice shall be to—

(a) train and instruct the child in a trade, in accordance with such standards and conditions may be prescribed, in order to impart such knowledge and skills as the child may use to his or her future benefit; and
(b) provide a safe and healthy environment for the child, and to take responsibility for any harm that may come to the child in the course of the apprenticeship.”

Worst Forms of Child Labour

Child Act, 2009

“24. Right to protection against harmful labour practices
1. Every child has a right to be protected against work and other labour practices which—

a. are inappropriate for a person of that child’s age; or
b. place at risk the child’s education, physical or mental health, or spiritual, moral or social development or well-being.

2. Any employment of a child as permitted by the Employment act shall be for purposes of apprenticeship
3. Any contract for apprenticeship shall be with the written consent of the child’s parent, other relative or guardian.”

Employment Act, 1982

“106. Prohibition of employment underground
(1) No child or young person shall be employed on underground work.
(2) Any person who contravenes subsection (1) shall be guilty of an offence and liable to the penalties prescribed by section 151(c).
107. Prohibition of night work
(1) No child or young person shall be employed on any kind of work during the night:
Provided that a young person may be employed on work during the night-

(i) in the case of an emergency which could not reasonably have been foreseen and
prevented, which is not of a periodical character and which interferes with normal working; or
(ii) if the young person is so employed under a contract of apprenticeship or indenture to learn.

(2) For the purposes of this section, “”the night”” means a period of not less than 12 consecutive hours including-

(a) in the case of a child, the period between 10 p.m. and 6 a.m. the following morning; or
(b) in the case of a young person, the period between 11 p.m. and 6 a.m. the following
morning.

(3) Any person who contravenes this section shall be guilty of an offence and liable to the penalties prescribed by section 151(b).”

“108. Restriction on employment of children and young persons
(1) No young person or child shall be employed on any work which is harmful to his health, development, safety or morals.
(2) The Commissioner may notify any employer in writing or, by notice published in the Gazette, all employers or every employer belonging to any class or description of employers specified in the notice that the kind of work on which a young person is employed by him or them is harmful to his health and development, dangerous, immoral or otherwise unsuitable, and every employer who is so notified shall immediately cease so to employ the young person concerned.
(3) Where a contract of employment is terminated in consequence of a notification by the Commissioner under subsection (2), the termination shall not affect the right of the young person concerned to be paid such wages as he may have earned, up to the time of the termination, under the contract of employment.
(4) No employer shall continue to employ any child or young person after receiving notice, whether oral or in writing, from his parent or guardian that he is employed against the wishes of his parent or guardian:
Provided that this subsection shall not apply where a young person is employed under a written contract of employment entered into by the young person with the approval of the Commissioner.
(5) Any person who contravenes this section shall be guilty of an offence and liable to the penalties prescribed by section 151(b):
Provided that where an employer contravenes subsection (2) he shall be liable to the penalties prescribed by section 151(c).”

“109. Hours of work of children and young persons in industrial undertakings
(1) No child or young person shall, without the express permission of the Commissioner in writing, be required or permitted to work in an industrial undertaking-
(a) for more than three consecutive hours in the case of a child; or
(b) for more than four consecutive hours in the case of a young person,
without a period of rest which shall not be less than 30 minutes.
(2) Without prejudice to the limitations imposed by section 105 on the number of hours a
child may be required or permitted to work, no young person shall, without the express permission of the Commissioner in writing, be required or permitted to work in an industrial undertaking for more than seven hours a day.
(3) Where a young person employed on work in an industrial undertaking is attending school, the hours of his attendance at school shall be deemed, for the purposes of subsection (2), to be hours of work in the industrial undertaking:
Provided that this subsection shall not apply where the young person is employed on work in an industrial undertaking carried out in any Government technical school or other technical school supervised by a public authority or under any apprenticeship or vocational training scheme approved by the Commissioner.
(4) Any person who contravenes this section shall be guilty of an offence and liable to the penalties prescribed by section 151(b).”

“110. Prohibition of employment of children and young persons on rest days and paid public holidays
(1) No child or young person shall, without the express permission of the Commissioner in writing, be required or permitted to work on a rest day or paid public holiday by virtue of section 99.
(2) Where a child or young person works on a rest day or paid public holiday or for part thereof, the employer shall grant him a day or part of a day off, as the case may be, in substitution for such rest day or paid public holiday or part thereof before the rest day next following is due unless the time interval involved renders this impracticable.
(3) Any person who contravenes this section shall be guilty of an offence and liable to the penalties prescribed by section 151(b).”

Human Trafficking

Anti-Human Trafficking Act, 2014

“2.1. In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires—
“”exploitation”” includes but is not limited to—

a. keeping a person in a state of slavery;
b. subjecting a person to practices similar to slavery;
c. involuntary servitude;
d. forcible or fraudulent use of any human being for removal of organs or body parts;
e. forcible or fraudulent use of any human being to take part in armed conflict;
f. forced labour;
g. child labour;
h. sexual exploitation;
i. child marriage; or
j. forced marriage. “

“Trafficking in Person
9.1. Any person who recruits, transports, transfers, harbours or receives another person by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability, or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person for the purpose of exploitation of that person commits an offence of trafficking in persons”

Slavery

Constitution of Botswana, 1966

“6. Protection from slavery and forced labour
1. No person shall be held in slavery or servitude.”

Anti-Human Trafficking Act, 2014

“2.1. In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires—
“”slavery”” is the status or condition of a person over whom any or all of the powers attaching to the right of ownership are exercised;”

 

International Commitments
International Ratifications

ILO Forced Labour Convention, C029, Ratified 1997

ILO Abolition of Forced Labour Convention, C105, Ratified 1997

ILO Minimum Age Convention, C138, Ratified 1997 (minimum age specified: 14 years)

ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182, Ratified 2000

Slavery Convention 1926 and amended by the Protocol of 1953, Not signed

UN Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, Not signed

UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol), Ratified 2002

UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, Accession 1995

UN Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Ratified 2004

UN Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, Accession 2003

National Action Plans, National Strategies

National Action Plan on the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor

“Outlines the government’s plan to address child labor through legislation and policy, and includes awareness-raising programs and training on child labor for relevant stakeholders and implementers. Research was unable to determine whether activities were undertaken to implement the National Action Plan on the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor during the reporting period.”

Ministry of Labor and Home Affairs Sustainability Plan

“Aims to incorporate addressing child labor issues into the regular duties of labor inspectors. Calls on local leaders and volunteers to identify and refer cases of child labor to social workers and school teachers to monitor attendance and promote retention. Research was unable to determine whether activities were undertaken to implement the Ministry of Labor and Home Affairs Sustainability Plan during the reporting period.”

 

Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the  perpetration of forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour. These actions should be considered in wider societal efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.

Programs and Agencies for Victim Support (Source: U.S. Department of Labor)

Policies for Assistance
Policies for assistance, child labour

Children’s Act, 2009

“41. (1) Every magistrate shall be a commissioner of child welfare (referred to in this Act as a “commissioner”).
(2) Where, in any area, there is no magistrate, the district commissioner or the district officer of the administrative district shall be a commissioner.
(3) A district commissioner or district officer acting in the capacity of a commissioner may receive, from any person, a report regarding the neglect, ill-treatment or exploitation of any child, including a child in foster care.
(4) Where the commissioner acting under subsection (3) receives a report, he or she shall cause a social worker to investigate the allegation which is the subject matter of the report.
(5) The social worker shall, upon completing his or her investigations, submit a written report to the commissioner, containing his or her recommendations regarding what action should be taken in respect of the child.
(6) The commissioner shall take such action as he or she considers appropriate in the circumstances.
54. The Minister shall cause to be put in place programmes and rehabilitative measures, including community-based counselling and other forms of psychosocial support, to reintegrate abused or exploited children.
65. A child is in alternative care if the child has been placed in foster care or in a child welfare institution in accordance with a protection order.
66. (1) A child in need of protection who has been placed in alternative care or a place of safety under this Act is a protected child.
(2) Where a person in whose care and custody a protected child changes residence, that person shall immediately, by notice in writing, inform the social worker in the district in which the child resides, indicating the physical address to which he or she has moved with the child.
84. The presiding officer of a children’s court shall ensure that a child testifying or being cross examined in any case before the court shall not do so in the presence of the perpetrator of the offence”

Policies for Assistance, Human Trafficking

Anti-Human Trafficking Act, 2014

“13. Reporting and referral of child victim of trafficking in persons
14. Reporting and referral of adult victim of trafficking in persons
15. Support and protection of victims of trafficking in persons
16. Establishment of Centres of Victims
20. Victim’s right to privacy
22. Restitution
23. Victim’s immunity from prosecution
24. Trafficked person exempt from paying in civil suits
25.Confiscation and forfeiture of proceeds of crime
26. Repatriation of trafficked persons
27. Establishment of Victims of Trafficking Fund”

 

Penalties
Penalties, Forced Labour

Employment Act, 1982

“PART:VI FORCED LABOUR SS 6972
69. Application of Part VI
This Part shall have effect to the exclusion of the other provisions of this Act.
70. Prohibition of exaction of forced labour
Any person who exacts or imposes forced labour or causes or permits forced labour to be
exacted or imposed for his benefit or for the benefit of any other person shall be guilty of an offence and liable to the penalties prescribed by section 151(d).
71. Penalty for official constraint
Any public officer who puts any constraint upon the population under his charge or upon any individual member of that population to work for any private individual, company or association shall be guilty of an offence and liable to the penalties prescribed by section 151(d).”

Penal Code, 1986

“262. Unlawful Compulsory labour
Any person who unlawfully compels any person to labour against the will of that person is guilty of an offence.”

Penalties, Child Labour

Employment Act, 1982

“PART:XI EMPLOYMENT OF CHILDREN AND YOUNG PERSONS SS 103111
105. Employment of children prohibited
(1) Subject to the other provisions of this section, no child shall be employed in any capacity whatsoever.
(2) A child who has attained the age of 14 years and is not attending school may be employed on light work not harmful to his health and development-

(a) by a member of the family of such child; or
(b) if such work is of a character approved by the Commissioner, but so that, where the employment is other than of a domestic character in connection with which suitable accommodation is provided, the child shall be readily able to return each night to the house of his parent or guardian or such other persons as may be approved by his parent or guardian:
Provided that no child shall be required or permitted to work more than six hours a day or 30 hours a week.

(3) A child who has attained the age of 14 years and is still attending school may, whilst on vacation from school, be employed on light work not harmful to his health and development of a character approved by the Commissioner for not more than five hours a day between 6am and 4pm
(4) No child shall be required or permitted, in the course of his employment, to lift, carry or move anything so heavy as to be likely to endanger his physical development.
(5) Any person who contravenes this section shall be guilty of an offence and liable to the penalties prescribed by section 151(c).”

“106. Prohibition of employment underground
(1) No child or young person shall be employed on underground work.
(2) Any person who contravenes subsection (1) shall be guilty of an offence and liable to the penalties prescribed by section 151(c).
107. Prohibition of night work
(1) No child or young person shall be employed on any kind of work during the night:
Provided that a young person may be employed on work during the night-

(i) in the case of an emergency which could not reasonably have been foreseen and
prevented, which is not of a periodical character and which interferes with normal working; or
(ii) if the young person is so employed under a contract of apprenticeship or indenture to learn.

(2) For the purposes of this section, “”the night”” means a period of not less than 12 consecutive hours including-

(a) in the case of a child, the period between 10 p.m. and 6 a.m. the following morning; or
(b) in the case of a young person, the period between 11 p.m. and 6 a.m. the following
morning.

(3) Any person who contravenes this section shall be guilty of an offence and liable to the penalties prescribed by section 151(b).”

“108. Restriction on employment of children and young persons
(1) No young person or child shall be employed on any work which is harmful to his health, development, safety or morals.
(2) The Commissioner may notify any employer in writing or, by notice published in the Gazette, all employers or every employer belonging to any class or description of employers specified in the notice that the kind of work on which a young person is employed by him or them is harmful to his health and development, dangerous, immoral or otherwise unsuitable, and every employer who is so notified shall immediately cease so to employ the young person concerned.
(3) Where a contract of employment is terminated in consequence of a notification by the Commissioner under subsection (2), the termination shall not affect the right of the young person concerned to be paid such wages as he may have earned, up to the time of the termination, under the contract of employment.
(4) No employer shall continue to employ any child or young person after receiving notice, whether oral or in writing, from his parent or guardian that he is employed against the wishes of his parent or guardian:
Provided that this subsection shall not apply where a young person is employed under a written contract of employment entered into by the young person with the approval of the Commissioner.
(5) Any person who contravenes this section shall be guilty of an offence and liable to the penalties prescribed by section 151(b):
Provided that where an employer contravenes subsection (2) he shall be liable to the penalties prescribed by section 151(c).”

“109. Hours of work of children and young persons in industrial undertakings
(1) No child or young person shall, without the express permission of the Commissioner in writing, be required or permitted to work in an industrial undertaking-

(a) for more than three consecutive hours in the case of a child; or
(b) for more than four consecutive hours in the case of a young person,
without a period of rest which shall not be less than 30 minutes.

(2) Without prejudice to the limitations imposed by section 105 on the number of hours a
child may be required or permitted to work, no young person shall, without the express permission of the Commissioner in writing, be required or permitted to work in an industrial undertaking for more than seven hours a day.
(3) Where a young person employed on work in an industrial undertaking is attending school, the hours of his attendance at school shall be deemed, for the purposes of subsection (2), to be hours of work in the industrial undertaking:
Provided that this subsection shall not apply where the young person is employed on work in an industrial undertaking carried out in any Government technical school or other technical school supervised by a public authority or under any apprenticeship or vocational training scheme approved by the Commissioner.
(4) Any person who contravenes this section shall be guilty of an offence and liable to the penalties prescribed by section 151(b).”

“110. Prohibition of employment of children and young persons on rest days and paid public holidays
(1) No child or young person shall, without the express permission of the Commissioner in writing, be required or permitted to work on a rest day or paid public holiday by virtue of section 99.
(2) Where a child or young person works on a rest day or paid public holiday or for part thereof, the employer shall grant him a day or part of a day off, as the case may be, in substitution for such rest day or paid public holiday or part thereof before the rest day next following is due unless the time interval involved renders this impracticable.
(3) Any person who contravenes this section shall be guilty of an offence and liable to the penalties prescribed by section 151(b).”

Children’s Act, 2009

“24. Right to protection against harmful labour practices
(5) Every person who lawfully employs a child shall submit the records of such employment to the Ministry responsible for labour and if he or she fails to do so, shall be guilty of an offence and shall be sentenced to a fine of P10 000.
(6) Any person who unlawfully employs a child shall be guilty of an offence and shall be sentenced to a fine of not less than P10,000 but not more than P30,000, or to imprisonment for a term of not less than 12 months, but not more than five years, or both.”

“25. (1) Every child has a right to be protected from sexual abuse and exploitation, including prostitution and pornography.
(2) Any parent, guardian, teacher or other person who, without reasonable excuse, fails to report a case of child abuse or exploitation of which he or she is aware shall be guilty of an offence and liable to a fine of not less than P10,000 but not more than P30,000, or to imprisonment for a term of not less than two years but not more than three years, or both.
(3) Any person, including a parent, who connives with another person who sexually abuses or exploits a child shall be guilty of an offence and liable to a fine of not less than P30,000 but not more than P50,000, or to imprisonment for a term of not less than five years but not more than fifteen years, or both.
(4) The Minister shall devise or cause to be devised programmes to prevent the sexual exploitation of children.”

“PART XVI – Child Abduction and Trafficking in Children
114. Any person, including a parent, other relative or guardian of a child,
who abducts or sells any child, traffics in children or uses any child to beg, shall be guilty of an offence and shall be sentenced to a fine of not less than P30,000 but not more than P50,000, or to imprisonment for a term of not less than five years but not more than 15 years.”

Penal Code, 1986

“214. Duty of employer of child
It is the duty of every person employing a child under the age of 16 years, who has contracted or is required under any written law to provide any of the necessaries of life for such child, to provide the same; and such a person is held to have caused any consequences which result to the life or health of the child by reason of any omission to perform that duty, whether the child is helpless or not.”

Penalties, human trafficking

Anti-Human Trafficking Act, 2014

“2.1. In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires—
“”exploitation”” includes but is not limited to—

a. keeping a person in a state of slavery;
b. subjecting a person to practices similar to slavery;
c. involuntary servitude;
d. forcible or fraudulent use of any human being for removal of organs or body parts;
e. forcible or fraduulent use of any human being to take part in armed conflict;
f. forced labour;
g. child labour;
h. sexual exploitation;
i. child marriage; or
j. forced marriage. “

“Trafficking in Person
9.1. Any person who recruits, transports, transfers, harbours or receives another person by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability, or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person for the purpose of exploitation of that person commits an offence of trafficking in persons and is liable to a fine not exceeding P500,000 or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 25 years, or to both.
10. Acts that promote child trafficking
11. Promotion of trafficking in persons
12. Use of trafficked persons”

Penalties, General

Penal Code, 1986

“256. Kidnapping or abducting in order to subject person to grievous harm, slavery, etc.
Any person who kidnaps or abducts any person in order that such person may be subjected, or may be so disposed of as to be put in danger of being subjected, to grievous harm, or slavery, or to the unnatural lust of any person, or knowing it to be likely that such person will be so subjected or disposed of, is guilty of an offence and is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 10 years.”

“260. Detaining person as a slave
Any person who detains any person as a slave against his will is guilty of an offence and is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding five years.”

“261. Dealing in slaves
Any person who buys, sells, or disposes of any person as a slave, or who traffics or deals in slaves, is guilty of an offence and is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding seven years.”

Data Commitments

A Call to Action to End Forced Labour, Modern Slavery and Human Trafficking, Not signed

1.ii. Take steps to measure, monitor and share data on prevalence and response to all such forms of exploitation, as appropriate to national circumstances;

Programs and Agencies for Enforcement (Source: U.S. Department of Labor)

Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk of exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.

 

Social Protection Coverage: General (at Least One)
Social Protection (Source: ILO)

The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.

If a country does not appear on a chart, this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.

Social Protection Coverage: Pension
Social Protection Coverage: Vulnerable Groups
Social Protection Coverage: Children
Social Protection Coverage: Disabled

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