Measuring the Change
Due to lack of nationally representative data, there is no change to report.
Best Target 8.7 Data: Child Labour Data
No Data Available
- Child labour: No nationally representative data
- Forced labour: No nationally representative data
- Human trafficking: No nationally representative data
Human Development Index Score: 0.794 (2015)
Mean School Years: 10.8 years (2015)
Vulnerable Employment: 8.7% (2014)
Working Poverty Rate: No data
- ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Not ratified
- ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2000
- UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Ratified 2001
Social Protection Coverage
General (at least one): 88.3% (2016)
Unemployed: 29.6 (2016)
Pension: 84.5% (2016)
Vulnerable: 28.8% (2016)
Children: 48.6% (2016)
Disabled: 100% (2016)
Poor: 52.1% (2016)
Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.
Measuring the incidence of forced labour is a much more recent endeavour and presents unique methodological challenges compared to the measurement of child labour.
No nationally representative data is available on forced labour prevalence in Bulgaria.
Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on new guidelines presented by the International Labour Organization and adopted by the International Conference of Labour Statisticians.
The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.
No nationally representative data is available on human trafficking prevalence in Bulgaria.
Visit the How to Measure the Change page to learn about measuring human trafficking prevalence, including information on collecting data through national referral mechanisms and producing prevalence statistics using Multiple Systems Estimation (MSE).
Case Data: International and Non-Governmental Organizations
Civil society organizations (CSOs) focused on human trafficking victim assistance can serve as crucial sources of data given their ability to reach a population that is notoriously difficult to sample.
Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (CTDC): The International Organization for Migration (IOM), Polaris and Liberty Asia have launched a global data repository on human trafficking, with data contributed by counter-trafficking partner organizations around the world. Not only does the CTDC serve as a central repository for this critical information, it also publishes normed and harmonized data from various organizations using a unified schema. This global dataset facilitates an unparalleled level of cross-border, trans-agency analysis and provides the counter-trafficking movement with a deeper understanding of this complex issue. Equipped with this information, decision makers will be empowered to create more targeted and effective intervention strategies.
UNODC compiles a global dataset on detected and prosecuted traffickers, which serves as the basis in their Global Report for country profiles. This information is beginning to paint a picture of trends over time, and case-specific information can assist investigators and prosecutors.
Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.
Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.
The chart displays information on human development in Bulgaria between 1990 and 2015. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex.
The most recent year of the HDI, 2015, shows that the average human development score in Bulgaria is 0.794. This score indicates that human development is medium.
HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)
Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.
As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:
“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”
The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in Bulgaria over time.
Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in the availability of equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction towards achieving Target 8.7.
HDI Vulnerable Employment (Source: UNDP)
There are reasons to believe that certain types of labour and labour arrangements are more likely to lead to labour exploitation. According to the ILO:
“Own-account workers and contributing family workers have a lower likelihood of having formal work arrangements, and are therefore more likely to lack elements associated with decent employment, such as adequate social security and a voice at work. The two statuses are summed to create a classification of ‘vulnerable employment’, while wage and salaried workers together with employers constitute ‘non-vulnerable employment’.”
Between 2000 and 2014, Bulgaria showed a decrease in the proportion of workers in vulnerable employment as compared to those in secure employment.
Labour Productivity (Source: ILO)
“Labour productivity is an important economic indicator that is closely linked to economic growth, competitiveness, and living standards within an economy.” However, when increased labour output does not produce rising wages, this can point to increasing inequality. As indicated by a recent ILO report (2015), there is a “growing disconnect between wages and productivity growth, in both developed and emerging economies”. The lack of decent work available increases the vulnerability of individuals to situations of labour exploitation.
Labour productivity represents the total volume of output (measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product, GDP) produced per unit of labour (measured in terms of the number of employed persons) during a given period.
Rates of Non-fatal Occupational Injuries (Source: ILO)
Occupational injury and fatality data can also be crucial in prevention and response efforts.
“The recommended data sources for occupational injuries statistics are national systems for the notification of occupational injuries (such as, labour inspection records and annual reports; insurance and compensation records, death registers), supplemented by household surveys (especially in order to cover informal sector enterprises and the self-employed) and/or establishment surveys.”
Rates of Fatal Occupational Injuries (Source: ILO)
Data on occupational health and safety may reveal conditions of exploitation, even if exploitation may lead to under-reporting of workplace injuries and safety breaches. At present, the ILO collects data on occupational injuries, both fatal and non-fatal, disaggregating by sex and migrant status.
Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.
Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Source: UNHCR)
Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants.
According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children. “
As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements, as recognized by Member States in the New York declaration for refugees and migrants of September 2016.”
The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in Bulgaria.
Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.
1 Citizens shall have the right to work. The State shall take care to provide conditions for the exercising of this right.
2 The State shall create conditions conducive to the exercising of the right to work by the physically or mentally handicapped.
3 Everyone shall be free to choose an occupation and place of work.
4 No one shall be compelled to do forced labour.
5 Workers and employees shall be entitled to healthy and nonhazardous working conditions, to guaranteed minimum pay and remuneration for the actual work performed, and to rest and leave, in accordance with conditions and procedures established by law.
1 The minimum age for employment shall be 16 years. Employment of persons who have not attained the age of 16 years shall be prohibited.
2 (Supplemented, SG No. 48/2006) As an exception, persons aged between 15 and 16 years may be employed in work which is light and which is not hazardous or harmful to their health and to their proper physical, mental and moral development and whose execution would not be detrimental to their regular attendance at school or to their participation in vocational guidance or training programmes.
3 (Amended, SG No. 100/1992) As an exception, girls who have attained the age of 14 years and boys who have attained the age of 13 years may be appointed to apprentice positions at circuses, and persons who have not attained the age of 15 years may be recruited for participation in the shooting of films, in the preparation and performance of theatrical and other productions under relaxed conditions and in conformity with the requirements for their proper physical, mental and moral development. The working conditions in such cases shall be determined by the Council of Ministers.
Employment of Persons who Have not Attained 16 Years of Age
1 Persons who have not attained the age of 16 years shall be employed after a thorough medical examination and a medical conclusion that they are fit to perform the respective work and that the said work will impair their health and impede their proper physical and mental development.
2 (Amended, SG No. 100/1992) Persons who have not attained the age of 16 years shall be employed by permission of the Labour Inspectorate in each particular case.
Employment of Persons Aged between 16 and 18 Years
1 (Amended, SG No. 48/2006) It shall be prohibited to employ persons who have attained the age of 16 years but have not attained the age of 18 years in work which is hard, hazardous or harmful to the health and to their proper physical, mental and moral development.
2 Persons who have attained the age of 16 years but have not attained the age of 18 years shall be employed after a thorough pre-employment medical examination and a medical conclusion, which shall establish their fitness to perform the respective work.
3 (Amended, SG No. 100/1992) Persons who have attained the age of 16 years but have not attained the age of 18 years of age shall be employed by permission of the Labour Inspectorate for each particular case.
4 (New, SG No. 18/2003, amended and supplemented, SG No. 48/2006) The terms and procedure for granting a permission for work under Paragraph 3, of a permission for work for persons who have not attained the age of 16 years, as well as the obligations of the employer to provide health and safety at work for the persons who have not attained the age of 18 years, shall be established by an ordinance of the Minister of Labour and Social Policy and of the Minister of Health.
Work for Persons who Have not Attained 18 Years of Age
1 Minors may not engage in work which is:
1. beyond their physical or psychological capacity;
2. involving exposure to a harmful physical, biological or chemical impact, and in particular to toxic agents, carcinogens and agents causing heritable genetic or intrauterine damage;
3. involving hazards which chronically affect human health in any other way whatsoever;
4. involving exposure to radiation;
5. at extremely low or high temperatures, noise or vibration;
6. involving the risk of employment injury which it may be assumed the minor cannot recognise or avoid owing to his or her physical or psychological immaturity.
Special Care of Minors
1 The employer shall take special care of the work of persons who have not attained the age of 18 years by providing alleviated working conditions and opportunities for attainment of professional qualification and for upgrading of the said qualification.
2 The employer shall be obligated to inform the underage factory and office workers and the parents or curators thereof of the potential risks at work and of the measures taken to ensure health and safety at work.
3 The working time of factory and office workers who have not attained the age of 18 years shall be 35 hours weekly and seven hours daily in conditions of a five-day working week. The time for attainment of professional qualification and for upgrading of the said qualification, where spent under a combined work/training scheme, shall be counted as daily and weekly working time of any such workers.
4 Factory and office workers who have not attained the age of 18 years shall be entitled to basic paid annual leave in the amount of not less than 26 working days, including during the calendar year when they attain the age of 18 years.
Worst Forms of Child Labour
Definition of “a child” Article 2. In the meaning of the present Act a child shall be any natural person, who has not reached the age of 18. Protection against Violence.
(1) Every child has a right to protection against involvement in activities that are harmful to his or her physical, mental, moral and educational development. (2) Every child has a right to protection against all methods of upbringing, that undermine his or her dignity; against physical, psychical or other types of violence; against all forms of influence, which go against his or her interests. (3) Every child has a right to protection against the use of children for purposes of begging, prostitution, dissemination of pornographic material, receipt of unlawful pecuniary income, as well as protection against sexual abuse. (4) Every child has a right to protection against forcible involvement in political, religious and trade union activities.
§1. In the meaning of this Act:
6. “A child at risk” is a child:
a) who does not have parents or has been permanently deprived of their care;
b) who has become victim of abuse, violence, exploitation or any other inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment either in or out of his or her family;
c) for whom there is a danger of causing damage to his or her physical, mental, moral, intellectual and social development;
d) who is afflicted with mental or physical disabilities and difficult to treat illnesses.
Trafficking in Human Beings
§ 1. For the purpose of this Act:
1. “Trafficking in human beings” means the recruitment, transportation, transfer, concealment or acceptance of human beings, regardless of their own will, by means of coercion, abduction, deprivation of liberty, fraud, abuse of power, abuse of a state of dependence, or by means of giving, receiving or promising benefits to obtain the consent of a person who has control over another person, when it is carried out for the purpose of exploitation;
Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the perpetration of modern slavery, forced labour, child labour and human trafficking. These actions should be considered in wider societal efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.
Policies for Assistance
Policies for Assistance, General
Policies for Assistance, Human Trafficking
Chapter Three SHELTERS FOR TEMPORARY HOUSING AND CENTRES FOR PROTECTION AND SUPPORT OF VICTIMS OF TRAFFICKING
1 The Shelters for Temporary Housing of Victims of Trafficking shall be set up:
1. By the National Commission based on a proposal made by the Local Commissions or the municipalities;
2. By individuals and non-profit legal entities who provide shelter to victims of trafficking and who have been entered into a National Commission Register under terms and conditions determined by the regulations in Article 12.
2 The Shelters shall accommodate persons who claim to be victims of trafficking. They shall be accommodated for up to 10 days by their personal request under terms and conditions determined by the regulations in Article 12.
3 The accommodation period in Paragraph 2 may be extended by another 30 days based on a proposal by the Local Commissions, the pre-trial proceedings authorities or the court, as requested by the sheltered individual.
The Shelters for Temporary Housing shall:
1. Ensure standard living and sanitary conditions;
2. Provide sheltered persons with food and medications;
3. Make available emergency medical and psychological services;
4. Assist the sheltered persons in establishing contact with their relatives as well as with the competent agencies and organisations.
1 The Local Commissions shall set up Centres for Protection and Support of Victims of Trafficking, hereinafter referred to as “Centres”.
2 The Centres shall:
1. Provide simple-language information regarding the administrative and judicial procedures that administer victim support and protection;
2. Ensure specialised psychological and medical services;
3. Facilitate victims’ re-integration in the family and the social environment.
3 The necessary funds for operation of the Centres shall be provided by the National Commission budget.
1 The terms for setting up Shelters under Article 9, Paragraph 1, and Centres under Article 11, the organisation of their work, their management and control shall be subject to regulations adopted by the Council of Ministers.
2 The necessary funds for operation of the Shelters in Article 9, Paragraph 11 shall be provided from the National Commission budget.
Chapter Five PROTECTION AND SUPPORT OF VICTIMS OF TRAFFICKING
The bodies of state, the commissions, centres and shelters, within their competencies, are obliged to provide protection and support to the individuals who have become victims of trafficking.
The diplomatic and consular missions of the Republic of Bulgaria abroad shall support and assist the Bulgarian nationals who have become victims of trafficking to return to Bulgaria.
Consular offices with the Bulgarian Embassies abroad, in co operation with Ministry of the Interior authorities, shall assist for speedy and timely issuance of identity documents to Bulgarian nationals who have become victims of trafficking.
1 The diplomatic and consular missions of the Republic of Bulgaria abroad shall distribute amongst interested individuals and risk groups information materials about the rights of the victims of trafficking.
2 The diplomatic and consular missions of the Republic of Bulgaria abroad shall provide information to the bodies of the host country regarding the Bulgarian legislation in the area of trafficking in human beings.
Information exchange and co-operation with the competent authorities of foreign countries and the international organisations shall be implemented in compliance with the national legislation and the international treaties signed by the Republic of Bulgaria.
The victims of trafficking shall be guaranteed confidentiality and protection of personal data.
Upon receipt of information about a child who has become a victim of trafficking, the bodies in Article 2 shall inform immediately the State Agency for Child Protection, which shall take the relevant measures under the Child Protection Act.
Children who have become victims of trafficking shall be accommodated in separate premises from adults.
Children who have become victims of trafficking shall be provided with education in state or municipal schools in the country, in compliance with the Public Education Act.
1 The bodies, shelters and centres in Article 2 shall take prompt measures to search the families of the children who have become victims of trafficking.
2 In the cases in Paragraph 1, the specialised bodies under the Child Protection Act shall take measures to ensure legal representation.
Individuals who have become victims of trafficking and have declared their willingness to collaborate for disclosure of the trafficking offenders shall be granted special protection status for the time of the criminal proceedings, including:
1. Permission to foreign nationals for long-term stay in the country;
2. Extension of the accommodation period in the shelters.
1 Pre-trial proceedings authorities shall promptly inform the individuals who have become victims of human trafficking, upon identification thereof, about the possibility to receive special protection if within one month the victims declare their consent to collaborate with the investigation.
2 The timescale in Paragraph 1 may be extended up to two months based on a proposal by the State Agency for Child Protection when the victim of trafficking is a child.
1 Within three days of the filing of the request of the victim of human trafficking, the Prosecutor shall issue a writ granting the individual a special protection status.
2 Denial of the status in Paragraph 1 may be appealed within three days before a higher-level Prosecutor, who must pronounce promptly on the complaint.
1 Long-term stay permissions shall be issued in accordance with the Foreigners in the Republic of Bulgaria Act by the competent administrative control services with the Ministry of the Interior, based on the writ in Article 27 hereof.
2 During their stay in the country, the individuals who have obtained permissions under Paragraph 1 shall be entitled to rights of permanent residents in the country within the meaning of the Foreigners in the Republic of Bulgaria Act, barring the right under Article 35, Paragraph 2 thereof.
3 Permissions under Paragraph 1 shall not be granted to individuals who do not possess identity documents and refuse to co-operate with their identification.”
The period for accommodation in shelters shall be extended in accordance with the timescale determined in the writ under Article 27 hereof, and it may not exceed the deadline of the criminal proceedings.
1 The special protection status shall be terminated by the authorities in Article 27 prior to the expiration of the term indicated therein, when:
1. The victim has renewed their contacts with the perpetrators of the crime the investigation of which they have declared to support;
2. The authority in Article 27 finds that the consent declared by the victim was fictitious;
3. There is a danger to public order and the national security.
2 In the cases in Paragraph 1, the Prosecutor shall issue a writ, which is subject to appeal within three days before a higher level Prosecutor, who shall pronounce promptly on the complaint.
(Amended, SG No. 86/2005)
The witness protection provision under Article 123 of the Criminal Procedure Code shall not block the provision of special protection status to victims of trafficking in human beings by virtue of this Act.
Section III Exposure to Danger Article 136
1 A person who violates rules established for the protection of labour safety and thereby exposes the life or health of the working people to danger, shall be punished by deprivation of liberty for up to three years or by probation, as well as by public censure. 2 (New, SG No. 28/1982) Whereby an act under the preceding paragraph, committed through negligence, the life or health of the working people are exposed to danger, the punishment shall be deprivation of liberty for up to one year or probation.
Crimes Against the Labour Rights of the Citizens
1 A person who intentionally impedes another to take a job, or compels him to leave a job because of his nationality, race, religion, social origin, membership in a trade union or another type of organization, political party, organisation, movement or coalition with political objective, or because of his or of his next-of-kin political convictions, shall be punished by deprivation of liberty for up to three years or by a fine of up to BGN five thousand.
2 An official who fails to carry out an order or a court decision that has entered into force for re-instating at work of a wrongly dismissed worker or employee, shall be punished deprivation of liberty for up to three years.”
Liability for Violation of Statutory Requirements for Health and Safety at Work
1 Any person, who violates the rules for provision of health and safety at work, shall be liable to a fine of BGN 100 or exceeding this amount but not exceeding BGN 500, unless subject to a severer sanction.
2 Any employer, which or who fails to fulfill the obligations thereof for provision of health and safety at work, shall be liable to a pecuniary penalty or a fine of BGN 1,500 or exceeding this amount but not exceeding BGN 15,000, unless subject to a severer sanction, and any such blameworthy official shall be liable to a fine of BGN 1,000 or exceeding this amount but not exceeding BGN 10,000, unless subject to a severer sanction.
3 The sanction for a repeated violation shall be:
1. under Paragraph 1: a fine of BGN 500 or exceeding this amount but not exceeding BGN 1,000;
2. under Paragraph 2: a pecuniary penalty of BGN 20,000 or exceeding this amount but not exceeding BGN 30,000 or, respectively, a fine of BGN 5,000 or exceeding this amount but not exceeding BGN 20,000.
Liability for Violation of Other Provisions of Labour Legislation
1 Any employer, which or who violates any provisions of labour legislation other than the rules for provision of health and safety at work, shall be liable to a pecuniary penalty or a fine of BGN 1,500 or exceeding this amount but not exceeding BGN 15,000, unless subject to a severer sanction, and any such blameworthy official shall be liable to a fine of BGN 1,000 or exceeding this amount but not exceeding BGN 10,000, unless subject to a severer sanction.
2 The sanction for a repeated violation under Paragraph 1 shall be a pecuniary penalty or a fine of BGN 20,000 or exceeding this amount but not exceeding BGN 30,000 or, respectively, a fine of BGN 5,000 or exceeding this amount but not exceeding BGN 20,000.
3 Any employer, which or who violates the provisions of Article 62 1 or 3 and Article 63 1 or 2, shall be liable to a pecuniary penalty or a fine of BGN 1,500 or exceeding this amount but not exceeding 15,000, and any such blameworthy official shall be liable to a fine of BGN 1,000 or exceeding this amount but not exceeding 10,000 for each particular violation.
4 Any employer, which or who violates the provisions of Article 130a 1 and 2, Article 130b 1 and 2 and Article 130c 1 and 2, shall be liable to a pecuniary penalty or a fine of BGN 1,500 or exceeding this amount but not exceeding BGN 5,000, and any such blameworthy official shall be liable to a fine of BGN 250 or exceeding this amount but not exceeding BGN 1,000 for each particular violation.
Penalties, Human Trafficking
Section IX Trafficking of People
1 Anyone, who recruits, transports, conceals or admits particular individuals or groups of people with the purpose of using them for debauched activities, forceful labour, dispossession of bodily organs or keeping them in forceful subjection, regardless of their consent, is subjected to penalty of imprisonment for a term from two to eight years and a fine from three to twelve thousand BGN.
2 When the act under para.1 has been committed:
1. with regard to an individual who is under the age of eighteen years;
2. through the use of force or by misleading the individual;
3. through kidnapping or illegal deprivation of liberty;
4. through making use of a status of dependency;
5. through the abuse of power;
6. through promising, giving or receiving benefits, the punishment is imprisonment for a term from three to ten years and a fine from ten to twenty thousand BGN.
3 Where the act under Para 1 has been committed in respect to a pregnant woman with the purpose of selling her child, the punishment is imprisonment for a term from three to fifteen years and a fine from twenty to fifty thousand BGN.
1 An individual, who recruits, transports, conceals or admits particular individuals or groups of people and takes them over the border of the country with the purpose over art.159a, para.1, is subjected to a penalty of imprisonment for a term from three to twelve years and a fine from ten to twenty thousand BGN.
2 If the criminal deed is committed under the conditions of art.159a, para.2 and 3, the penalty is an imprisonment for a term from five to twelve years and a fine from twenty to fifty thousand BGN.
Anyone who uses an individual who is a victim of the traffic with people, for debauched activities, forceful labour, dispossession of bodily organs or with the purpose to be kept in forceful subjection regardless of his/her consent, is subjected to a penalty of imprisonment from three to ten years and a fine from ten to twenty thousand BGN.
In the cases when the activity under art. 159a-159b is qualified as dangerous recidivism or have been committed after an order or in implementation of a decision of an organized criminal group, the penalty is imprisonment for a term from five to fifteen years and a fine from twenty to one hundred thousand BGN, the court may also decree a confiscation of part or the whole property of the doer.
1 For the crimes under Article 116, par. 1, sub-paragraph 2, Articles 123, 126, 131, par. 1 ,sub-paragraph 2, Articles 134,142, paragraphs 2 and 3, the court may rule deprivation of rights under Article 37 1, sub-paragraphs 6 or 7. 2 (New, SG No. 54/1978, repealed, SG No. 28/1982).
1 (Amended, SG No. 28/1982, supplemented, SG No. 89/1986, amended, SG No. 50/1995, SG No. 21/2000, previous Article 161, SG No. 92/2002, amended, SG No. 26/2004)For trivial bodily injury under Article 130 and 131, paragraph 1, sub-paragraphs 3 – 5, for trivial and medium bodily injury under Article 132, for the crimes under Article 144, paragraph 1, Articles 145, 146 – 148a, as well as for bodily injury under Articles 129, 132, 133 and 134, inflicted on a relative of ascending and descending line, a spouse, brother or sister, the penal prosecution shall be instituted on the basis of complaint by the victim.
2 Public prosecution criminal proceedings with regard to acts qualifying under art. 133, art. 135, paras. 1, 3, and 4, and under articles 139 – 141 shall be formed upon complaint of the victim to the relevant Prosecution Office and may not be terminated upon his/her request.
Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk for exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.
Social Protection Coverage: General (at Least One)
Social Protection (Source: ILO)
The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.
If a country does not appear on a chart, this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.