Data Dashboards

Cambodia Dashboard
Measurement
Measuring the Change

using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards.

Child labour between 2001 and 2012 decreased by 66%.

-66%

2001- 2012

Best Target 8.7 Data: Child Labour Rate


The data visualization displays yearly child labour statistics based on a variety of nationally-representative household surveys. All years of data hold up to standards set by interagency collaboration between ILO, UNICEF and World Bank, though, in some cases are not perfectly comparable between years. Detailed information on each data point is provided in the Measurement tab (above).

Data Availability
  • Child labour: ILO/UNICEF Data
  • Forced labour: No nationally representative data
  • Human trafficking: No nationally representative data
Context
Human Development

Human Development Index Score: 0.563 (2015)

Mean School Years: 4.7 years (2015)

Labour Indicators

Vulnerable Employment: 64.1% (2012)

Working Poverty Rate: 20.3% (2016)

Government Efforts
Key Ratifications
  • ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Not ratified
  • ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2006
  • UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Ratified 2007
Social Protections Coverage

General (at least one): No data

Unemployed: No data

Pension: 3.2% (2016)

Vulnerable: No data

Children: No data

Disabled: 0.7% (2016)

Poor: No data

Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.

Child Labour Rate, Aged 5-17 (Source: ILO)

Based on the international conventions and the International Conference of Labour Statisticians (ICLS) resolution, and consistent with the approach utilized in the ILO global child labour estimates exercise, the statistical definition of child labour used includes:

a) children aged 5-11 years in all forms of economic activity;
b) children aged 12-14 years in all forms of economic activity except permissible “light” work;
c) children and adolescents aged 15-17 years in hazardous work; and
d) children aged 5-14 years performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week.

In Cambodia, the percentage of child labourers has decreased overall from 2001 to 2012. The measure for 2008 does not cover the full definition of hazardous child labour and has been removed from the visual.

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 5-17 in child labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2001, 2004, 2007, 2009 and 2012.

Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Hazardous child labour is the largest category of the worst forms of child labour with an estimated 73 million children aged 5-17 working in dangerous conditions in a wide range of sectors. Worldwide, the ILO estimates that some 22,000 children are killed at work every year.

In Cambodia, the latest estimates show that 2.9 percent of children aged 5-14 were engaged in hazardous work in 2012. The number is lower than in 2009, and has decreased from 5.6 percent in 2001. 

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 5-14 in hazardous labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2001, 2004, 2007, 2009 and 2012.

Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 15-17 (Source: ILO)

Children aged 15-17 are permitted to engage in economic activities by international conventions in most cases, except when the work is likely to harm the health, safety or morals of children (Article 3 (d) of ILO Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour, 1999 (No. 182)).

In Cambodia, the latest estimates show that 28.7 percent of children aged 15-17 were engaged in hazardous work in 2012. The percentage is lower than in 2009, but has increased from 28.5 percent in 2001. The measure for 2008 does not cover the full definition of hazardous child labour and has been removed from the visual.

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 15-17 in hazardous labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2001, 2004, 2007, 2009 and 2012.

Weekly Work Hours, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Children aged 5-11 are considered to be subjected to child labour when engaging in any form of economic activity. Children aged 12-14 are permitted to engage in “light” work that is not considered hazardous and falls below 14 hours per week.

According to the latest 2012 estimates, the average number of hours worked per week by children aged 5-14 in Cambodia was 22.4 hours. The average number of hours worked has decreased from 25.1 hours in 2009.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours that children aged 5-14 work in economic activities by sex and region. The sample includes all children of this age group. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2001, 2004, 2007, 2009 and 2012.

Weekly Work Hours Children Only in Economic Activity, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Children not attending school who are engaged in economic activity can be subjected to longer working hours.

In 2012, the latest year with available data, children in economic activity only, meaning they are not in school, worked an average of 40.1 hours per week. This number has increased since 2009, when the average number of hours worked by this age group was 34.6.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours worked by children aged 5-14 who are not in school, by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2001, 2004, 2007, 2009 and 2012.

Weekly Hours Household Chores, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Researchers recognize that children involved in economic activities are not the only children working. The ICLS recommended definition of child labour includes performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week for children aged 5-14.

Children aged 5-14, on average, are found to work on household chores 6.9 hours per week according to the 2012 estimate. This estimate represents a decrease in hours worked across all age groups since the last estimate in 2001, which found that children aged 5-14 in Cambodia worked an average of 8.8 hours per week.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours children aged 5-14 work on household chores by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2001 and 2012.

Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: Total (Source: ILO)

Identifying the sectors in which the most child labour exists can help policy actors and practitioners target efforts toward those industries.

The latest data available on child labour by sector for Cambodia is from 2012. By the 2012 estimate, the Agriculture sector had the most child labourers, followed by the Commerce, Hotels and Restaurants sector and the Manufacturing sector.

The chart to the right displays child labour prevalence in each sector for all children. The charts below show the differences in child labour by sector with comparisons between groups by sex and region.

Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: Sex (Source: ILO)
Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: Area (Source: ILO)

Measuring the incidence of forced labour is a much more recent endeavour and presents unique methodological challenges compared to the measurement of child labour.

No nationally representative data is available on forced labour prevalence in Cambodia.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on new guidelines presented by the International Labour Organization and adopted by the International Conference of Labour Statisticians.

The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.

No nationally representative data is available on human trafficking prevalence in Cambodia.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page to learn about measuring human trafficking prevalence, including information on collecting data through national referral mechanisms and producing prevalence statistics using Multiple Systems Estimation (MSE).

Case Data: International and Non-Governmental Organizations

Civil society organizations (CSOs) focused on human trafficking victim assistance can serve as crucial sources of data given their ability to reach a population that is notoriously difficult to sample.

Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (CTDC): The International Organization for Migration (IOM), Polaris and Liberty Asia have launched a global data repository on human trafficking, with data contributed by counter-trafficking partner organizations around the world. Not only does the CTDC serve as a central repository for this critical information, it also publishes normed and harmonized data from various organizations using a unified schema. This global dataset facilitates an unparalleled level of cross-border, trans-agency analysis and provides the counter-trafficking movement with a deeper understanding of this complex issue. Equipped with this information, decision makers will be empowered to create more targeted and effective intervention strategies.

Prosecution Data

UNODC compiles a global dataset on detected and prosecuted traffickers, which serves as the basis in their Global Report for country profiles. This information is beginning to paint a picture of trends over time, and case-specific information can assist investigators and prosecutors.

Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.

Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.

The chart displays information on human development in Cambodia between 1990 and 2015. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex.

The most recent year of the HDI, 2015, shows that the average human development score in Cambodia is 0.563. This score indicates medium human development.

HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)

Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.

As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:

“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”

The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in Cambodia over time.

Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in the availability of equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction towards achieving Target 8.7.

HDI Vulnerable Employment (Source: UNDP)

There are reasons to believe that certain types of labour and labour arrangements are more likely to lead to labour exploitation. According to the ILO:

“Own-account workers and contributing family workers have a lower likelihood of having formal work arrangements, and are therefore more likely to lack elements associated with decent employment, such as adequate social security and a voice at work. The two statuses are summed to create a classification of ‘vulnerable employment’, while wage and salaried workers together with employers constitute ‘non-vulnerable employment’.”

Between 2000 and 2012, Cambodia showed a decrease in the proportion of workers in vulnerable employment as compared to those in secure employment.

Working Poverty Rate (Source: ILO)

Labour income tells us about a household’s vulnerability. As the ILO explains in Profits and Poverty:

“Poor households find it particularly difficult to deal with income shocks, especially when they push households below the food poverty line. In the presence of such shocks, men and women without social protection nets tend to borrow to smooth consumption, and to accept any job for themselves or their children, even under exploitative conditions.”

ILO indicators that measure poverty with respect to the labour force include working poverty rate, disaggregated by sex, with temporal coverage spanning from 2000 to 2016. The chart displays linear trends in working poverty rate over time for all individuals over 15 years of age.

Labour Productivity (Source: ILO)

Labour productivity is an important economic indicator that is closely linked to economic growth, competitiveness, and living standards within an economy.” However, when increased labour output does not produce rising wages, this can point to increasing inequality. As indicated by a recent ILO report (2015), there is a “growing disconnect between wages and productivity growth, in both developed and emerging economies”. The lack of decent work available increases vulnerability to situations of labour exploitation.

Labour productivity represents the total volume of output (measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product, GDP) produced per unit of labour (measured in terms of the number of employed persons) during a given period.

Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.

Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Source: UNHCR)

Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants.

According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children.”

As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements.”

The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in Cambodia.

Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.

Official Definitions
Forced Labour/Compulsory Work

Constitution of the Kingdom of Cambodia, 1993
Article 45: All forms of discrimination against women shall be abolished. The exploitation of women in employment is prohibited.

Royal Kram CS/RKM/0397/01 promulgating the Labour Law, 1997, Section 5 Forced Labour 
Article 15: Forced or compulsory labor is absolutely forbidden in conformity with the International Convention No. 29 on the forced or compulsory labor, adopted on June 28, 1930 by the International Labor Organization and ratified by the Kingdom of Cambodia on February 24, 1969.
This article applies to everyone, including domestics or household servants and all workers in agricultural enterprises or businesses.

Article 16: Hiring of people for work to pay off debts is forbidden.

Child Labour

Constitution of the Kingdom of Cambodia, 1993
Article 48: The State shall protect the rights of children as stipulated in the Convention on Children, in particular, the rights to life, education, protection during wartime, and protection from economic or sexual exploitation.
The State shall protect children from any forms of labor that are injurious to their educational opportunities, health and welfare.

Prakas No. 002 of 2008 on Categories of Occupation and Light Work Permitted for Children Aged from 12 to 15 (MoSALVY), 2008
Article 1: The employers of enterprises and establishments stipulated in Article 1 of the Labour Law are allowed to employ children aged 12 for only light work stipulated in Article 2 of this Prakas. Children having to work as part of vocational training may also be allowed within the scope stipulated in Article 2 of this Prakas.

Article 2: Light work is the work that does not affect the health as well as mental and physical development of the employed children and does not affect their regular school attendance, involvement in orientation programs or vocational trainings required by the competent authorities.
Light work categories are:

1. Light work in the agriculture sector such as raising animals, caring for small livestock animals – but not catching and slaughtering those animals – growing plants, harvesting, picking up fruit – but not climbing to pick up – as well as cleaning.
2. Clearing grass and preparing soil
3. Recording goods
4. Working at some shopping malls such as selling booth, vegetables and fruit selling stall, or newsstand and stall of other similar goods.
5. Receiving, packing, selecting and classifying goods as well as assembling light things, including opening or taking goods out of the package.
6. Sweeping, mopping, and preparing dining table such as preparing plates, spoons, forks, knives etc.
7. Manual installation work, which is an easy work, but not welding metal or iron, or working with any product causing hazardous risk.
8. Painting wall or things with proper protective equipment but not spraying paint.
9. Easy work such as sewing, putting goods into plastic bag, folding carton, or polishing and cleaning glass or ceramics, trimming garment, or assembling all parts of garment or cleaning something dirty on the garment or attaching brand, or attaching price tag.
10. Preparing or selecting each type of garments for washing
11. Checking products
12. Working as messenger within the organization
13. Receiving letters or sending out packages, as well as distributing information and documents
14. Filing books in the library
15. Lifting, carrying and holding light things

Article 3: When employing children aged from 12 to 15, the employer shall allow their parents or guardian to understand the terms and conditions of employment, including the children’s working time, school attending time, vulnerability to work-related accidents and diseases, adopted measures on hygiene and work safety. The employer shall have an obligation to encourage the employed children to attend school.
Article 5:  Children aged from 12 to 15 shall not be allowed to work from 20:00 to 06:00 am.
Article 6:  Children aged from 12 to 15 are entitled to receive a break of at least 14 consecutive hours within a period of 24 hours.
Article 9: Anyone violating this Prakas shall be fined or punished as stipulated in Chapter 16 of the Labour Law.

Prakas No. 298 of 1998 on Derogation of Prohibition of Children from Performing Night Work (MoSALVY)
“Establishes that children between 16 and 18 may be employed to perform night work in iron and steel factories, glass factories, paper factories, sugar factories and gold ore refineries, but only for the purpose of apprenticeship or professional training. Daily working hours of children shall not exceed eight hours. Employers who want to employ children for night work ”

Royal Kram CS/RKM/0397/01 promulgating the Labour Law, 1997
Article 177:

1. The allowable minimum age for wage employment is set at fifteen years.
2. The minimum allowable age for any kind of employment or work, which, by its nature, could be hazardous to the health, the safety, or the morality of an adolescent, is eighteen years. The types of employment or work covered by this paragraph are determined by a Prakas (ministerial order) of the Ministry in Charge of Labor, in consultation with the Labor Advisory Committee.
3. Regardless of the provisions of paragraph 2 above, the Ministry in Charge of Labor can, after having consulted with the Labor Advisory Committee, authorize the generation of occupation or employment for adolescents aged fifteen years and over on the condition that their health, safety, or morality is fully guaranteed and that they can receive, in the corresponding area of activity, specific and adequate instruction or vocational training.
4. Regardless of the provisions of paragraph 1 above, children from twelve to fifteen years of age can be hired to do light work provided that:

a. The work is not hazardous to their health or mental and physical development.
b. The work will not affect their regular school attendance, their participation in guidance programs or vocational training approved by a competent authority.

5. Prakas issued by the Ministry in Charge of Labor in consultation with the Labor Advisory Committee will determine the types of employment and establish the working conditions, particularly the maximum number of hours of work authorized as per paragraph 4 above.
6. After having consulted with the Labor Advisory Committee, the Ministry in Charge of Labor can wholly or partially exclude certain categories of occupation or employment from having to implement this article if the implementation of this article for these types of occupation or employment create considerable difficulties.

Article 180: In orphanages and charitable institutions in which primary education is given, occupational or vocational training for children less than fourteen years old must not exceed three hours per day. A record must be kept indicating the date of birth, manual labor conditions for children, and the daily schedule i.e. the assignment of hours of study, manual labor, rest, and meals.
The record must be submitted to the Labor Inspector for visa, observation and warning at the end of each year.

Article 181: No unemancipated child of either sex less than eighteen years old can contract to work without the consent of his guardian.

Worst Forms of Child Labour

Law on the Suppression of Human Trafficking and Sexual Exploitation, 2007
Article 7: Definition of Minor

A minor in this law shall mean a person under the age of eighteen years. A person who keeps a minor under his/her supervision or control shall be presumed to know the minor’s age unless the person proves that he/she reasonably believes the minor’s age to be eighteen years or more.

Article 23: Definition of Prostitution and Child Prostitution

“Prostitution” in this law shall mean having sexual intercourse with an unspecified person or other sexual conduct of all kinds in exchange for anything of value. “Child prostitution“ in this law shall mean having sexual intercourse or other sexual conduct of all kinds between a minor and another person in exchange for anything of value.

Prakas No. 106 of 2004 on the Prohibition of Hazardous Child Labour (MoSALVY), 2004
Para 1: Neither employer nor establishment referred to in Article 1 of the Labour Law shall employ a child who has not attained 18 years of age in any type of works as stipulated in Para 2 of this Prakas (Declaration). If a child working is not certified his/her age by an official document, or if a labour inspector has a reason to believe that the official document certifying such age is fraudulent shall be investigated the child’s relevant places. The term of reference is attached in the Appendix of this Prakas.

Para 3: According to an employer’s request, the Ministry of Social Affairs Labor, Vocational Training and Youth Rehabilitation (hereinafter “MOSALVY”) may consider and permit a child, who has attained 16 years of age, to do hazardous work on the following conditions: – Well-trained children – Working prohibited between the time 22:00 pm to 5:00 am – Consulted with the Labor Advisory Committee in advance For mine excavation, mining, or quarry, MOSALVY shall not allow children, who are under the age of 18, working at these sites. Before working started, at least those should be provided health check once a year until they reach the age of 18 in context of hazardous work to be certified their health condition. The health check should be examined by Department of Labor Health.

Royal Kram CS/RKM/0397/01 promulgating the Labour Law, 1997
Article 172: All employers and managers of establishments in which child laborers or apprentices less than eighteen years of age or women work, must watch over their good behavior and maintain their decency before the public. All form of sexual violation (harassment) is strictly forbidden.
Article 173: A Prakas of the Ministry in Charge of Labor shall determine the different types of work that are hazardous or too strenuous and that shall be prohibited to children aged less than eighteen years.

The Prakas shall also establish the special conditions under which minors can be employed in insalubrious or hazardous establishments where the staff is exposed to arrangements harmful to their health.

Article 174: Minors less than eighteen years old cannot be employed in underground mines or quarries.
The Prakas of the Ministry in Charge of Labor shall determine the special conditions of work and apprenticeship for minors aged from sixteen to less than eighteen years for underground work.
Article 175: Children, employees, laborers, or apprentices aged less than eighteen years cannot be employed to perform night work in any enterprise covered in Article 1 of this law.
The Prakas of the Ministry in Charge of Labor shall determine the conditions under which special dispensations can be allowed for teenagers over sixteen years of age:

a. for work performed in the industries listed below, which, because of their nature, must operate continuously day and night:
iron and steel factories; glass factories;
paper factories;
sugar factories;
gold ore refineries.
b. For an inevitable case that obstruct the normal operations of the establishment.

Article 176: The nighttime break for children of either sex must be a minimum of eleven consecutive hours.

Human Trafficking

Constitution of the Kingdom of Cambodia, 1993
Article 46: Trading human beings, the exploitation of prostitution and obscenity, which affect the reputation of women, shall be prohibited.

Law on the Suppression of Human Trafficking and Sexual Exploitation
Article 8: Definition of Unlawful Removal The act of unlawful removal in this law shall mean to:

1. remove a person from his/her current place of residence to a place under the actor’s or a third person’s control by means of force, threat, deception, abuse of power, or enticement, or
2. without legal authority or any other legal justification to do so, take a minor or a person under general custody or curatorship or legal custody away from the legal custody of the parents, caretaker or guardian.

Article 10: The terms “any form of exploitation” in this Article and Article 12, 15, 17, and 19 of this law shall include the exploitation of the prostitution of others, pornography, commercial sex act, forced labor or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, debt bondage, involuntary servitude, child labor or the removal of organs.
Article 13: Definition of the Act of Selling, Buying or Exchanging of Human Being The act of selling, buying or exchanging a human being shall mean to unlawfully deliver the control over a person to another, or to unlawfully receive the control over a person from another, in exchange for anything of value including any services and human beings. The act of procuring the act of selling, buying or exchanging a human being as an intermediary shall be punished the same as the act of selling, buying or exchanging a human being.

Slavery

Law on the Suppression of Human Trafficking and Sexual Exploitation
Article 10: The terms “any form of exploitation” in this Article and Article 12, 15, 17, and 19 of this law shall include the exploitation of the prostitution of others, pornography, commercial sex act, forced labor or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, debt bondage, involuntary servitude, child labor or the removal of organs.

International Commitments
National Strategies

National Plan of Action on Worst Forms of Child Labour (2016-2025)

“Aims to build the capacity of law enforcement officers, strengthen the enforcement of relevant laws, raise public awareness of child labor issues, and enhance child labor monitoring systems at the community level.”

National Plan of Action on the Suppression of Human Trafficking, Smuggling, Labor, and Sexual Exploitation (2014-2018)

“Aims to prevent and eliminate all forms of human trafficking, including by strengthening labor law enforcement to protect children from exploitation in entertainment venues; integrating anti-human trafficking and child safety issues into the public school curriculum; and promoting the inclusion of vulnerable children in both formal and informal education.”

The Education Strategic Plan

“Seeks to ensure equitable access to education and to improve the education system’s response to human trafficking and child labor. In 2016, the Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sport approved the Child Friendly Schools guidelines on tackling child labor, which will be implemented nationwide.”

International Ratifications

ILO Forced Labour Convention, C029, Ratified 1969

ILO Abolition of Forced Labour Convention, C105, Ratified 1999

ILO Minimum Age Convention, C138, Ratified 1999

ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182, Ratified 2006

UN Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, the Slave Trade, and Institutions and Practices Similar to Slavery, Accession 1957

UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol), Ratified 2007

UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, Accession 1992

UN Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Ratified 2004

UN Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, Ratified 2002

Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the perpetration of forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour. These actions should be considered in wider societal efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.

Programs and Agencies for Victim Support (Source: U.S. Department of Labor)

Policies for Assistance

Law on the Suppression of Human Trafficking and Sexual Exploitation, 2007
Article 24: Soliciting A person who willingly solicits another in public for the purpose of prostituting himself or herself shall be punished with imprisonment for 1 to 6 days and a fine of 3,000 to 10,000 riel. A minor shall be exempted from punishment of the offense stipulated in this article.
Article 45: Contract for the Act of Selling/Buying or Exchanging of Human Being and Sexual Exploitation
A contract shall be null and void if it is made for the purpose of selling/buying or exchanging of human beings or sexual exploitation. A loan contract shall be null and void if it is made in connection with the act of selling/buying or exchanging of human beings or sexual exploitation. ‘Act of Selling/Buying or Exchanging of Human Beings’ or ‘Sexual Exploitation’ in this and the following articles shall mean any unlawful act concerning the offenses as stipulated in this law.
Article 46: Restitution of Unjust Enrichment A person who obtains enrichment without a legal cause knowing that the enrichment has been obtained from the act of selling/buying or exchanging of human being or sexual exploitation shall be liable for restitution of the whole unjust enrichment along with accrued interests. An aggrieved person (a person being exploited) may claim for damage in addition to the restitution of such unjust enrichment. A person who has made a contract of loan or any other provision to another person for the purpose of committing the act of selling/buying or exchanging of human being or sexual exploitation may not claim for restitution of the provision.
Article 47: Preference to Confiscated Property Victims shall have preference over property confiscated by the state for their compensation and restitution.
Article 49: Concealment of Identity of Victim Newspapers and all other mass media shall be prohibited from publishing or broadcasting or disseminating any information which can lead to pubic knowledge of identities of victims in the offenses stipulated in this law.

Prakas No. 62/08 on the Use of Court Screen and Courtroom TV-Linked Testimony from Child/Vulnerable Victims or Witnesses, 2008
Item 2: 1- In principle, court screens should be used as a primary protective measure in all cases involving a child/vulnerable victim or witness.
2- In case the child/vulnerable victim or witness needs special protection that a court screen cannot serve, a TV-linked testimony may be used.
3- A court screen and TV-linked testimony should be used:

a- in a criminal case when taking testimony from a child/vulnerable victim or witness;
b- and the alleged perpetrator is present in court;
c- and where testifying in the presence of the accused in the courtroom would cause undue stress or trauma to the child/vulnerable victim or witness. unless the child/vulnerable victim or witness does not want to use the court screen and TV-link and such is deemed by the judge to be in the best interests of the child/vulnerable victim or witness after consultation with the child/vulnerable victim or witness, his/her lawyer, and/or social worker.

Penalties
Penalties, Forced Labour

Royal Kram CS/RKM/0397/01 promulgating the Labour Law, 1997
Article 369: Those guilty of violating the provisions of Articles 12, 15, 17, 18, 39, 46, 104, 126, 260, 264, 281, 292, 331, 333, 334 and 335 are liable to a fine of sixty-one to ninety days of base daily wage or to imprisonment of six days to one month.
The employer who violates the provisions of Article 16 of this law is liable to a fine of sixty-one to ninety days of the base daily wage.

Penalties, Child Labour

Prakas No. 002 of 2008 on Categories of Occupation and Light Work Permitted for Children Aged from 12 to 15 (MoSALVY), 2008
Article 9: Anyone violating this Prakas shall be fined or punished as stipulated in Chapter 16 of the Labour Law.

Royal Kram CS/RKM/0397/01 promulgating the Labour Law, 1997
Article 368: Employers who employ children less than eighteen years of age under conditions contrary to the provisions of Articles 173, 174, 175, 176, 177 and 178 of this law are liable to a fine of thirty-one to sixty days of the base daily wage.

Law on the Suppression of Human Trafficking and Sexual Exploitation, 2007
Article 9: Unlawful Removal, inter alia, of Minor
A person who unlawfully removes a minor or a person under general custody or curatorship or legal custody shall be punished with imprisonment for 2 to 5 years. The punishment for the offence stipulated in this article shall be remitted or mitigated when all of the following conditions are met: 1- the person taken under custody, being not less than fifteen (15) years of age, voluntarily gives genuine consent to the criminal act; 2- none of the means stipulated in subparagraph 1) of Article 8 of this law is used; and 3- the offender does not have any purpose to commit an offense. The prosecution for the offence stipulated in this article may be commenced upon the filing of a complaint from the parent, custodian/caretaker or lawful guardian concerned unless any of the means stipulated in subparagraph 1) of Article 8 of this law is used.
Article 28: Procurement with regard to Child Prostitution Procurement of prostitution shall be punished with imprisonment for 7 to 15 years when the prostitute is a minor. The term “prostitution” in the relevant provisions of this Chapter shall be replaced with the term “child prostitution,” when the offense set forth in Paragraph 1 of this article applies.
Article 36: Conditional Money Loan in connection with Child Prostitution A person who provides another with money loan or anything of value on the condition that a minor engage in child prostitution business shall be punished with imprisonment for 5 to 10 years.
A person who provides a minor with money loan or anything of value on the condition that the latter engage in child prostitution business shall be punished the same as set out in paragraph 1 of this article.

Prakas No. 106 of 2004 on the Prohibition of Hazardous Child Labour (MoSALVY), 2004
Para 5: Any one infringed any provision of this PRAKAS shall be fined or penalized as prescribed in chapter 16 of Labor Law.

Criminal Code of the Kingdom of Cambodia, 2009
Article 339: Placing a Minor to Working Conditions which Endanger his/her Health The acts of placing a minor to working conditions which are detrimental to his/her health or his/her physical development are punishable by an imprisonment from 2 (two) years to 5 (five) years and a fine from 4,000,000 (four million) Riels to 10,000,000 (ten million) Riels.
Article 340: Aggravating Circumstances Resulting from the Death of the Victim The offence specified in the Article 339 (Placing a Minor to Working Conditions which Endanger his/her Health) is punishable by an imprisonment from 7 (seven) years to 15 (fifteen) years when this offence had resulted in the death of the victim.

Penalties, Trafficking

Law on the Suppression of Human Trafficking and Sexual Exploitation, 2007
Article 4: Criminal Responsibility
An attempt to commit the felonies or misdemeanors stipulated in this law shall be punished and liable to the same punishment as if the offence has been committed. An accomplice and instigator of the felonies or misdemeanors stipulated in this law shall be punished and liable to the same punishment as a principal who commits it. An accomplice and instigator shall include, but not be limited to, the form of organizing or directing another to commit any of the felonies or misdemeanours stipulated in this law. When a representative, agent, or employee for a legal entity or a principal commits any offense stipulated in this law in the scope of its business, or in the interest of the legal entity or the principal, the legal entity or the principal shall be punished with fine and additional penalties in accordance with the punishment stipulated in the relevant article.
Article 10: Unlawful Removal with Purpose
A person who unlawfully removes another for the purpose of profit making, sexual aggression, production of pornography, marriage against will of the victim, adoption or any form of exploitation shall be punished with imprisonment for 7 years to 15 years.
The offence stipulated in this article shall be punished with imprisonment for 15 to 20 years when :

– the victim is a minor
– the offence is committed by a public official who abuses his/her authority over the victim,
– the offence is committed by an organized group.

The terms “any form of exploitation” in this Article and Article 12, 15, 17, and 19 of this law shall include the exploitation of the prostitution of others, pornography, commercial sex act, forced labor or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, debt bondage, involuntary servitude, child labor or the removal of organs.
The consent of the victim to any of the intended purpose set forth in paragraph 1 of this article shall be irrelevant where any of the means set forth in subparagraph 1) of Article 8 of this law is used. This shall apply to the offences stipulated in Article 15, 17, and 19 of this law as well.
Article 11: Unlawful Removal for Cross-border Transfer
A person who unlawfully removes another for the purpose of delivering or transferring that person to outside of the Kingdom of Cambodia shall be punished with imprisonment for 7 to 15 years.
A person who unlawfully removes another in a country outside of the Kingdom of Cambodia for the purpose of delivering or transferring that person to another country shall be punished the same as set out in the above-stated paragraph 1.
The offence stipulated in this article shall be punished with imprisonment for 15 to 20 years when :

– the victim is a minor
– the offence is committed by a public official who abuses his/her authority over the victim,
– the offence is committed by an organized group.

Article 12: Unlawful Recruitment for Exploitation
The act of unlawful recruitment in this law shall mean to induce, hire or employ a person to engage in any form of exploitation with the use of deception, abuse of power, confinement, force, threat or any coercive means. A person who unlawfully recruits another shall be punished with imprisonment for 7 to 15 years. The offence stipulated in this article shall be punished with imprisonment for 15 to 20 years when : – the victim is a minor – the offence is committed by a public official who abuses his/her authority over the victim, – the offence is committed by an organized group.
Article 14: The Act of Selling, Buying or Exchanging of Human Being A person who sells, buys or exchanges another person shall be punished with imprisonment for 2 to 5 years.
Article 15: The Act of Selling, Buying or Exchanging of Human Being with Purpose A person who sells, buys or exchanges another person for the purpose of profit making, sexual aggression, production of pornography, marriage against will of the victim, adoption or any form of exploitation shall be punished with imprisonment for 7 years to 15 years. The offence stipulated in this article shall be punished with imprisonment for 15 to 20 years when :

– the victim is a minor
– the offence is committed by a public official who abuses his/her authority over the victim, – the offence is committed by an organized group.

Article 19: Receipt of Person with Purpose A person who receives, harbors, or conceals another person who has been unlawfully removed, recruited, sold, bought, exchanged, or transported for the purpose of profit-making, sexual aggression, production of pornography, marriage against the will of the victim, adoption or any form of exploitation shall be punished with imprisonment for 7 to 15 years. The offence stipulated in this article shall be punished with imprisonment for more than 15 to 20 years when : – the victim is a minor – the offence is committed by a public official who abuses his/her authority over the victim, – the offence is committed by an organized group.
Article 20: Receipt of Human Beings for the Purpose of Assisting the Offender A person who receives, harbors, or conceals a victim who has been unlawfully removed, recruited, sold, bought, exchanged, or transported for the purpose of assisting the offender who has unlawfully removed, recruited, sold, bought, exchanged or transported that victim shall be punished with imprisonment for 2 to 5 years and a fine of 4,000,000 to 10,000,000. The offence stipulated in this article shall be punished with imprisonment for 5 to 10 years when the victim is a minor.
Article 24: Soliciting A person who willingly solicits another in public for the purpose of prostituting himself or herself shall be punished with imprisonment for 1 to 6 days and a fine of 3,000 to 10,000 riel. A minor shall be exempted from punishment of the offense stipulated in this article.
Article 47: Preference to Confiscated Property Victims shall have preference over property confiscated by the state for their compensation and restitution.

Criminal Code of the Kingdom of Cambodia, 2009
Article 284: Procuring The procuring is an act of:

1. drawing a financial profit from the prostitution of another;
2. assisting or protecting the prostitution of another or running with whatever means the prostitution activities;
3. recruiting , abducting or luring any person to become a prostitute;
4. exercising pressure on a person to become a prostitute.
The procuring is punishable by an imprisonment of between 2 (two) and 5 (five) years and a fine of between 4,000,000 (four million) Riels and 10,000,000 (ten million) Riels.

Article 289: Aggravating Circumstances With Regard to Victim
Procuring is punishable by an imprisonment of between 7 (seven) and 15 (fifteen) years when the person who indulges in prostitution is a minor.

Programs and Agencies for Enforcement (Source: U.S. Department of Labor)

Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk of exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.

Social Protections: General (at Least One)
Social Protections (Source: ILO)

The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.

If a country does not appear on a chart, this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.

Social Protections: Unemployed
Social Protections: Pension
Social Protections: Vulnerable Groups
Social Protections: Poor
Social Protections: Children
Social Protections: Disabled

Delta 8.7 has received no Official Response to this dashboard from Cambodia. If you are a representative of Cambodia and wish to submit an Official Response, please contact us at info@delta87.org.