Measuring the Change
using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards.
Child labour data with a complete statistical definition is only provided for 2007. There is no change to report.
Best Target 8.7 Data: Child Labour Rate
The data visualization displays yearly child labour statistics based on a variety of nationally-representative household surveys. All years of data hold up to standards set by interagency collaboration between ILO, UNICEF and World Bank, though, in some cases are not perfectly comparable between years. Detailed information on each data point is provided in the Measurement tab (above).
- Child labour: ILO/UNICEF data
- Forced labour: No nationally representative data
- Human trafficking: No nationally representative data
Human Development Index Score: 0.563 (2019)
Mean School Years: 6.3 years (2019)
Vulnerable Employment: 73.8% (2018)
Working Poverty Rate: 14.5% (2020)
- ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Not Ratified
- ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2002
- UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Ratified 2006
Social Protection Coverage
General (at least one): 8.7% (2016)
Unemployed: No data
Pension: 13% (2016)
Vulnerable: 0.2% (2016)
Children: 0.4% (2016)
Disabled: 0.1% (2016)
Poor: 0.5% (2016)
Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.
Child Labour Rate, Aged 5-17 (Source: ILO)
Based on the international conventions and the International Conference of Labour Statisticians (ICLS) resolution, and consistent with the approach utilized in the ILO global child labour estimates exercise, the statistical definition of child labour used includes:
a) children aged 5-11 years in all forms of economic activity;
b) children aged 12-14 years in all forms of economic activity except permissible “light” work;
c) children and adolescents aged 15-17 years in hazardous work; and
d) children aged 5-14 years performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week.
Only the measure provided for 2007 covers the full definition of hazardous work and cannot be compared directly with data from other sample years.
The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 5-17 in child labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2001 and 2007.
Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)
Hazardous child labour is the largest category of the worst forms of child labour with an estimated 73 million children aged 5-17 working in dangerous conditions in a wide range of sectors. Worldwide, the ILO estimates that some 22,000 children are killed at work every year.
In Cameroon, the latest estimates show that 2.4 percent of children aged 5-14 were engaged in hazardous work in 2011.
Only the measure provided for 2007 covers the full definition of hazardous work and cannot be compared directly with data from other sample years.
The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 5-14 in hazardous labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2000, 2001, 2006, 2007, and 2011.
Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 15-17 (Source: ILO)
Children aged 15-17 are permitted to engage in economic activities by international conventions in most cases, except when the work is likely to harm the health, safety or morals of children (Article 3 (d) of ILO Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour, 1999 (No. 182)).
In Cameroon, the latest estimates show that 20.1 percent of children aged 15-17 were engaged in hazardous work in 2007.
Only the measure provided for 2007 covers the full definition of hazardous work and cannot be compared directly with data from other sample years.
The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 15-17 in hazardous labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2001 and 2007.
Weekly Work Hours, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)
Children aged 5-11 are considered to be subjected to child labour when engaging in any form of economic activity. Children aged 12-14 are permitted to engage in “light” work that is not considered hazardous and falls below 14 hours per week.
According to the latest 2011 estimates, the average number of hours worked per week by children aged 5-14 in Cameroon was 12.3 hours. The average number of hours worked has decreased from 18.2 hours in 2007.
The chart displays differences in the number of hours that children aged 5-14 work in economic activities by sex and region. The sample includes all children of this age group. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2000, 2001, 2006, 2007 and 2011.
Weekly Work Hours Children Only in Economic Activity, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)
Children not attending school who are engaged in economic activity can be subjected to longer working hours.
In 2011, the latest year with available data, children in economic activity only, meaning they are not in school, worked an average of 18.4 hours per week. This number has decreased since 2007, when the average number of hours worked by this age group was 30.6.
The chart displays differences in the number of hours worked by children aged 5-14 who are not in school, by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2000, 2001, 2006, 2007, and 2011.
Weekly Hours Household Chores, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)
Researchers recognize that children involved in economic activities are not the only children working. The ICLS recommended definition of child labour includes children aged 5-14 performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week.
Children aged 5-14, on average, are found to work on household chores 7.7 hours per week according to the 2011 estimate. This estimate represents a decrease in hours worked across all age groups since the last estimate in 2006, which found that children aged 5-14 in Cameroon worked an average of 11.4 hours per week.
The chart displays differences in the number of hours children aged 5-14 work on household chores by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2000, 2006, and 2011.
Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: total (Source: ILO)
Identifying the sectors in which the most child labour exists can help policy actors and practitioners target efforts toward those industries.
The latest data available on child labour by sector for Cameroon is from 2007. By the 2007 estimate, the Agriculture sector had the most child labourers, followed by the Commerce, Hotels and Restaurants sector, the Manufacturing sector, the Other Services sector and Construction, Mining and Other Industrial Sectors.
The chart to the right displays child labour prevalence in each sector for all children. The charts below show the differences in child labour by sector with comparisons between groups by sex and region.
Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: sex (Source: ILO)
Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: area (Source: ILO)
SDG Indicator 8.7.1, Economic Activity (Source: ILO)
While the concept of child labour includes working in activities that are hazardous in nature, to ensure comparability of estimates over time and to minimize data quality issues, work beyond age-specific hourly thresholds is used as a proxy for hazardous work for the purpose of reporting on SDG indicator 8.7.1. Similarly, while the worst forms of child labour other than hazardous also form part of the concept of child labour more broadly, data on the worst forms of child labour are not currently captured in regular household surveys given difficulties with accurately and reliably measuring it. Therefore, this element of child labour is not captured by the indicators used for reporting on SDG 8.7.1.
In accordance with the ICLS resolutions, child labour can be measured on the basis of the production boundary set by the United Nations System of National Accounts (SNA), which limits the frame of reference to economic activity.
The chart displays the proportion and number of children aged 5-17 years engaged in economic activities at or above age-specific hourly thresholds in Cameroon for the year 2014. Gender disaggregated data is provided for 2014.
SDG Indicator 8.7.1, Household Chores (Source: ILO)
In addition to being measured on the basis of SNA, child labour can also be measured on the basis of the general production boundary, which includes economic activity and unpaid household services, that is, the production of domestic and personal services by a household member for consumption within their own household, commonly called “household chores”.
The chart displays the proportion of children aged 5-17 years engaged in economic activities and household chores at or above age-specific hourly thresholds in Cameroon for the year 2014. Gender disaggregated data is provided for 2014.
Measuring the incidence of forced labour is a much more recent endeavour and presents unique methodological challenges compared to the measurement of child labour.
No nationally representative data is available on forced labour prevalence in Cameroon.
Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on new guidelines presented by the International Labour Organization and adopted by the International Conference of Labour Statisticians.
The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.
No nationally representative data is available on human trafficking prevalence in Cameroon.
Visit the How to Measure the Change page to learn about measuring human trafficking prevalence, including information on collecting data through national referral mechanisms and producing prevalence statistics using Multiple Systems Estimation (MSE).
Case Data: International and Non-Governmental Organizations
Civil society organizations (CSOs) focused on human trafficking victim assistance can serve as crucial sources of data given their ability to reach a population that is notoriously difficult to sample.
Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (CTDC): The International Organization for Migration (IOM), Polaris and Liberty Asia have launched a global data repository on human trafficking, with data contributed by counter-trafficking partner organizations around the world. Not only does the CTDC serve as a central repository for this critical information, it also publishes normed and harmonized data from various organizations using a unified schema. This global dataset facilitates an unparalleled level of cross-border, trans-agency analysis and provides the counter-trafficking movement with a deeper understanding of this complex issue. Equipped with this information, decision makers will be empowered to create more targeted and effective intervention strategies.
UNODC compiles a global dataset on detected and prosecuted traffickers, which serves as the basis in their Global Report for country profiles. This information is beginning to paint a picture of trends over time, and case-specific information can assist investigators and prosecutors.
Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.
Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.
The chart displays information on human development in Cameroon between 1990 and 2019. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex.
The most recent year of the HDI, 2019, shows that the average human development score in Cameroon is 0.563. This score indicates that human development is medium.
HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)
Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.
As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:
“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”
The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in Cameroon over time.
Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in the availability of equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction towards achieving Target 8.7.
HDI Vulnerable Employment (Source: UNDP)
There are reasons to believe that certain types of labour and labour arrangements are more likely to lead to labour exploitation. According to the ILO:
“Own-account workers and contributing family workers have a lower likelihood of having formal work arrangements, and are therefore more likely to lack elements associated with decent employment, such as adequate social security and a voice at work. The two statuses are summed to create a classification of ‘vulnerable employment’, while wage and salaried workers together with employers constitute ‘non-vulnerable employment’.”
Between 1991 and 2018, Cameroon showed a decrease in the proportion of workers in vulnerable employment as compared to those in secure employment.
Working Poverty Rate (Source: ILO)
Labour income tells us about a household’s vulnerability. As the ILO explains in Profits and Poverty:
“Poor households find it particularly difficult to deal with income shocks, especially when they push households below the food poverty line. In the presence of such shocks, men and women without social protection nets tend to borrow to smooth consumption, and to accept any job for themselves or their children, even under exploitative conditions.”
ILO indicators that measure poverty with respect to the labour force include working poverty rate, disaggregated by sex, with temporal coverage spanning from 2000 to 2020. The chart displays linear trends in working poverty rate over time for all individuals over 15 years of age.
Labour Productivity (Source: ILO)
“Labour productivity is an important economic indicator that is closely linked to economic growth, competitiveness, and living standards within an economy.” However, when increased labour output does not produce rising wages, this can point to increasing inequality. As indicated by a recent ILO report (2015), there is a “growing disconnect between wages and productivity growth, in both developed and emerging economies”. The lack of decent work available increases vulnerability to situations of labour exploitation.
Labour productivity represents the total volume of output (measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product, GDP) produced per unit of labour (measured in terms of the number of employed persons) during a given period.
Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.
Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Source: UNHCR)
Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants.
According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children. “
As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements, as recognized by Member States in the New York declaration for refugees and migrants of September 2016.”
The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in Cameroon.
Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.
Travail forcé ou obligatoire
Art.2.- 1) Le droit au travail est reconnu à chaque citoyen comme un droit fondamental. L’Etat doit tout mettre en oeuvre pour l’aider à trouver un em- ploi et à le conserver lorsqu’il l’a obtenu.
2) Le travail est un droit national pour tout citoyen adulte et valide.
3) Le travail forcé ou obligatoire est interdit.
4) On entend par travail forcé ou obligatoire tout travail ou service, exigé d’un individu sous la me- nace d’une peine quelconque et pour lequel ledit individu ne s’est pas offert de son plein gré.
5) Toutefois, le terme « travail forcé ou obliga- toire » ne comprend pas :
a) tout travail ou service exigé en vertu des lois et règlements sur le service militaire et affecté à des travaux de caractère purement militaire ;
b) tout travail ou service d’intérêt général fai- sant partie des obligations civiques des ci-toyens, telles qu’elles sont définies par les lois et les règlements ;
c) tout travail ou service exigé d’un individu comme conséquence d’une condamnation prononcée par une décision judiciaire ;
d) tout travail ou service exigé dans les cas de force majeure, notamment dans les cas de guerre, de sinistres ou menaces de sinistres tels qu’incendies, inondations, épidémies et épi- zooties violentes, invasions d’animaux, d’in- sectes ou de parasites végétaux nuisibles et, en général, toutes circonstances mettant en danger ou risquant de mettre en danger la vie ou les conditions normales d’existence de l’ensemble ou d’une partie de la population.
Travail des enfants
Art.86.- 1) Les enfants ne peuvent être employés dans aucune entreprise, même comme apprentis, avant l’âge de quatorze ans, sauf dérogation accordée par arrêté du ministre chargé du Travail, compte tenu des circonstances locales et des tâches qui peuvent leur être demandées.
2) Un arrêté du ministre chargé du Travail fixe les conditions d’embauche, d’emploi et de contrôle de l’emploi des jeunes gens à bord des navires.
a) les jeunes gens de moins de dix-huit ans ne
peuvent, en aucun cas, être employés à bord des navires en qualité de soutiers ou de chauf- feurs ;
b) lorsque des enfants et des jeunes gens de moins de dix-huit ans doivent être embarqués sur des navires comportant un équipage non exclusivement composé de membres d’une même famille, ils doivent être au préalable soumis à une visite médicale attestant leur apti- tude à ce travail ; un certificat médical signé par un médecin agrée est établi à cet effet.
3) Un arrêté du ministre chargé du Travail fixe la nature des travaux et les catégories d’entreprises interdits aux jeunes gens et l’âge limite auquel s’applique l’interdiction.
4) Les arrêtés prévus aux alinéas précédents sont pris après avis de la Commission nationale de santé et de sécurité au travail.
Art 2. Les enfants ne peuvent etre employes avant l’age de quatorze ans; aucune derogation n’est admise
Art3. D’une maniere generale, l’emploi des enfants est subordonne a l’observation de conditions de travail satisfaisantes presentant toutes garanties pour leur sante, leur developpement physique et mental et leur moralite.
Worst Forms of Child Labour
Chapitre II. Duree du travail et travail de nuit
Chapitre III. Travaux interdits aux enfants
Traite des personnes
Article 2.- Au sens de la présente loi, les définitions ci-après sont admises :
a) Personne : être humain de l’un ou l’autre sexe quel que soit son âge ;
b) Le trafic des personnes : le fait de favoriser ou d’assurer le déplacement d’une personne à l’intérieur ou à l’extérieur du Cameroun afin d’en tirer, directement ou indirectement, un avantage matériel, quelle que soit la nature ;
c) La traite des personnes : s’entend comme le recrutement, le transfert, l’hébergement ou l’accueil des personnes aux fins d’exploitation, par menace, recours à la force ou à d’autres formes de contrainte, par enlèvement, fraude, tromperie, abus d’autorité ou de mise à profit d’une situation de vulnérabilité, ou par offre ou acceptation d’avantages pour obtenir le consentement d’une personne ayant autorité sur la victime ;
d) L’exploitation des personnes : comprend, au minimum, l’exploitation ou le proxénétisme des personnes ou toutes autres formes d’exploitation sexuelle, l’exploitation du travail des personnes ou les services forcés, l’esclavage ou les pratiques analogues, la servitude ou le prélèvement d’organes ;
National Action Plans, National Strategies
Aims to combat exploitative child labor by disseminating standard operating procedures for the National Referral System, raising awareness about how to identify and report cases of child trafficking, increasing punishments for offenders, and building the capacity of labor inspectors. Also aims to improve access to education for vulnerable groups by increasing the number of teachers and classrooms, establishing a legal framework to regulate parent-teacher associations, and increasing the rate of educational attainment for girls. Research was unable to determine if this policy was active during the reporting period.
Incorporated child labor concerns into the strategy for work. In March 2017, convened a 3-day interim assessment and provided training to labor inspectors, including child labor issues. In 2018, the government extended the program by 2 years.
Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the perpetration of forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour. These actions should be considered in wider societal efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.
Programs and Agencies for Victim Support
Policies for Assistance
Policies for Assistance, General
Article 322 — (1) Toute personne âgée de quatorze (14) ans au moins peut être entendue comme témoin. Toutefois, le mineur victime d’une infraction peut être entendu comme témoin, quel que soit son âge.
Article 72 — L’assureur de responsabilité peut, à la demande de la victime de l’in fraction ou du civilement responsable, être cité à comparaître devant la juridiction saisie pour s’entendre condamner, solidairement avec l’accusé, à réparer le préjudice causé par l’infraction.
Penalties, Forced Labour
Art.171.- Les dispositions du Code pénal sont ap- plicables :
-à ceux qui se rendent coupables d’actes de
résistance, d’outrage et de violence contre les inspecteurs du travail et les médecins- inspecteurs du travail ;
-aux auteurs d’infractions aux prescriptions de l’article 2 alinéa 3 ci-dessus ;
-aux personnes qui usurpent les fonctions d’inspecteur du travail ou de médecin- inspecteur du travail.
SECTION 292: Forced Labour
Whoever for his personal advantage compels another to do any work or .to render any service which he has not offered of his own free will shall be punished with imprisonment for from 1 (one) to 5 (five) years or with fine of from CFFAF 10 000 (ten thousand) to CFAF 500 000 (five hundred thousand), or with both such imprisonment and fine.
Penalties, Child Labour
“Art.167.- Sont punis d’une amende de 100.000 à 1.000.000 de francs :
-les auteurs d’infractions aux dispositions des
articles 29, 30 alinéa 1, 40, 41, 44, 50 alinéa 1, 51, 62, 64, 86, 87, alinéa 2, 88, 89, 90, 92, 93, 97, 98 alinéa 1, 99, 100, 101, 112 alinéas 2 et 3, 114 alinéa 1, 115 et 116 ci-dessus.
-les auteurs de fausses déclarations relatives aux statuts et aux noms et qualités de membres chargés de l’administration ou de la direction d’un syndicat ;
-l’usurpateur du titre de membre chargé de l’administration ou de la direction d’un syndi- cat ;
-les auteurs d’infractions aux dispositions du décret prévu à l’article 62 alinéa 1 ci-dessus.
-les auteurs d’infractions aux dispositions des conventions collectives ayant fait l’objet d’un décret d’extension en matière de salaire, pri- mes, indemnités et de tous avantages évalua- bles en espèces.
30. Les infractions aux dispositions de l’article 2 du present arrete sont punies des peines prevues a l’article 184 du Code du travail. Les infractions aux autres dispositions sont punies des peines prevues a l’article R.370 du Code Penal
Penalties, Human Trafficking
SECTION 342-1: Trafficking and Slavery of Persons
(1)Whoever engages even occasionally in the practice of trafficking in persons or slavery shall be punished with imprisonment for from 10 (ten) to 20 (twenty) years and with fine of from CFAF 50 000 (fifty
thousand) to CFAF 1 000 000 (one million).
(2)Whoever engages in trafficking in persons and slavery shall be punished with imprisonment of from 15 (fifteen) to 20 (twenty) years and with fine of from CFAF 100000 (one hundred thousand) to CFAF 10 000 000 (ten million) where the:
a) offence is committed against a minor of 15 (fifteen) years old ;
b) perpetrator is a legitimate, natural or adopted ascendant of the victim ;
c) offender has authority over the victim or is expected to participate by virtue of his duties in the fight against slavery or in peace keeping ;
d) offence is committed by an organized gang or an association of criminals;
e) offence Is committed with use of a weapon;
f) victims sustains injuries as described…; or
g) where the victim dies as a result of acts related to the offence.
( 3) The Court may also impose the forfeitures provided for In Section 30 of this Code.
Article 3.- (1) Est puni d’un emprisonnement de cinq (05) à dix (10) ans et d’une amende de dix mille (10 000) à cinq cent mille (500 000) francs CFA, celui qui met en gage une personne.
(2) Les peines prévues à l’alinéa (1) ci- dessus sont doublées si l’auteur est soit un ascendant, soit un tuteur, soit une personne assurant la garde m^me coutumière de la victime.
(3) Est puni d’un emprisonnement de dix (10) ans et d’une amende de dix mille (10 000) à un million (1 000 000) de francs CFA celui qui reçoit une personne e gage.
Article 4.- Est puni d’un emprisonnement de dix (10) à vingt (20) ans et d’une amende de cinquante mille (50 000) à un million de francs CFA celui qui se livre, même occasionnellement, au trafic ou à la traite des personnes.
Article 5.- Le trafic et la traite des personnes sont punis d’un emprisonnement de quinze (15) à vingt (20) ans et d’une amende de cent mille (100 000) à dix millions (10 000 000) de francs CFA, lorsque :
l’infraction est commise à l’égard d’une personne mineure de quinze (15) ans ; l’auteur des faits est un ascendant légitime, naturel ou adoptif de la victime ;
l’auteur des faits à autorité sur la victime ou est appelé à participer de par ses fonctions à la lutte contre la traite ou au maintien de la paix ;
l’infraction est commise avec usage d’une arme ;
la victime a subi des blessures telles que décrites à l’article 277 du Code pénal ;
ou lorsqu’elle est décédée des suites des actes liés à ces faits.
Article 6.- (1) Les auteurs, co-auteurs et complices des infractions de mise en gage, de trafic et de traite des personnes sont, en outre, condamnés aux peines accessoires prévues par l’article 30 du Code pénal.
(2) Les peines accessoires prévues aux articles 33, 34 et 35 du Codé Pénal peuvent également être prononcées.
Whoever enslaves any person or keeps him in slavery shall be punished with imprisonment for from 10 (ten) to 20 (twenty) years. The Court may in addition impose the forfeitures described in Section 30 of this Code.
SECTION 294: Immoral Earnings
(1) Whoever procures, aids or facilitates another persons’ prostitution, or shares in the proceeds of another’s prostitution, whether habitual or otherwise, or who is subsidized by any person engaging in prostitution shall be punished with imprisonment for from 6 (six) months to 5 (five) years and with fine of from CFAF 20 000 (twenty thousand) to CFAF 1 000 000 (one million).
(2) Whoever lives with a person engaging in prostitution shall be presumed to be subsidised by her, unless he shows that his own resources are sufficient to enable him to support himself.
(3) The punishment shall be doubled where:
a. the offence is accompanied; by coercion or by fraud or where the offender is armed; or where he is the owner, manager or otherwise in charge of an establishment where prostitution is habitually practiced;
b. where the offence has been committed to the detriment of any person under the age of 21 (twenty-one);
c. where the offender is the father or mother, guardian or person with customary responsibility.
(4) In the cases referred to under subsection 3, the provisions of section 48 shall be applied.
(5) The court may impose the forfeitures described by Section 30 of this Code and disqualify the offender for the same period from being guardian or curator of any person and from having custody, customary or otherwise, of any person under the age of 21 (twenty-one).
(6) Upon conviction under subsection 3 (a) of this section, the court shall order closure of the establishment, to whatever other use it may be put.
7. The prostitute herself shall not be treated as accessory to any offence under this section
SECTION 342: Debt Bondage of Persons
(1) Whoever subjects a person to debt bondage shall be punished with imprisonment for from 5 (five) to 10 (ten) years and with fine of from CFAF 10 000 (ten thousand) to CFAF 500 000 (five hundred thousand).
(2) The penalties provided in Subsection (1) above shall be doubled where the offender is either an ascendant, a guardian or a person having even customary custody over the victim.
(3) Whoever boards a person in debt bondage shall be punished with imprisonment for 10 (ten) years
and with fine of from CFAF 10 000 (ten thousand) to CFAF 1 000 000 (one million).
(4) The court may also impose the forfeitures provided for in Section 30 of this Code.
SECTION 11: International Offences
The criminal law of the Republic shall apply to mercenary, racial discrimination, piracy, trafficking in persons, slave trade, slavery, trafficking in narcotics, trafficking In toxic wastes, money laundering, cyber criminality, corruption and offences of misappropriation of public property committed even outside the territory of the Republic.
Provided that, no foreigner may be tried in the Republic for such an offence committed abroad unless he has been arrested in the Republic and has not been extradited, and except at the instance of the authority controlling prosecution.
1.ii. Take steps to measure, monitor and share data on prevalence and response to all such forms of exploitation, as appropriate to national circumstances;
Programs and Agencies for Enforcement
Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk of exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.
Social Protection Coverage: General (at Least One)
Social Protection (Source: ILO)
The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.
If a country does not appear on a chart, this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.