Datos de los paneles

Canada
Measurement
Measuring the Change

 

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Best Target 8.7 Data: Human Trafficking

The data visualization displays incidents of human trafficking violations reported to the Canadian police 2009-2016 and the rate of incidence per 100,000 persons. Detailed information on each data point is provided in the Measurement tab (above).

Data Availability
  • Child labour: No nationally representative data
  • Forced labour: No nationally representative data
  • Human trafficking: Case data available
Context
Human Development

Human Development Index:  0.922 (2018)

Mean School Years: 13.3 (2017)

Labour Indicators

Vulnerable Employment: 10.471% (2018)

Government Efforts
International Aid Commitments

Total Development Assistance to Anti-Slavery (2000-2013):

263,169,346 USD

Top Recipients:

Colombia, Bangladesh, Sudan

Key Ratifications
  • ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Ratified 2019
  • ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2000
  • UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Ratified 2002
Social Protection Coverage

General (at least one): 99.8% (2016)

Unemployed: 40% (2014)

Pension: 100% (2016)

Vulnerable: 99% (2016)

Children: 40% (2016)

Disabled: 67% (2016)

Poor: 100% (2016)

The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.

Incidents of Human Trafficking Violations, reported to the Canadian police (Data Source: Statistics Canada)

According to Statistics Canada, information on incidents of human trafficking violations is collected through the Uniform Crime Reporting Survey. These violations are Criminal Code offences and an offence under the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act which targets cross-border trafficking. Statistics Canada notes “criminal incidents that are reported by police can involve more than one violation.” The data displayed are incidents of the most serious violations reported on human trafficking.

In 2015 and 2016, the rates of human trafficking violations were nearly 1 per 100,000 population, almost twice that of the preceding year. Statistics Canada notes that the increase in police-reported incidents of human trafficking over time may depict true increase in the crime or, more likely, be “a reflection of police services becoming better equipped to detect, report and investigate human trafficking.” Data for 2017 and 2018 is available here.

Number of Victims Associated with Police-Reported Incidents Involving Human Trafficking (Source: Incident-based Uniform Crime Survey Trend Database)

In 2017, there were a total of 375 incidents of human trafficking reported by police: this included 271 incidents of trafficking in persons under the Criminal Code and another 104 incidents falling under IRPA (Table 6). Compared to 2016, this represented an 8% increase in the rate of Criminal Code trafficking in persons and a 1% increase in human trafficking under IRPA.

According to research, increases in reporting of human trafficking incidents may be an indication of efforts and resources being put into the investigation of these offences (United Nations 2008). Therefore, it is not clear whether an increase in the number of incidents reported is a true increase in the crime or more a reflection of police services becoming better equipped to detect, report and investigate human trafficking.

Number of victims associated with police-reported incidents involving human trafficking, by sex, Canada, 2014-2017 (Source: Statistics Canada)

Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.

Child employment is regulated by national and Provincial laws in Canada. Data on child employment is limited, most likely due to relatively low incidence. Statistics are available on youth employment (meaning employed individuals ages 15 to 17) but does not include information on child labour.

The International Conference of Labour Statisticians has additionally published guidelines on measuring ‘child labour’. These define ‘child labour’ in a way that goes beyond the scope of the statistics on youth employment captured by Statistics Canada, for example relating to the number of children involved in hazardous work.

Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.

Human Development Index (Data Source: UNDP)

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.

The chart displays information on human development in Canada between 1990 and 2018. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex.

The most recent year of the HDI, 2018, shows that the average human development score in Canada is 0.922. This score indicates that human development is very high.

HDI Education Index (Data Source: UNDP)

Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.

As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:

“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”

The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in the UK over time.

Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction towards achieving Target 8.7.

Vulnerable Employment (Data Source: World Bank)

There are reasons to believe that certain types of labour and labour arrangements are more likely to lead to labour exploitation. According to the ILO:

“Own-account workers and contributing family workers have a lower likelihood of having formal work arrangements, and are therefore more likely to lack elements associated with decent employment, such as adequate social security and a voice at work. The two statuses are summed to create a classification of ‘vulnerable employment’, while wage and salaried workers together with employers constitute ‘non-vulnerable employment’.”

Between 1991 and 2018, Canada showed an increase in the proportion of workers in vulnerable employment as compared to those in secure employment.

Labour Productivity (Data Source: ILO)

Labour productivity is an important economic indicator that is closely linked to economic growth, competitiveness, and living standards within an economy.” However, when increased labour output does not produce rising wages, this can point to increasing inequality. As indicated by a recent ILO report (2015), there is a “growing disconnect between wages and productivity growth, in both developed and emerging economies”. The lack of decent work available increases vulnerability to situations of labour exploitation.

Labour productivity represents the total volume of output (measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product, GDP) produced per unit of labour (measured in terms of the number of employed persons) during a given period.

Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.

Temporary Foreign Workers: Occupations (Data Source: ESDC)

According to the National Action Plan to Combat Human Trafficking (NAPCHT), the 2010 Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) Human Trafficking Threat Assessment reported that investigations and intelligence identified migrant workers as a vulnerable group for forced labour and have centered, in some cases, on the fraudulent use of the Temporary Foreign Worker (TFW) Program by third parties.

The Temporary Foreign Worker (TFW) Program has a comprehensive employer compliance regime in place to protect TFWs and the Canadian labour market. Employers must meet specific requirements to hire foreign workers and are expected to be aware of their ongoing responsibilities and obligations. There are also additional requirements to employing foreign workers in the Low-wage and Agricultural Streams, where workers may be particularly vulnerable. These generally include providing an employment contract, private health insurance until foreign workers are eligible for provincial/territorial insurance, round-trip transportation and, where applicable, suitable and affordable accommodations.

The graph above visualizes the number of TFW positions by National Occupational Classification.

Temporary Foreign Workers: Countries of Origin (Data Source: ESDC)

According to Employment and Social Development Canada (ESDC), the Temporary Foreign Worker Program allows Canadian employers to hire foreign workers to fill temporary jobs when qualified Canadians are not available. This program is regulated through the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act and the Immigration and Refugee Protection Regulations and is administered in partnership with Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (IRCC) and the Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA).

While in Canada, temporary foreign workers (TFWs) have the same rights and protections as Canadians and permanent residents under applicable federal, provincial and territorial employment standards and collective agreements.

The graph below visualizes the top countries of residency of temporary foreign workers from 2016-2019.

Temporary Foreign Workers: Agriculture (Data Source: ESDC)

The Primary Agriculture Stream of the TFWP is composed of 4 sub-Streams: (1) the Season Agricultural Worker Program (SAWP) for workers from participating countries; (2) the Agricultural Stream for work that involves production included on the National Commodities List; (3) Primary Agriculture — High-Wage Stream; and (4) Primary Agriculture — Low-Wage Stream for production not included on the National Commodities List. 

The physical and linguistic isolation of temporary foreign agricultural workers impact risk for situations of exploitation. The data displayed is of the number of Vulnerable TFWs from the Agricultural Stream, the SAWP and the Primary Agriculture – Low-Wage Stream.

Temporary Foreign Workers: Domestic Work (Data Source: ESDC)

While the regulation of working conditions of domestic workers is largely the responsibility of PT governments, the Government of Canada regulates and administers programs that facilitate the entry of foreign caregivers in Canada, namely the Temporary Foreign Worker (TFW) Program (administered by ESDC and IRCC), and the Home Support Worker Pilot and the Home Child Care Provider Pilot (administered solely by IRCC). Temporary foreign caregivers come to Canada primarily through the High-Wage and Low-Wage Streams of the TFW Program. 

In 2019, Canada announced new permanent residence programs for caregivers. As such, the number of caregivers entering Canada through the TFW Program has decreased, over the last several years as there is no longer a pathway to permanent residency for caregivers through the TFW Program. In most of the cases, employers looking to hire caregivers and support their application for permanent residency must apply under the Home Support Worker Pilot and the Home Child Care Provider Pilot.

Public Safety Canada (PSC) notes that low-wage migrant workers are particularly vulnerable to exploitation and abuse, including sexual exploitation, due to factors such as language barriers, working in isolated/remote areas, employer-specific work permits, lack of employer oversight and review/enforcement mechanisms, lack of access to support, and lack of access to information on their rights. These factors are common to the experiences of exploited migrant workers in domestic work.

The graph visualizes data on the number of TFW positions issued for home child care providers and home support workers from 2015-2017.

Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Data Source: UNHCR)

Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants.

According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children. “

As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements, as recognized by Member States in the New York declaration for refugees and migrants of September 2016.”

The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in Canada.

Underdevelopment influences and is influenced by Target 8.7 forms of exploitation. This suggests an important role for development assistance and programming in addressing these issues.

Yearly ODA Commitments to Anti-Slavery (Data Source: UNU-CPR)

A recent report released by UNU-CPR attempts to size ODA contributions that focus on tackling SDG 8.7 forms of exploitation. Canada committed 263,169,346 USD between 2000 and 2013 on anti-slavery programming. Annual commitments fluctuate, though it is important to note that commitments at any point in time may be dispersed over the course of several years. The chart also depicts the percentage of Canada’s GNI contributed to ODA. It should also be noted that this count does not include non-ODA assistance, domestic expenditure, or the growing flows of charitable giving directed at these concerns. The data source provides information up to 2013.

More current data may show a significant increase in spending on this programming, especially after the adoption of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development in 2015 and the Call to Action in 2017.

ODA Commitments by Form of Exploitation (Data Source: UNU-CPR)

Disaggregating ODA commitments by forms of exploitation using terms listed in each project description can provide a sense of the way aid is being spent on the various issues.

The graph shows that ODA commitments to Target 8.7 issues by Canada between 2000 and 2013 were diverse. In 2006 there were large spikes in spending on child labour and human trafficking programmes. These contributions were likely multi-year commitments, disbursed over several subsequent years. Child Labour was the form of exploitation that was targeted by the greatest amount in Canadian ODA. In 2003, 2005 and 2010, programming to eradicate child soldiering was the focus of the greatest commitments.

 

Top ODA Recipients (Data Source: UNU-CPR)

By tracking where aid commitments are focused, it is possible to take stock of priorities.

The visual displays total ODA commitments from Canada between 2000 and 2013, ranging from highest to lowest (cutting off at commitments under 10,000 USD). The countries receiving the most direct, bilateral ODA were Colombia, Bangladesh and Sudan, with the largest regional aid going to programming in the South of Sahara-Africa region (limited info on specific country recipients). The top recipient of Canadian ODA addressing Target 8.7 exploitation, Colombia, received three million USD more than the second  recipient, Bangladesh.

Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.

Official Definitions
Child Labor

Labour Code 1985 amend. Act to amend the Canada Labour Code (minimum wage) (Chapter 32), 1996
Employees under 17 years of age
179 An employer may employ a person under the age of seventeen years only

a. in an occupation specified by the regulations; and
b. subject to the conditions fixed by the regulations for employment in that occupation.

Employment Standards Code, 1988 amend. Fair and Family Friendly Workplaces Act (Alberta) 2017
Employment of individuals under 18 years of age
65(1) In this Division,

a. “artistic endeavour” means artistic endeavour as defined in the regulations;
b. “light work” means light work determined under subsection 2.

65(2) The Director must, after consultation in accordance with the regulations, establish a list of the types of employment that are light work for the purposes of this Division and must publish the list on the Minister’s department website.
65(3) Except as permitted by this Division or the regulations, no person shall employ an individual who is under 18 years of age.
65(4) Where a permit is required under this Division, the Director may, on receiving an application signed by the employer and by a parent, guardian or other person having the care, custody or control of the individual in respect of whom the permit is required, issue a permit authorizing the individual to be employed by the employer.
65(5) A permit issued by the Director under this section must include any terms and conditions set out in the regulations and may include any other terms and conditions the Director considers appropriate having regard to the age of the individual and the nature of the work.

12 years of age and under
65.1. An individual who is 12 years of age or younger may be employed only in an artistic endeavour and only if authorized under a permit issued by the Director.

13 to 15 years of age
65.2(1) An individual who is 13, 25 or 15 years of age may be employed only

a. in an artistic endeavour
b. in a type of employment that is light work, or
c. if so authorized under a permit issued by the Director, in any other type of employment, except hazardous work identified in the Occupational Health and Safety Act or the regulations under that Act.

65.2(2) Employment referred to in subsection 1.a. and 1.b. requires the consent of a parent, guardian or other person having the care, custody or control of the individual.
65.2(3) The consent must be in a form acceptable to the Director.

16 and 17 years of age
65.3(1) Subject to subsection 2, an individual who is 16 or 17 years of age may be employed in any type of employment
65.3(2) An individual who is 16 or 17 years of age may be employed in hazardous work identified in the Occupational Health and Safety Act or the regulations under that Act only if

a. the hazardous work is authorized under a permit issued by the Director
b. the individual is supervised by a responsible adult while the work is being performed and is adequately trained before performing any work, and
c. the health, safety and well-being of the individual are protected

Employment Standards Act (British Columbia) 1996
Hiring children
9.1. A person must not employ a child under 15 years of age unless the person has obtained the written consent of the child’s parent or guardian.
9.2. A person must not employ a child under 12 years of age without the director’s permission.
9.3. On permitting the employment of a child under 12 years of age, the director may set the conditions of employment for the child.
9.4. An employer must comply with the conditions of employment set under subsection 3.

Employment Standards Regulation 396/95 amend Reg. 431/2003 (British Columbia)
Application
45.1. This Division establishes conditions of employment for children 12 to less than 15 years of age but does not apply in respect of the employment of those children to whom Division 2 or 3 applies.

Exclusions from the Act
45.2 Section 37 of the Act does not apply to children in respect of whom this Division applies.

Limits on working hours
45.3.1. In this section, “school day” means, in relation to a child, a day on which the child’s school is in session.
45.3.2. An employer of a child must not require or allow the child to work on a school day at a time when the child is scheduled to attend.
45.3.3. An employer of a child must not require or allow the child to work

a. more than 4 hours on a school day,
b. more than 7 hours on a day that is not a school day, unless the employer receives prior written approval from the director,
c. more than 20 hours in a week that has 5 school days, and
d. in any case, more than 35 hours in a week. Adult supervision required 45.4 An employer of a child must ensure that the child works only under the direct and immediate supervision of a person who has reached 19 years of age.

The Employment Standards Code, 1998 amend. The Employment Standards Code Amendment Act (Manitoba) 2006 
Division 14 Employment of Children
Restricted employment of children under 16
83.1. Except as permitted by the regulations or by a permit issued by the director under subsection 2,

a. no person shall employ a child under the age of 16 years; and
b. no parent, guardian or other person having the care, custody or control of such a child shall allow the child to be employed.

Employment Standards Act (New Brunswick) 1982
Restrictions on employment of children

40. Subject to section 41, no employer shall employ a person who is under fourteen years of age

a. in any industrial undertaking;
b. in the forest industry;
c. in the construction industry;
d. in a garage or automotive service station;
e. in a hotel or restaurant;
f. in a theatre, dance hall or shooting gallery;
g. as an elevator operator
h. in any location or occupation prescribed by regulation

Labour Standards Act (Newfoundland and Labrador) 1990
PART IX Employment of Children
Meaning of “child”
45. In this Part, “child” means a person under 16 years of age.
Employment of children
46. An employer shall not

a. employ a child to do work that is or is likely to be

i. unwholesome or harmful to the child’s health or normal development, or
ii. prejudicial to the child’s attendance at school or to the child’s capacity to benefit from instruction given at school;

b. employ a child to work

i. for more than 8 hours a day,
ii. for more than 3 hours on a school day unless a certificate covering that day has been issued under section 8 of the School Attendance Act,
iii. on a day for a period that, when added to the time required for attendance at school on that day, totals more than 8 hours,
iv. between the hours of 10 p.m. of 1 day and 7 a.m. of the following day,
v. in circumstances that would prevent the child from obtaining a rest period of at least 12 consecutive hours a day, or
vi. occupations that are prescribed as hazardous occupations or undertakings;

c. employ a child who is under the age of 14 years unless the work is prescribed work within prescribed undertakings; or
d. employ a child while a strike by employees or a lockout of employees by the employer is in progress.

Labour Standards Code (Nova Scotia) 1989
Children under sixteen years
68.1. No person shall pay wages to a child under fourteen years of age to do work that is or is likely to be

a. unwholesome or harmful to his health or normal development; or
b. such as to prejudice his attendance at school or capacity to benefit from instruction there given.

2. No person shall employ a child under sixteen years of age in work of any kind in work

a. an industrial undertaking;
b. the forest industry;
c. garages and automobile service stations;
d. hotels;
da. restaurants, except where an employee is not operating cooking equipment and where safety training on all equipment and adequate supervision is provided and the person is at least fourteen years of age;
e. the operating of elevators;
f. theatres, dance halls, shooting galleries, bowling-alleys, billiard and pool rooms; g. work or class of work in which the employment of a child under sixteen years of age is prohibited by regulation.

3. No person shall employ a child under fourteen years of age to

a. for more than eight hours in any day;
b. for more than three hours on any school day unless an employment certificate authorizing the employment of the child has been issued under the Education Act;
c. on any day for a period that, when added to the time required for attendance at school on that day, totals more than eight hours;
d. between the hour of ten o’clock in the afternoon of any day and the hour of six o’clock in the forenoon of the following day;
e. in any work or class of work in which the employment of a child under fourteen years of age is prohibited by regulation.

4. Subject to any other Act or regulation, subsection 2 does not apply to an employer who employs members of his family.
5. The parent or guardian of a child employed in contravention of this Act, unless he establishes that the child was so employed without his consent or connivance, is liable to a fine in accordance with Section 93.

Effect of Section 68
69 The provisions of Section 68 are in addition to and not in derogation of the provisions of any other Act respecting the employment of children.

Youth Employment Act (Prince Edward Island) 1990
2. Application of Act This Act does not apply to employment

a. pursuant to any course of study at a trade school registered under the Trade Schools Act R.S.P.E.I. 1988, Cap. T-4;
b. in an enterprise in which only members of the employer’s family are employed;
c. of such descriptions as may be prescribed in the regulations.

4. General principle governing youth employment
No employer shall employ a young person in employment that is or is likely to be harmful to the health or safety, or moral or physical development of the young person.

Construction
No employer shall employ any young person in construction.

Hours of work
4.1. No employer shall employ a young person

a. between the hours of 11:00 p.m. and 7:00 a.m.;
b. during normal school hours except pursuant to a recognized vocational training or apprenticeship program; or
c. for more than

i. three hours on any school day,
ii. eight hours on any day other than a school day,
iii. forty hours in any week.

Loi du 22 juin 1979 sur les normes du travail (Quebec)
DIVISION VI.2 WORK PERFORMED BY CHILDREN
84.2. No employer may have work performed by a child that is disproportionate to the child’s capacity, or that is likely to be detrimental to the child’s education, health or physical or moral development.
84.3. No employer may have work performed by a child under the age of 14 years without first obtaining the written consent of the holder of parental authority or the tutor. The employer must preserve the written consent as if it were an entry required to be made in the registration system or register referred to in paragraph 3 of section 29.
84.4. No employer may have work performed during school hours by a child subject to compulsory school attendance.
84.5. An employer who has work performed by a child subject to compulsory school attendance must ensure that the child’s work is scheduled so that the child is able to attend school during school hours.
84.6. No employer may have work performed by a child between 11 p.m. on any given day and 6 a.m. on the following day, except in the case of a child no longer subject to compulsory school attendance, in the case of newspaper deliveries, or in any other case determined by regulation of the Government.
84.7. An employer who has work performed by a child must schedule the work so that, having regard to the location of the child’s family residence, the child may be at the family residence between 11 p.m. on any given day and 6 a.m. on the following day, except in the case of a child no longer subject to compulsory

Conditions of Employment Regulations (Saskatchewan) 2009
Youth employment – parental consent required
9.1.1. In this section and in sections 9.2 to 9.5:

a. “parent”, with respect to a youth, includes the legal guardian of the youth or any other person who has lawful care and custody of the youth;
b. “school” means a school as defined in The Education Act, 1995 and includes a registered independent school as defined in that Act;
c. “school day” means a day during which a school is in session;
d. “youth” means a person who is 14 years of age or older but less than 16 years of age.

9.1.2. No person shall employ a youth unless that person has obtained the written consent of the youth’s parent.
9.1.3. Every person who employs a youth shall keep a copy of the written consent for the youth that is obtained pursuant to subsection (2) available for inspection by the minister or the minister’s duly authorized representative in the place of business operated by the person.

Minimum age of employment
9.4 The minimum age at which employees may be employed in any class of employment is 14 years of age.

Worst Forms of Child Labour

Canada Labour Standards Regulations (SOR/72-7: Order in Council P.C. 1972-6) (C.R.C., c. 986) amend. 1996
10.1. An employer may employ a person under the age of 17 years in any office or plant, in any transportation, communication, maintenance or repair service, or in any construction work or other employment in a federal work, undertaking or business if

a. he is not required, under the law of the province in which he is ordinarily resident, to be in attendance at school; and
b. the work in which he is to be employed

i. is not carried on underground in a mine,
ii. would not cause him to be employed in or enter a place that he is prohibited from entering under the Explosives Regulations,
iii. is not work as a nuclear energy worker as de- fined in the Nuclear Safety and Control Act,
iv. is not work under the Canada Shipping Act that he is prohibited by reason of age from doing, or
v. is not likely to be injurious to his health or to endanger his safety.

10.2. An employer may not cause or permit an employee under the age of 17 years to work between 11 p.m. on one day and 6 a.m. on the following day.

The Employment Standards Code, 1998 amend. The Employment Standards Code Amendment Act (Manitoba) 2006 
Protection of children working at night
84.1. Subject to the regulations, no employer shall require or allow an employee under the age of 18 years to work alone between the hours of 11:00 p.m. and 6:00 a.m. Restricted employment of children
84.2. Subject to the regulations, no employer shall require or allow an employee under the age of 18 years to work in a prescribed industry or occupation.

The Employment Standards Code: Employment Standards Regulation (Manitoba) 2007
Prescribed industries and occupations
25.1. The following industries and occupations are prescribed for the purpose of subsection 84.2. of the Code:

a. the forestry industry;
b. an occupation in a sawmill or pulp mill;
c. an occupation involving working in underground mine or the face of an open pit quarry;
d. an occupation involving the abatement or removal of asbestos;
e. an occupation involving work in an enclosed or partially enclosed space that

i. except for the purposes of performing work, is not primarily designed or intended for human occupancy, and
ii. has restricted means of access or egress.

25.2 The director may issue a permit allowing a child to be employed in an occupation or industry prescribed by subsection 1 if he or she is satisfied that the employment is not likely to adversely affect the safety, health or well-being of the child.
25.3. A person may be employed, without a permit under subsection 2, as an apprentice under The Apprenticeship and Trades Qualification Act in an industry or occupation prescribed by subsection 1.

Restriction on permits for children under 16
26 The director must not issue a permit under subsection 83.2. of the Code that would allow a child under the age of 16 years to be employed

a. on a construction site;
b. in an industrial or manufacturing production process;
c. in work involving scaffolding or swing stages;
d. to work on a drilling or servicing rig; or
e. in arboriculture, if the work involves the use of dangerous tools or machinery;

unless the employer has satisfied the director that the employment is not likely to adversely affect the safety, health or well-being of the child.

Employment Standards Act (New Brunswick) 1982
Restrictions on employment of children
39 Subject to section 41, no employer shall employ a person who is under the age of sixteen years

a. in employment that is or is likely to be unwholesome or harmful to the person’s health, welfare or moral or physical development;
b. for more than six hours in any day;
c. for more than three hours on any school day;
d. on any day for a period which, when added to the time required for attendance at school on that day, would require the person to spend more than a total of eight hours attending school and working;
e. between the hour of ten o’clock in the afternoon of any day and the hour of six o’clock in the forenoon of the following day.

Occupational Health and Safety Act (Ontario) 1990
25.2 Without limiting the strict duty imposed by subsection 1, an employer shall,

f. only employ in or about a workplace a person over such age as may be prescribed; g. not knowingly permit a person who is under such age as may be prescribed to be in or about a workplace;

Youth Employment Act (Prince Edward Island) 1990
7.1. The Director, the inspector and any occupational health and safety officer appointed under the Occupational Health and Safety Act may at any time enter any premises in which a young person is employed and conduct an inspection to ensure compliance with the requirements of this Act or the Occupational Health and Safety Act.
7.2. Order prohibiting employment in dangerous workplace
Where the Director or an occupational health and safety officer has determined that any toxic substance or machinery or equipment in use in any industrial undertaking or any plant engaged in the processing of fish, agricultural products or forest products, is potentially dangerous to young persons, he may, by order, prohibit the employment of young persons in that undertaking or plant either generally or in a location proximate to that substance, machinery or equipment.

Conditions of Employment Regulations (Saskatchewan) 2009
9.2 No person shall employ a youth:

a. in the period after 10:00 p.m. on a day preceding a school day and until the start of the hours that the school the youth attends is in session during the school day;
b. for more than 16 hours during a week in which there is a school day for the school that the youth attends; or
c. subject to section 149 of The Education Act, 1995, during the hours that the school the youth attends is in session.

Occupational Health and Safety Regulations (Saskatchewan) 1996
Employment of young persons
14.1. An employer or contractor shall ensure that no person under the age of 16 years is employed or permitted to work:

a. on a construction site;
b. in a production process at a pulp mill, sawmill or woodworking establishment;
c. in a production process at a smelter, foundry, refinery or metal processing or fabricating operation;
d. in a confined space;
e. in a production process in a meat, fish or poultry processing plant;
f. in a forestry or logging operation;
g. on a drilling or servicing rig;
h. as an operator of powered mobile equipment, a crane or a hoist;
i. where exposure to a chemical or biological substance is likely to endanger the health or safety of the person; or
j. in power line construction or maintenance.

14.2. An employer or contractor shall ensure that no person under the age of 18 years is employed:

a. underground or in an open pit at a mine;
b. as a radiation worker;
c. in an asbestos process as defined in section 330;
d. in a silica process as defined in section 346; or
e. in any activity for which these regulations or any other regulations made pursuant to the Act require the use of an atmosphere-supplying respirator.

Trafficking in Persons

Criminal Code, 1985 amend. An Act to amend the Criminal Code (exploitation and trafficking in persons) 2015
Trafficking in Persons
279.01.1. Every person who recruits, transports, transfers, receives, holds, conceals or harbours a person, or exercises control, direction or influence over the movements of a person, for the purpose of exploiting them or facilitating their exploitation is guilty of an indictable offence and liable

Trafficking of a person under the age of eighteen years
279.011.1. Every person who recruits, transports, transfers, receives, holds, conceals or harbours a person under the age of eighteen years, or exercises control, direction or influence over the movements of a person under the age of eighteen years, for the purpose of exploiting them or facilitating their exploitation is guilty of an indictable offence and liable

Exploitation
279.04.1. For the purposes of sections 279.01 to 279.03, a person exploits another person if they cause them to provide, or offer to provide, labour or a service by engaging in conduct that, in all the circumstances, could reasonably be expected to cause the other person to believe that their safety or the safety of a person known to them would be threatened if they failed to provide, or offer to provide, the labour or service.

Factors
279.04.2. In determining whether an accused exploits another person under subsection 1, the Court may consider, among other factors, whether the accused

a. used or threatened to use force or another form of coercion;
b. used deception; or
c. abused a position of trust, power or authority.

The Child Exploitation and Human Trafficking Act (Manitoba) 2012
Elements of human trafficking
1.3. A person engages in human trafficking when

a. he or she

i. abducts, recruits, transports or harbours a person, or
ii. exercises control, direction or influence over the movements of a person; and

b. he or she uses force, the threat of force, fraud, deception, intimidation, the abuse of power or a position of trust or the repeated provision of a controlled substance, in order to cause, compel or induce that person

i. to become involved in prostitution or any other form of sexual exploitation,
ii. to provide forced labour or services, or
iii. to have an organ or tissue removed.

Prevention of and Remedies for Human Trafficking Act (Ontario) 2017
Definition
1. In this Act, “human trafficking” means conduct described in section 279.01, 279.011, 279.02 or 279.03 of the Criminal Code (Canada), taking into account any evidentiary or other rules set out in those sections respecting the determination of the conduct but not requiring a charge or conviction under any of those sections.

International Commitments
National Strategies

National Strategy To Combat Human Trafficking 2019-2024

On September 4, 2019, the Government of Canada announced the National Strategy to Combat Human Trafficking (National Strategy) which brings together federal efforts under one strategic framework, and is supported by an investment of $57.22 million over five years and $10.28 million ongoing. The National Strategy will help ensure that Canada and individuals are protected from all forms of human trafficking and harms associated with the crime. The National Strategy builds on the internationally recognized pillars of prevention, protection, prosecution and partnerships, and incorporates a new pillar of “empowerment” to ensure considerable focus is put towards enhancing supports and services to victims affected by this crime. Investments under the National Strategy will also support a national public awareness campaign that will target Canadian youth, parents and the general public with the aim of increasing awareness of human trafficking, addressing public misconceptions of the crime, creating awareness of the warning signs and ways to report suspected incidences. The National Strategy will also enhance support services for victims and at-risk populations, develop training tools to help key sectors identify victims, and increase capacity to detect and respond to suspected cases.

The National Action Plan to Combat Human Trafficking, 2012

Canadian Human Trafficking Hotline

The Canadian Human Trafficking Hotline is a multi-lingual, toll-free service available 24/7 that refers victims to law enforcement, and a range of supports and services that will allow victims to easily access the help they need. The Hotline will also support data collection efforts to better understand the scope of human trafficking in Canada, increase public awareness around human trafficking and provide resources for those seeking information on human trafficking.

Ontario’s Strategy to End Human Trafficking, 2016

British Colombia’s Action Plan to Combat Human Trafficking, 2013-2016

Tracia’s Trust: Manitoba’s Sexual Exploitation Strategy, 2002

Canada’s Feminist International Assistance Policy

The policy outlines an integrated and comprehensive framework for Canada’s international assistance. It adopts a feminist approach that is human rights-based and inclusive and allows the Government to work across the SDGs, supporting both targeted programming on specific issues in SDG 8.7 and addressing the root causes and drivers of child and forced labour and trafficking. 

National Consultations Discussion Paper: The Way Forward to End Human Trafficking

The National Consultations Discussion Paper was prepared by Public Safety Canada in consultation with the federal Human Trafficking Taskforce. The Discussion Paper guided a series of in-person consultations, which brought together over 200 stakeholders, to identify issues, gaps and challenges affecting Canada’s ability to counter human trafficking and to identify potential actions and initiatives to address them. The consultations informed the Government of Canada in the development of the National Strategy to Combat Human Trafficking.  

2016-2017 Horizontal Evaluation of the National Action Plan to Combat Human Trafficking

The 2016-17 Horizontal Evaluation of the National Action Plan to Combat Human Trafficking provides recommendations to enhance Canada’s ability to address human trafficking. Some recommendations include forging closer partnerships with other levels of government, Indigenous communities, civil society, the private sector as well as bilateral and multilateral partners; implementing a mechanism to connect victims with access to dedicated services and facilitate reporting of human trafficking; and improving capacity to collect national data on human trafficking.

RCMP National Human Trafficking Section (NHTS)

The RCMP National Human Trafficking Section (NHTS) centrally facilitates the RCMP’s effort in countering Human Trafficking through awareness, education and community outreach, as well as building and enhancing partnerships, supporting operations, and advancing operational policy and internal / external reporting. The RCMP remains committed to support national and local efforts to effectively combat human trafficking by investigating, disrupting and bringing to justice those who are involved in this crime.

International Ratifications

ILO Forced Labour Convention, 1930 (No. 29), Ratified 2011

ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention (No. 29), Ratified 2019

ILO Abolition of Forced Labour Convention (No. 105) Ratified 1959

ILO Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138), Ratified 2016

ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention (No. 182) Ratified 2000

Slavery Convention 1926 and amended by the Protocol of 1953, Definitive Signature 1953

UN Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, Ratification 1963

UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol), Ratification 2002

UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, Ratification 1991

UN Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Ratification 2000

UN Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, Ratification 2005

International Initiatives

A Call to Action to End Forced Labour, Modern Slavery and Human Trafficking

Principles To Guide Government Action To Combat Human Trafficking in Global Supply Chains

G7 Foreign and Security Ministers commitments to counter trafficking in persons

G20 Strategy to eradicate child labour, forced labour, human trafficking and modern slavery in the world of work

Global Compact for Migration

Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the perpetration of modern slavery, forced labour, child labour and human trafficking. These actions should be considered in wider societal efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.

Programs and Agencies for Victim Support and Addressing Risk (Source: Various)

Policies for Assistance
Policies for Assistance

Canadian Victims Bill of Rights, 2015
Definitions
2 The following definitions apply in this Act.
victim means an individual who has suffered physical or emotional harm, property damage or economic loss as the result of the commission or alleged commission of an offence. (victime)

Temporary Residence Permit (TRP) guidelines, 2006

Protection of Sexually Exploited Children Regulation (Alberta) 2007
Services for 18 to 23 year olds
3.1. For the purposes of assisting a person referred to in section 7.2 of the Act to remain free of being sexually exploited because of involvement in prostitution after that person attains 18 years of age, a director may enter into an agreement with that person to continue to provide the following services to that person if, in the opinion of the director, the services are not reasonably available to that person from other sources:

a. living accommodations;
b. support and assistance relating to the necessities of life;
c. any other services that, in the opinion of the director, may be required;
d. if the person is under 20 years of age, the following additional services:

i. health benefits;
ii. residential services;
iii. financial assistance for training.

3.2. No agreement under subsection 1 may be entered into or remains in force after the person’s 24th birthday.

The Child Exploitation and Human Trafficking Act (Manitoba) 2012
Tort of Human Trafficking
18. A person who engages in human trafficking of a person commits a tort against that person.

Action without proof of damage
19.1. An action for human trafficking may be brought without proof of damage.

Consent-no defence
19.2. In an action for human trafficking, it is no defence that the plaintiff consented to any of the conduct in question.

Remedies
20.1. In an action for human trafficking, the court may

a. award damages to the plaintiff, including general, special, aggravated and punitive damages;
b. order the defendant to account to the plaintiff for any profits that have accrued to the defendant as the result of the human trafficking of the plaintiff;
c. issue an injunction on such terms and with such conditions as the court determines appropriate in the circumstances; and
d. make any other order that the court considers just and reasonable in the circumstances.

Prevention of and Remedies for Human Trafficking Act (Ontario) 2017

Child, Youth and Family Services Act (Ontario) 2017

Foreign Worker Rights, 2018

A Handbook for Criminal Justice Practitioners on Trafficking in Persons

Fact Sheet #1: Trafficking in Persons Specific Offences

Fact Sheet #2: Trafficking in Persons and Human Smuggling

Fact Sheet #3: Trafficking in Persons – Victims

Fact Sheet #4: Testimonial Aids for Victims

Fact Sheet #5: Trafficking in Persons – Sentencing

Fact Sheet #6: Trafficking in Persons – Pre-trial Detention/Release

Penalties
Penalties, Child Labour

Labour Code, 1985
256.1. Every person is guilty of an offence who

a. contravenes any provision of this Part or the regulations, other than a provision of Division IX, subsection 239.1(2), 239.2(1) or 252(2) or any regulation made under section 227 or paragraph 264(a);
b. contravenes any order made under this Part or the regulations; or
c. discharges, threatens to discharge or otherwise discriminates against a person because that person

i. has testified or is about to testify in any proceedings or inquiry taken or had under this Part, or
ii. has given any information to the Minister or an inspector regarding the wages, hours of work, annual vacation or conditions of work of an employee.

Punishment
256.1.1 Every person who is guilty of an offence under subsection (1) is liable on summary conviction

a. in the case of an employer that is a corporation,

i. for a first offence, to a fine of not more than $50,000,
ii. for a second offence, to a fine of not more than $100,000, and
iii. for each subsequent offence, to a fine of not more than $250,000; and

b. in all other cases,

i. for a first offence, to a fine of not more than $10,000,
ii. for a second offence, to a fine of not more than $20,000, and
iii. for each subsequent offence, to a fine of not more than $50,000.

Marginal note: Second or subsequent offence
256.1.2. For the purposes of subsection (1.1), in determining whether a person convicted of an offence has committed a second or subsequent offence, an earlier offence may be taken into account only if the person was convicted of the earlier offence within the five-year period immediately before the day on which the person is convicted of the offence for which sentence is being imposed.

Protection of Sexually Exploited Children Regulation (Alberta) 2007
Offence
9. any person who

a. causes a child to be a child in need of protection, or
b. obstructs or interferes with, or attempts to obstruct or interfere with, a director or a police officer exercising any power or performing any duty under this Act

is guilty of an offence and liable to a fine of not more than $25 000 or to imprisonment for a period of not more than 24 months or to both a fine and imprisonment.

Employment Standards Act (British Columbia) 1996
Determinations and consequences
79.1. If satisfied that a person has contravened a requirement of this Act or the regulations, the director may require the person to do one or more of the following:

a. comply with the requirement;
b. remedy or cease doing an act;
c. post notice, in a form and location specified by the director, respecting

i. a determination, or
ii. a requirement of, or information about, this Act or the regulations;

d. pay all wages to an employee by deposit to the credit of the employee’s account in a savings institution;
e. employ, at the employer’s expense, a payroll service for the payment of wages to an employee;
f. pay any costs incurred by the director in connection with inspections under section 85 related to investigation of the contravention.

Monetary penalties
98.1. In accordance with the regulations, a person in respect of whom the director makes a determination and imposes a requirement under section 79 is subject to a monetary penalty prescribed by the regulations.
98.1.1 A penalty imposed under this section is in addition to and not instead of any requirement imposed under section 79.
98.1.2. A determination made by the director under section 79 must include a statement of the applicable penalty.
98.2. If a corporation contravenes a requirement of this Act or the regulations, an employee, officer, director or agent of the corporation who authorizes, permits or acquiesces in the contravention is also liable to the penalty.
98.3. A person on whom a penalty is imposed under this section must pay the penalty whether or not the person

a. has been convicted of an offence under this Act, or
b. is also liable to pay a fine for an offence under section 125.

98.4. A penalty imposed under this Part is a debt due to the government and may be collected by the director in the same manner as wages.

The Employment Standards Code (Manitoba) 1998 
140.1. A person that is guilty of an offence under this Code is liable on summary conviction to a fine

a. in the case of an employer that is a corporation, of not more than $25,000.;
b. in the case of a director of a corporation or an employer that is an individual, of not more than $5,000.; and
c. in the case of an employee, of not more than $2,500.

Penalties for subsequent offences
140.2. A person guilty of an offence under this Code for a second or subsequent time is liable, in addition to the penalty under subsection 1, to

a. a fine of not more than the maximum fine that applies under subsection 1; or
b. imprisonment for a term of not more than three months; or both.

Offences by directors of corporations
141. When a corporation commits an offence under this Code, every director of the corporation who directed, authorized, assented to, permitted, or participated or acquiesced in the offence is also guilty of the offence, whether or not the corporation has been prosecuted or convicted.

The Employment Standards Code: Employment Standards Regulation (Manitoba) 2007

SCHEDULE (Section 29) ADMINISTRATIVE PENALTIES

Labour Standards Act (Newfoundland and Labrador) 1990
Consent of parent or guardian
48.1. A person shall, before entering upon a contract of service with a child, obtain the written consent of the parent or guardian of that child, which shall be kept by the employer as part of the record of the employment of the child, and the age of the child shall be specified in the written consent.
48.2. Where an employer of a child

a. fails to obtain a written consent referred to in subsection 1 that specifies the age of the child; or
b. fails to keep the written consent as part of the record of employment of the child,

the employer is guilty of an offence and liable on summary conviction to a fine of not less than $100, or more than $500 or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 1 month, or to both a fine and imprisonment.

Labour Standards Code (Nova Scotia) 1989
94.1. A person that is guilty of an offence under this Act is liable on summary conviction to a fine of

a. in the case of a corporation, not more than twenty-five thousand dollars;
b. in the case of a person, other than an employee, that is not a corporation or in the case of a director of a corporation, not more than five thousand dollars; or
c. in the case of an employee, not more than two thousand five hundred dollars.

94.2. A person guilty of a second or subsequent offence under this Act is liable, in addition to the fine under subsection 1, to or to both.

a. an additional fine of not more than the maximum fine set out in subsection 1 for that person; or
b. imprisonment for a term of three months,

94.3. Where a contravention or failure to comply continues for more than one day, the person is guilty of a separate offence for each day that the offence continues.

Education Act (Ontario) 1990
Employment during school hours
30.3. Anyone who employs during school hours a person required to attend school under section 21 is, unless the person is 16 years old or older, guilty of an offence and on conviction is liable to a fine of not more than $200.

Occupational Health and Safety Act (Ontario) 1990
Penalties
66.1. Every person who contravenes or fails to comply with,
a. a provision of this Act or the regulations;
b. an order or requirement of an inspector or a Director; or
c. an order of the Minister, is guilty of an offence and on conviction is liable to a fine of not more than $100,000 or to imprisonment for a term of not more than twelve months, or to both.
Idem
66.2. If a corporation is convicted of an offence under subsection 1, the maximum fine that may be imposed upon the corporation is $1,500,000 and not as provided therein.

Youth Employment Act (Prince Edward Island) 1990
9. Offence
An employer who violates any provision of this Act or fails to comply with an order made under section 7 is guilty of an offence and liable on summary conviction to a fine of not less than $200 or more than $1,000.

The Saskatchewan Employment Act, 2013
Offences 2‑
95.1. No person shall:

a. in the case of an employer:

i. fail to pay an employee:

A. the wages owing to the employee in the time and manner required pursuant to this Part, the regulations made pursuant to this Part or any authorization issued pursuant to this Part; or
B. the total wages to which the employee is entitled in accordance with the employee’s contract of employment or with a collective agreement that applies to the employee;

ii. take discriminatory action against an employee for any reason prohibited by this Part;
iii. make a deduction from wages that is not authorized or allowed by this Part or the regulations made pursuant to this Part;
iv. fail to keep true and accurate records as required pursuant to this Part or the regulations made pursuant to this Part;
v. fail to provide a statement of earnings to an employee that satisfies the requirements of this Part or the regulations made pursuant to this Part; or
vi. fail to provide records in the time and manner required by an employment standards officer;

b. intentionally delay or obstruct the director of employment standards or an employment standards officer in the exercise of his or her powers or the performance of his or her duties;
c. fail to reasonably cooperate with the director of employment standards or an employment standards officer in the exercise of his or her powers or the performance of his or her duties;
d. fail to comply with any provision of this Part, any regulations made pursuant to this Part or any authorization issued pursuant to this Part.

95.2. Every person who contravenes a provision of subsection (1) is guilty of an offence and liable on summary conviction:

a. subject to clause (b), to a fine of not more than $10,000; and
b. in the case of an offence that is committed within six years after the person is convicted of any offence:

i. to a fine of not more than $25,000 for a second offence; and
ii. to a fine of not more than $50,000 for a third or subsequent offence.

Penalties, Trafficking in Persons

Criminal Code, 1985 amend. An Act to amend the Criminal Code (exploitation and trafficking in persons) 2015
Offence in relation to trafficking in persons
4.11. Notwithstanding anything in this Act or any other Act, every one who, outside Canada, commits an act or omission that if committed in Canada would be an offence against section 279.01, 279.011, 279.02 or 279.03 shall be deemed to commit that act or omission in Cana- da if the person who commits the act or omission is a Canadian citizen or a permanent resident within the meaning of subsection 2(1) of the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act.

Trafficking in Persons
279.01.1. Every person who recruits, transports, transfers, receives, holds, conceals or harbours a person, or exercises control, direction or influence over the movements of a person, for the purpose of exploiting them or facilitating their exploitation is guilty of an indictable offence and liable

a. to imprisonment for life and to a minimum punishment of imprisonment for a term of five years if they kidnap, commit an aggravated assault or aggravated sexual assault against, or cause death to, the victim during the commission of the offence; or
b. to imprisonment for a term of not more than 14 years and to a minimum punishment of imprisonment for a term of four years in any other case.

Trafficking of a person under the age of eighteen years
279.011.1. Every person who recruits, transports, transfers, receives, holds, conceals or harbours a person under the age of eighteen years, or exercises control, direction or influence over the movements of a person under the age of eighteen years, for the purpose of exploiting them or facilitating their exploitation is guilty of an indictable offence and liable

a. to imprisonment for life and to a minimum punishment of imprisonment for a term of six years if they kidnap, commit an aggravated assault or aggravated sexual assault against, or cause death to, the victim during the commission of the offence; or
b. to imprisonment for a term of not more than four- teen years and to a minimum punishment of imprisonment for a term of five years, in any other case.

Material benefit — trafficking
279.02.1. Everyone who receives a financial or other material benefit, knowing that it is obtained by or de- rived directly or indirectly from the commission of an of- fence under subsection 279.01(1), is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term of not more than 10 years.

Material benefit — trafficking of person under 18 years
279.02.2. Everyone who receives a financial or other material benefit, knowing that it is obtained by or derived directly or indirectly from the commission of an offence under subsection 279.011(1), is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term of not more than 14 years and to a minimum punishment of imprisonment for a term of two years.

Withholding or destroying documents — trafficking
279.03.1 Everyone who, for the purpose of commit- ting or facilitating an offence under subsection 279.01(1), conceals, removes, withholds or destroys any travel document that belongs to another person or any document that establishes or purports to establish another person’s identity or immigration status — whether or not the document is of Canadian origin or is authentic — is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term of not more than five years.

Withholding or destroying documents — trafficking of person under 18 years
279.03.2. Everyone who, for the purpose of committing or facilitating an offence under subsection 279.011(1), conceals, removes, withholds or destroys any travel document that belongs to another person or any document that establishes or purports to establish another person’s identity or immigration status — whether or not the document is of Canadian origin or is authentic — is guilty of an indictable offence and liable to imprisonment for a term of not more than 10 years and to a minimum punishment of imprisonment for a term of one year.

Immigration and Refugee Protection Act, 2001
Offence — trafficking in persons
118.1. No person shall knowingly organize the coming into Canada of one or more persons by means of abduction, fraud, deception or use or threat of force or coercion.
Definition of organize
118.2. For the purpose of subsection (1), organize, with respect to persons, includes their recruitment or transportation and, after their entry into Canada, the receipt or harbouring of those persons.

Penalties, General

Labour Code, 1985
General prohibition re employer
147 No employer shall dismiss, suspend, lay off or demote an employee, impose a financial or other penalty on an employee, or refuse to pay an employee remuneration in respect of any period that the employee would, but for the exercise of the employee’s rights under this Part, have worked, or take any disciplinary action against or threat- en to take any such action against an employee because the employee

a. has testified or is about to testify in a proceeding taken or an inquiry held under this Part;
b. has provided information to a person engaged in the performance of duties under this Part regarding the conditions of work affecting the health or safety of the employee or of any other employee of the employer; or
c. has acted in accordance with this Part or has sought the enforcement of any of the provisions of this Part.

General offence
148.1. Subject to this section, every person who contravenes a provision of this Part is guilty of an offence and liable

a. on conviction on indictment, to a fine of not more than $1,000,000 or to imprisonment for a term of not more than two years, or to both; or
b. on summary conviction, to a fine of not more than $100,000.

Employment Standards Code (Alberta) 1988
128. No employer may

a. fail to pay earnings to an employee or to provide anything to which an employee is entitled under this Act;
b. require an employee to work hours in excess of the hours of work permitted under this Act;
c. fail to reinstate an employee or provide an employee with alternative work in accordance with section 53, 53.1, 53.5, 53.6, 53.92 or 53.93;
d. fail to keep employment records as required by this Act.

129. A person who contravenes section 52, 53.4, 53.91, 65, 124, 125, 126, 127 or 128 or a regulation made under section 138.1.e. is guilty of an offence.

Specific offences
130.1. If an employee works for less than the minimum wage prescribed by the regulations, both the employer and the employee are guilty of an offence.
130.2. If an employee works for less than the overtime rate to which the employee is entitled, both the employer and the employee are guilty of an offence.
130.3. If an employee directly or indirectly returns to the employer all or part of the employee’s wages, so effecting a reduction of the earnings actually received and retained by the employee to an amount less than the minimum wage prescribed by the regulations or less than the overtime rate to which the employee is entitled, both the employee and the employer are guilty of an offence.

Corporate offences
131. When a corporation commits an offence under this Act, every director or officer of the corporation who directed, authorized, assented to, permitted, participated in or acquiesced in the offence is guilty of the offence, whether or not the corporation has been prosecuted or convicted.

132.1. An employer, employee, director, officer or other person who is guilty of an offence under this Act is liable,

a. in the case of a corporation, to a fine of not more than $100 000, and
b. in the case of an individual, to a fine of not more than $50 000.

2. In addition to any other penalty imposed under subsection 1, the judge who convicts the person may make an order requiring payment, within the time fixed by the judge, to the Director on behalf of each employee affected, of an amount not exceeding the sum that an officer, the Director or an umpire could have ordered or awarded.

Programs and Agencies for Enforcement (Source: Various)

Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk of exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.

Social Protection Coverage: General (at Least One)
Social Protection (Data Source: ILO)

The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.

If a country does not appear on a chart, this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.

Social Protection Coverage: Unemployed
Social Protection Coverage: Pension
Social Protection Coverage: Vulnerable Groups
Social Protection Coverage: Poor
Social Protection Coverage: Children
Social Protection Coverage: Disabled

Official Response from Global Affairs Canada

Based on the Official Response from Global Affairs Canada, the Dashboard for Canada has been revised as outlined here.