Data Dashboards

Central African Republic
Measurement
Measuring the Change

using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards.

Child labour data with a complete statistical definition is only provided for 2010. There is no change to report.

Best Target 8.7 Data: Child Labour Rate

The data visualization displays yearly child labour statistics based on a variety of nationally-representative household surveys. All years of data hold up to standards set by interagency collaboration between ILO, UNICEF and World Bank, though, in some cases are not perfectly comparable between years. Detailed information on each data point is provided in the Measurement tab (above).

Data Availability
  • Child labour: ILO/UNICEF data
  • Forced labour: No nationally representative data
  • Human trafficking: No nationally representative data
Context
Human Development

Human Development Index Score: 0.381 (2018)

Mean School Years: 4.3 years (2018)

Labour Indicators

Vulnerable Employment: 93.6% (2018)

Working Poverty Rate: 66.6% (2020)

Government Efforts
Key Ratifications
  • ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Not Ratified
  • ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2000
  • UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Accession 2006
Social Protection Coverage

General (at least one): No data

Unemployed: No data

Pension: No data

Vulnerable: No data

Children: 1.0% (2017)

Disabled: No data

Poor: No data

Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.

Child Labour Rate, Aged 5-17 (Source: ILO)

Based on the international conventions and the International Conference of Labour Statisticians (ICLS)  resolution, and consistent with the approach utilized in the ILO global child labour estimates exercise, the statistical definition of child labour used includes:

a) children aged 5-11 years in all forms of economic activity;
b) children aged 12-14 years in all forms of economic activity except permissible “light” work;
c) children and adolescents aged 15-17 years in hazardous work; and
d) children aged 5-14 years performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week.

In Central African Republic, data on the percentage of child labourers is provided for 2010. 

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 5-17 in child labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2010. 

 

 

Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Hazardous child labour is the largest category of the worst forms of child labour with an estimated 73 million children aged 5-17 working in dangerous conditions in a wide range of sectors. Worldwide, the ILO estimates that some 22,000 children are killed at work every year.

In Central African Republic, the latest estimates show that 1.9 percent of children aged 5-14 were engaged in hazardous work in 2010.

All measures provided do not cover the full definition of hazardous work, but use the same/a reduced definition.

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 5-14 in hazardous labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2000, 2006, and 2010. 

 

Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 15-17 (Source: ILO)

Children aged 15-17 are permitted to engage in economic activities by international conventions in most cases, except when the work is likely to harm the health, safety or morals of children (Article 3 (d) of ILO Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour, 1999 (No. 182)).

In Central African Republic, the latest estimates show that 6.3 percent of children aged 15-17 were engaged in hazardous work in 2010.

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 15-17 in hazardous labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2010. 

Weekly Work Hours, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Children aged 5-11 are considered to be subjected to child labour when engaging in any form of economic activity. Children aged 12-14 are permitted to engage in “light” work that is not considered hazardous and falls below 14 hours per week.

According to the latest 2010 estimates, the average number of hours worked per week by children aged 5-14 in Central African Republic was 15.5 hours. The average number of hours worked has increased from 14.0 hours in 2006.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours that children aged 5-14 work in economic activities by sex and region. The sample includes all children of this age group. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2000, 2006, and 2010.

Weekly Work Hours Children Only in Economic Activity, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Children not attending school who are engaged in economic activity can be subjected to longer working hours. 

In 2010, the latest year with available data, children in economic activity only, meaning they are not in school, worked an average of 15.7 hours per week. This number has increased since 2006, when the average number of hours worked by this age group was 14.2. 

The chart displays differences in the number of hours worked by children aged 5-14 who are not in school, by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2000, 2006 and 2010. 

Weekly Hours Household Chores, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Researchers recognize that children involved in economic activities are not the only children working. The ICLS recommended definition of child labour includes children aged 5-14 performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week. 

Children aged 5-14, on average, are found to work on household chores  11.4 hours per week according to the 2010 estimate. This estimate represents a decrease in hours worked across all age groups since the last estimate in 2006, which found that children aged 5-14 in Central African Republic worked an average of 12.2 hours per week.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours children aged 5-14 work on household chores by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2000, 2006, and 2010. 

 

Measuring the incidence of forced labour is a much more recent endeavour and presents unique methodological challenges compared to the measurement of child labour.

No nationally representative data is available on forced labour prevalence in Central African Republic.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on new guidelines presented by the International Labour Organization and adopted by the International Conference of Labour Statisticians.

The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.

No nationally representative data is available on human trafficking prevalence in Central African Republic.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page to learn about measuring human trafficking prevalence, including information on collecting data through national referral mechanisms and producing prevalence statistics using Multiple Systems Estimation (MSE).

Case Data: International and Non-Governmental Organizations

Civil society organizations (CSOs) focused on human trafficking victim assistance can serve as crucial sources of data given their ability to reach a population that is notoriously difficult to sample.

Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (CTDC): The International Organization for Migration (IOM), Polaris and Liberty Asia have launched a global data repository on human trafficking, with data contributed by counter-trafficking partner organizations around the world. Not only does the CTDC serve as a central repository for this critical information, it also publishes normed and harmonized data from various organizations using a unified schema. This global dataset facilitates an unparalleled level of cross-border, trans-agency analysis and provides the counter-trafficking movement with a deeper understanding of this complex issue. Equipped with this information, decision makers will be empowered to create more targeted and effective intervention strategies.

Prosecution Data

UNODC compiles a global dataset on detected and prosecuted traffickers, which serves as the basis in their Global Report for country profiles. This information is beginning to paint a picture of trends over time, and case-specific information can assist investigators and prosecutors.

Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.

Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.

The chart displays information on human development in Central African Republic between 1990 and 2018. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex. 

The most recent year of the HDI, 2018, shows that the average human development score in Central African Republic is 0.381. This score indicates that human development is low. 

 

HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)

Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.

As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:

“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”

The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in Central African Republic over time.

 

Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in the availability of equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction towards achieving Target 8.7.

HDI Vulnerable Employment (Source: UNDP)

There are reasons to believe that certain types of labour and labour arrangements are more likely to lead to labour exploitation. According to the ILO:

“Own-account workers and contributing family workers have a lower likelihood of having formal work arrangements, and are therefore more likely to lack elements associated with decent employment, such as adequate social security and a voice at work. The two statuses are summed to create a classification of ‘vulnerable employment’, while wage and salaried workers together with employers constitute ‘non-vulnerable employment’.”

Between 1991 and 2018, Central African Republic showed an increase in the proportion of workers in vulnerable employment as compared to those in secure employment.

 

Working Poverty Rate (Source: ILO)

Labour income tells us about a household’s vulnerability. As the ILO explains in Profits and Poverty

“Poor households find it particularly difficult to deal with income shocks, especially when they push households below the food poverty line. In the presence of such shocks, men and women without social protection nets tend to borrow to smooth consumption, and to accept any job for themselves or their children, even under exploitative conditions.”

ILO indicators that measure poverty with respect to the labour force include working poverty rate, disaggregated by sex, with temporal coverage spanning from 2000 to 2019. The chart displays linear trends in working poverty rate over time for all individuals over 15 years of age.

 

Labour Productivity (Source: ILO)

Labour productivity is an important economic indicator that is closely linked to economic growth, competitiveness, and living standards within an economy.” However, when increased labour output does not produce rising wages, this can point to increasing inequality. As indicated by a recent ILO report (2015), there is a “growing disconnect between wages and productivity growth, in both developed and emerging economies”. The lack of decent work available increases vulnerability to situations of labour exploitation. 

Labour productivity represents the total volume of output (measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product, GDP) produced per unit of labour (measured in terms of the number of employed persons) during a given period.

 

Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.

Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Source: UNHCR)

Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants.

According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children. “

As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements, as recognized by Member States in the New York declaration for refugees and migrants of September 2016.”

The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in Central African Republic.

Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.

Official Definitions
Forced Labour

Code du Travail, 2009

Des Definitions
Art. 3: Au sens du présent Code, on entend par:
TRAVAIL FORCE OU OBLIGATOIRE: tout travail ou service exigé d’un individu sous la menace d’une peine quelconque et pour lequel ledit individu ne s’est pas offert de plein gré;

Art. 7: Le travail forcé ou obligatoire est interdit de façon absolue sous toutes ses formes, notamment:

-en tant que mesure de coercition ou d’éucation politique;
-en tant que sanction à l’égard de personnes qui ont exprimé certaines opinions politiques, syndicales et religieuses ou manifesté leur opposition idéologique à l’ordre politique, social ou économique;
-en tant que méthode de mobilisation et d’utilisation de la main d’œuvre à des fins de développement économique;
-en tant que mesure de discipline du travail;
-en tant que mesure de discrimination raciale, sociale, nationale ou religieuse;
-en tant que sanction pour avoir participé à des grèves.

Child Labour

Code du Travail, 2009

Des Definitions
Art. 3: Au sens du présent Code, on entend par:
ENFANT: toute personne âgée de moins de 18 ans;

Art. 259: Les enfants en peuvent être employés dans aucune entreprise même comme apprentis avant l’âge de quatorze 914) ans sauf dérogation édictée par arrêté du Ministre en charge du Travail pris après avis du Conseil National Permanent du Travail, compte tenu des circonstances locales et des tâches qui peuvent être demandées.

Art, 261: Un arrêté conjoint du Ministre en charge du Travail det du Ministre en charge de la Santé Publique, prise après avis du Conseil National Permanent du Travail, determine la nature des travaix et les catégories d’entreprises interdites aux enfants et l’âge limite auquel s’applique l’interdiction.

Worst Forms of Child Labour

Constitution de la République Centrafricaine, 2004

Article 6.
La protection de la femme et de l’enfant contre la violence et l’insécurité, l’exploitation et l’abandon moral, intellectuel et physique est une obligation pour l’État et les autres collectivités publiques. Cette protection est assurée par des mesures et des institutions appropriées de l’État et des autres collectivités publiques.

Code du Travail, 2009

Section II: DES PRIES FORMES DE TRAVAIL DES ENFANTS
Art. 262: L’expression pires formes de travail des enfants s’entend:

– toutes formes d’esclavage ou pratiques analogues tels que la vente et la traite des enfants, la servitude pour dette et le servage ainsi que le travail forcé ou obligatoire, y compris le recrutement forcé ou obligatoire, des enfants en vue de leur utilisation dans des conflits armés;
– l’utilisation, le recrutement ou l’poffre d’un enfant à des fins de prostitution de production de matériels pornographuiqes ou de spectacles pronographiques;
-l’utilisation , le recrutement ou l’offre d’un enfant aux fins d’activités illicites pour la production et les trafics des stupéfiants;
-les travaux qui, par leur nature ou les conditions dans lesquelles ils s’exercent, sont susceptibles de nuire à la santé, à la sécurité ou à la moralité de l’enfant.

Art. 263: Les pires formes de travail des enfants sont interdites sur toute l’étendue de la République Centrafricaine

Arrêté no 6/MFPTSS du 21 mai 1986 fixant les conditions d’emploi des jeunes travailleurs ainsi que la nature des travaux et les catégories d’entreprises interdits aux jeunes gens et l’âge limite auxquels s’applique l’interdiction.

Traite des personnes

Code Pénal centrafricain, 2010

CHAPITRE XII DE LA TRAITE DES PERSONNES
Art.151: La traite des personnes est le fait de recruter, de transporter, de transférer, d’héberger ou d’accueillir des personnes dans les conditions suivantes :

– Par la menace de recours ou le recours à la force ou à d’autres formes de contrainte ;

– Par l’enlèvement, la fraude, la tromperie, l’abus d’autorité ou d’une situation de vulnérabilité ;

– Par l’offre ou l’acceptation de paiements ou d’avantages pour obtenir le consentement d’une personne ayant autorité sur une autre aux fins d’exploitation.

La traite des personnes, lorsqu’elle a été commise intentionnellement ou la tentative de traite des personnes, est punie de la peine d’emprisonnement de cinq à dix ans. La traite des personnes, lorsqu’elle a été commise aux fins d’exploitation de mineurs de moins de 18 ans, est punie de la peine des travaux forcés à temps, indépendamment de l’utilisation d’un des moyens mentionnés à l’alinéa premier du présent article. Les fins d’exploitation comprennent, entre autres, l’exploitation de la prostitution d’autrui ou d’autres formes d’exploitation sexuelle, le travail ou les services forcés, l’esclavage ou les pratiques analogues à l’esclavage, la servitude ou le prélèvement d’organes.

 

International Commitments
International Ratifications

ILO Forced Labour Convention, C029, Ratified 1960

ILO Abolition of Forced Labour Convention, C105, Ratified 1964

ILO Minimum Age Convention, C138, Ratified 2000 (minimum age specified: 14 years)

ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182, Ratified 2000

Slavery Convention 1926, Succession 1962

UN Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, Accession 1970

UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol), Accession 2006

UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, Ratified 1992

UN Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Ratified 2017

UN Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, Ratified 2012

National Action Plans, National Strategies

Political Agreement for Peace and Reconciliation in the Central African Republic

Peace agreement signed by 14 armed groups and the Transitional Government in February 2019. Includes provisions to end the recruitment and use of children by armed groups, and to facilitate the separation of children from their ranks. Armed groups listed by the UN for grave violations against children have signed Action Plans to implement these commitments

Child Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration Policy

Based on the Bangui Forum Agreement, MSA policy that aims to facilitate initiatives to disarm, demobilize, and reintegrate child soldiers in cooperation with UN agencies, other ministries, and armed groups. Through its National Strategy for Community Reinsertion of Children Formerly Associated with Armed Groups, provides temporary care to children separated from armed groups and establishes child protection networks (RECOPE) throughout the country. In 2017, UNICEF provided support to 420 children released from armed groups, and MINUSCA conducted a weeklong campaign to raise awareness about the impact of armed conflict on children.

National Strategy to Fight Gender-Based Violence in CAR (2018-2021)

Aims to achieve “zero tolerance” for gender-based violence, including commercial sexual exploitation. By October 2019, the government had prosecuted 26 cases in criminal court and 375 cases in civil court; 75 cases remained under investigation. In cooperation with the EU, the government has opened a temporary shelter called “House of Hope” for female victims of gender-based violence

National Recovery and Peacebuilding Plan (RCPCA) (2017–2021)

Aims to re-establish peace and security, and support reconciliation by disarming and reintegrating children associated with armed groups, promoting legal reform, seeking justice for victims, and improving access to education. Aims to construct 218 schools and 1,200 school canteens, to train 1,000 teachers, and to distribute 150,000 school kits. In 2017, with the assistance of UNDP, convened the first meeting of the advisory board and established two local peace and reconciliation committees.

Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the  perpetration of forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour. These actions should be considered in wider societal efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.

Programs and Agencies for Victim Support

Policies for Assistance
Policies for assistance, general

Loi portant protection de la femme contre les violences, 2006

Code de Procédure Pénale Centrafricain, 2010

Art.360 : L’autorisation d’exécution rendue par le tribunal correctionnel en vertu de l’article précédent entraîne, selon la décision de la Cour Pénale Internationale, transfert du produit des amendes et des biens confisqués ou du produit de leur vente à la Cour ou au fonds en faveur des victimes.
Ces biens ou sommes peuvent également être attribués aux victimes, si la Cour en a décidé ainsi et a procédé à leur désignation.
Toute contestation relative à l’affectation du produit des amendes, des biens ou du produit de leur vente est renvoyée à la Cour Pénale Internationale qui lui donne les suites utiles.

Penalties

Penalties, Child Labour

Code du Travail, 2009

Art 389: Sont punis d’une amende de 100.000 à 1.000.000 de francs CFA:
– les auteurs d’infractions aux dispositions des articles 129, 130, 143, 178, 179, 226, 227 alinéa 5, 299, 258, 259, 275…..

Art. 392: Des peines d’eimprisonnement d’in mois à six mois peuvent, en outre, être requises en cas de récidive dans les cas d’imfractions aux dispositions des articles 120, 130, 231, 241, 251, 252, 259…..du pre1sent Code.
L’emprisonnement est obligatoirement prononce2 en cas de récidive et chaque fois que l’auter des infractions visées à l’article 390 ci-dessus est l’un des membres chargé de l’administration ou de la direction d’un syndicat.

Art 393: Est puni d’une amende de 500.000 à 5.000.000F CFA ou à une peine d’empirsonnement de un 1 an à conq ans ferme ou à l’une de ces deux peines seulement, quiconque aura recruté ou aura tenté de recruter a1 l’une quelconque de cespires formes de travail des enfants. En cas de re2cidive, ces peines osnt porte2es au douible.

Code minier, 2009

Art. 190: Sont punis d’un emprisonnement de six (6) mois à trois (3) ans et d’une amende de cent mille (100. 000) à trois millions (3. 000 000) de francs CFA ou l’une de ces deux peines seulement, les opérateurs et artisans miniers et tous autres titulaires ou détenteurs d’un titre minier ou d’une autorisation employant des enfants mineurs dans les chantiers de recherche ou d’exploitation des substances minérales.
Seront punis des peines de la complicité les parents, tuteurs et toutes autres personnes incitant les enfants à y travailler en violation des dispositions de la présente Loi.

Penalties, Human Trafficking

Code Pénal centrafricain, 2010

CHAPITRE XII DE LA TRAITE DES PERSONNES
Art.151: La traite des personnes est le fait de recruter, de transporter, de transférer, d’héberger ou d’accueillir des personnes dans les conditions suivantes :

– Par la menace de recours ou le recours à la force ou à d’autres formes de contrainte ;

– Par l’enlèvement, la fraude, la tromperie, l’abus d’autorité ou d’une situation de vulnérabilité ;

– Par l’offre ou l’acceptation de paiements ou d’avantages pour obtenir le consentement d’une personne ayant autorité sur une autre aux fins d’exploitation.

La traite des personnes, lorsqu’elle a été commise intentionnellement ou la tentative de traite des personnes, est punie de la peine d’emprisonnement de cinq à dix ans. La traite des personnes, lorsqu’elle a été commise aux fins d’exploitation de mineurs de moins de 18 ans, est punie de la peine des travaux forcés à temps, indépendamment de l’utilisation d’un des moyens mentionnés à l’alinéa premier du présent article. Les fins d’exploitation comprennent, entre autres, l’exploitation de la prostitution d’autrui ou d’autres formes d’exploitation sexuelle, le travail ou les services forcés, l’esclavage ou les pratiques analogues à l’esclavage, la servitude ou le prélèvement d’organes.

Data Commitments

A Call to Action to End Forced Labour, Modern Slavery and Human Trafficking, Signed 2017

1.ii. Take steps to measure, monitor and share data on prevalence and response to all such forms of exploitation, as appropriate to national circumstances;

Programs and Agencies for Enforcement

Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk of exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.

Social Protection Coverage: General (at Least One)
Social Protection (Source: ILO)

The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.

If a country does not appear on a chart, this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.

Social Protection Coverage: Pension
Social Protection Coverage: Vulnerable Groups
Social Protection Coverage: Children
Social Protection Coverage: Disabled

Delta 8.7 has received no Official Response to this dashboard from the Central African Republic. If you are a representative of the Central African Republic and wish to submit an Official Response, please contact us here.