Data Dashboards

Croatia
Measurement
Measuring the Change

using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards.

Due to lack of nationally representative data, there is no change to report.

%
Best Target 8.7 Data: Child Labour Rate

No data available

Data Availability
  • Child labour: No ILO/UNICEF data
  • Forced labour: No nationally representative data
  • Human trafficking: No nationally representative data
Context
Human Development

Human Development Index Score: 0.837 (2018)

Mean School Years: 11.4 years (2018)

Labour Indicators

Vulnerable Employment: 7.6% (2018)

Working Poverty Rate: No data available

Government Efforts
Key Ratifications
  • ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Not Ratified
  • ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2001
  • UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Ratified 2003
Social Protection Coverage

General (at least one): No data

Unemployed: 20.0% (2013)

Pension: 57.6% (2016)

Vulnerable: No data

Children: No data

Disabled: No data

Poor: No data

Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.

Youth employment in Croatia is permitted only to those ages 15 and up, and is regulated by the Labour Act. There is no data available on child labour in Croatia, most likely due to relatively low incidence.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on ILO-SIMPOC methods and guidelines for defining, measuring and collecting data on child labour.

Measuring the incidence of forced labour is a much more recent endeavour and presents unique methodological challenges compared to the measurement of child labour.

The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.

Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.

Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.

The chart displays information on human development in Croatia between 1990 and 2018. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex. 

The most recent year of the HDI, 2018, shows that the average human development score in Croatia is 0.837. This score indicates that human development is very high. 

 

HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)

Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.

As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:

“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”

The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in Croatia over time.

 

Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in the availability of equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction towards achieving Target 8.7.

HDI Vulnerable Employment (Source: UNDP)

There are reasons to believe that certain types of labour and labour arrangements are more likely to lead to labour exploitation. According to the ILO:

“Own-account workers and contributing family workers have a lower likelihood of having formal work arrangements, and are therefore more likely to lack elements associated with decent employment, such as adequate social security and a voice at work. The two statuses are summed to create a classification of ‘vulnerable employment’, while wage and salaried workers together with employers constitute ‘non-vulnerable employment’.”

Between 1991 and 2018, Croatia showed a decrease in the proportion of workers in vulnerable employment as compared to those in secure employment.

 

Labour Productivity (Source: ILO)

Labour productivity is an important economic indicator that is closely linked to economic growth, competitiveness, and living standards within an economy.” However, when increased labour output does not produce rising wages, this can point to increasing inequality. As indicated by a recent ILO report (2015), there is a “growing disconnect between wages and productivity growth, in both developed and emerging economies”. The lack of decent work available increases vulnerability to situations of labour exploitation. 

Labour productivity represents the total volume of output (measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product, GDP) produced per unit of labour (measured in terms of the number of employed persons) during a given period.

 

Rates of Non-fatal Occupational Injuries (Source: ILO)

Occupational injury and fatality data can also be crucial in prevention and response efforts. 

As the ILO explains:

“Data on occupational injuries are essential for planning preventive measures. For instance, workers in occupations and activities of highest risk can be targeted more effectively for inspection visits, development of regulations and procedures, and also for safety campaigns.”

There are serious gaps in existing data coverage, particularly among groups that may be highly vulnerable to labour exploitation. For example, few countries provide information on injuries disaggregated between migrant and non-migrant workers.

 

Rates of Fatal Occupational Injuries (Source: ILO)

Data on occupational health and safety may reveal conditions of exploitation, even if exploitation may lead to under-reporting of workplace injuries and safety breaches. At present, the ILO collects data on occupational injuries, both fatal and non-fatal, disaggregating by sex and migrant status. 

 

Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.

Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Source: UNHCR)

Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants.

According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children. “

As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements, as recognized by Member States in the New York declaration for refugees and migrants of September 2016.”

The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in Croatia.

Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.

Official Definitions
Forced Labour

Constitution of the Republic of Croatia, 1990

“Članak 23.
Nitko ne smije biti podvrgnut bilo kakvu obliku zlostavljanja ili, bez svoje privole, liječničkim ili znanstvenim pokusima.
Zabranjen je prisilni i obvezatni rad.”

Child Labour

Labour Code, 2014

“The minimum employment age
Article 19
It shall be prohibited to employ a person under fifteen, of fifteen or above fifteen years of age and under eighteen years of age who is still subject to compulsory full-time elementary schooling.”

“Legal capacity of minors for entering into employment contract
Article 20

1. Where a legal representative authorises a minor of or above fifteen years of age to conclude an employment contract, with the exception of a minor who is still subject to compulsory full-time elementary schooling, the minor shall have a legal capacity for the purpose of concluding and terminating such contract and for taking any legal actions with regards to the rights and obligations arising from or relating to such contract.
2. The authorisation referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article shall not apply to legal actions for which the legal representative needs the consent of an authority responsible for social welfare.
3. The employer may not employ the minor referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article with no authorisation of the legal representative or the consent of the authority responsible for social welfare to conclude an employment contract.”

Worst Forms of Child Labour

Labour Code, 2014

“Prohibition of certain works by minors
Article 21

1. A minor may not be employed to perform works likely to harm their safety, health, morals or development.
2. The Minister shall stipulate the works referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article by virtue of an ordinance.
3. Without a prior health assessment the employer may not employ a minor for works that can be performed by the minor only after such an assessment.
4. the Minister shall by virtue of an ordinance stipulate the works to be performed by minors only after the assessment of health conditions for performing those particular works. “

“Protection of vulnerable categories of workers
Article 68
1. Minors may not work more than 8 hours in a 24-hour period.

Night Work

Article 69
(2) In the case of minors working in industry, any work in the period between 7 p.m. and 7 a.m. shall be regarded as night work.
(3) In the case of minors not working in industry, any work in the period between 8 p.m. and 6 a.m. shall be regarded as night work.
Prohibition of night work

Article 70
(1) Night work by minors shall be prohibited, unless such a work is a pressing need in business activities regulated by special legislation and where it may not be performed by adult workers; in such a case the minor may neither work between midnight and 4 a.m. nor may he work longer than 8 hours in any period of 24 hours during which he performs night work.
(2) In the event of night work referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article, the employer shall ensure that such a work is performed under the surveillance of an adult”

Regulation No. 62 of 2010 prohibiting certain types of work for minors.

Human Trafficking

Penal Code, 2011

“Trgovanje ljudima
Članak 106.
(1) Tko uporabom sile ili prijetnje, obmanom, prijevarom, otmicom, zlouporabom ovlasti ili teškog položaja ili odnosa ovisnosti, davanjem ili primanjem novčane naknade ili druge koristi radi dobivanja pristanka osobe koja ima nadzor nad drugom osobom, ili na drugi način vrbuje, preveze, prevede, skriva ili prima osobu ili razmjenjuje ili prenosi nadzor nad osobom radi iskorištavanja njezinog rada putem prisilnog rada ili služenja, uspostavom ropstva ili njemu sličnog odnosa, ili radi njezinog iskorištavanja za prostituciju ili druge oblike spolnog iskorištavanja uključujući i pornografiju ili za sklapanje nedozvoljenog ili prisilnog braka, ili radi uzimanja dijelova njezinog tijela, ili radi njezinog korištenja u oružanim sukobima ili radi činjenja protupravne radnje, kaznit će se kaznom zatvora od jedne do deset godina.”

Ropstvo (Slavery)

Penal Code, 2011

“Ropstvo
Članak 105.
(1) Tko kršeći pravila međunarodnog prava stavi drugog u ropski ili njemu sličan odnos ili ga drži u takvom odnosu, kupi, proda, preda ili posreduje u kupnji, prodaji ili predaji takve osobe ili potiče drugog da proda svoju slobodu ili slobodu osobe koju uzdržava ili se o njoj brine, kaznit će se kaznom zatvora od jedne do deset godina.
(2) Tko prevozi ljude koji se nalaze u ropskom ili njemu sličnom odnosu, kaznit će se kaznom zatvora od šest mjeseci do pet godina. (3) Tko djelo iz stavka 1. i 2. počini prema djetetu, kaznit će se kaznom zatvora od tri do petnaest godina.”

 

Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the  perpetration of forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour. These actions should be considered in wider societal efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.

Programs and Agencies for Victim Support

Policies for Assistance
Policies for assistance, general

Criminal Procedure Act, 2003

Art 43-47
Art 202 definition of victim
Art 292

Witness Protection Act, 2003

Penal Code, 2011

“Krajnja nužda
Članak 22.

(1) Isključena je protupravnost djela počinjenog radi toga da se od sebe ili drugoga otkloni istodobna opasnost koja se na drugi način nije mogla otkloniti ako je učinjeno zlo manje od onoga koje je prijetilo.
(2) Nije kriv tko počini protupravnu radnju da bi od sebe ili drugoga otklonio istodobnu neskrivljenu opasnost koja se na drugi način nije mogla otkloniti ako zlo koje je počinjeno nije bilo nerazmjerno teže od zla koje je prijetilo i ako nije bio dužan izložiti se opasnosti. Ako je takva osoba bila dužna izložiti se opasnosti, može se blaže kazniti.
(3) Ako je počinitelj bio u otklonjivoj zabludi o okolnostima iz stavka 2. ovoga članka koje isključuju krivnju, kaznit će se prema pravilima o nehaju kad zakon za počinjeno djelo propisuje kažnjavanje za nehaj.”

Act on the Ombudsman for Children, 2003

“Regulates the competence and methods of work, as well as the conditions of appointment and acquittal of duty of the Ombudsman for Children and its Deputies (Article 1). The Ombudsman is to promote the rights and interests of children on the basis of the Constitution, international treaties and laws (Article 2).”

Act on the Protection of Personal Data, 2003

Act on free legal assistance, 2008

Act on international and temporary protection, 2015

Policies for assistance, human trafficking

Aliens Act, 2011 amend. 2013

“Temporary stay under humanitarian grounds
Article 65
(1) Temporary stay under humanitarian grounds shall be granted to an alien in the following cases:

1. if as a victim of trafficking (hereinafter: the victim), he agreed to participate in an assistance and protection programme,
2. if he is a minor who was abandoned or who is a victim of organised crime or who remained without parental protection, guardianship or escort for some other reasons,
3. an alien who had the status of refugee for at least 10 years before the date of submission of the application or who is included in a reconstruction, return or housing care
programme for refugees from the Republic of Croatia, as evident from the certificate of the competent state body for refugees,
4. an alien cooperates with the competent bodies and his participation is indispensable in the criminal procedure being conducted against the employer who employed
him illegally,
5. serious justified humanitarian grounds.

(2) An alien referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article shall not be required to meet the criteria referred to in Article 54, paragraph 1, items 3 and 4 of this Act.
(3) Before issuing the temporary stay permit referred to in paragraph 1, item 5 of this Article, the police administration or the police station shall request an approval of the Ministry.”

“Victim of human trafficking
Article 66
(1) The identification of the victim shall be made by the Ministry in cooperation with civil society organisations and, in the event of a victim who is under age, the Ministry shall cooperate with the ministry competent for social welfare.
(2) The Operative Team of the National Committee for the Suppression of Trafficking in Persons (hereinafter referred to as: the Operative Team) shall notify the Ministry of the agreement of the victim to participate in an assistance and protection programme.
(3) The assistance and protection programme shall include health and psychosocial protection, safe accommodation, translation and interpretation services, legal assistance and a safe return to the country of origin.
(4) The person shall lose the right to assistance and protection if he based his testimony on false facts, if the circumstances under which he acquired the right to assistance and protection
terminated or if he acts contrary to the rules laid down in the assistance and protection programme. The Operative Team shall notify the Ministry of the termination of the right to assistance and protection.”

“Article 67
(1) An alien identified as a victim shall be entitled to decide whether to participate in an assistance and protection programme within a term of 60 days.
(2) The guardian of a minor identified as a victim shall be entitled, subject to the approval of the social welfare centre, to decide whether to participate in the assistance and protection programme within a term of 90 days, bearing in mind the best interests of the minor and taking into account the opinion of the minor.
(3) The deadline referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article need not be complied with if it is established that the alien identified as a victim is not a victim or if he actively, voluntarily and on his own personal initiative renewed his contacts with the perpetrators of the criminal offences or if required by reasons of protecting public policy and national security.
Article 68
(1) A victim granted temporary stay shall be entitled to safe accommodation, health protection, financial assistance, education and work.
(2) Safe accommodation means a place where the victim is protected against the influence of the person suspected of having committed the criminal offence.
(3) The amount of financial assistance shall be set by the body competent for social welfare.
(4) A victim who is employed or has financial means or whose living costs are ensured in some other way shall not be entitled to financial assistance.
(5) Special care shall be taken of pregnant women and people with disability as particularly vulnerable groups of victims.
(6) An alien granted temporary stay under humanitarian grounds in accordance with Article 65, paragraph 1, item 4 of this Act shall exercise his rights referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article.

Article 69
(1) All bodies involved in the assistance and protection programme of a victim who is a minor shall bear in mind the best interests of the minor.
(2) If the victim is a minor referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article, the Ministry shall take the necessary measures to determine his identity, nationality and to locate other members of his family.
(3) The body competent for social welfare shall appoint a guardian for the victim who is a minor.”

“Article 70
(1) The safe return of an alien who has the victim status shall be conducted by the Ministry taking into account his rights, safety and dignity. If possible, the return should be voluntary.
(2) Minors who are the victims of trafficking shall not be returned to any state if, after an evaluation of the risks and safety, there are indications that the return would not be in the best interests of the minor.

Article 71
(1) Temporary stay under humanitarian grounds shall terminate if:

1. the victim lost the victim status,
2. it is established that the victim is abusing his position,
3. required by reasons of protecting public policy, national security and public health.

(2) When deciding on the termination of temporary stay of a victim who is a minor, the competent body for social welfare shall be requested to issue its opinion.
(3) Temporary stay under humanitarian grounds referred to in Article 65, paragraph 1, items 2, 3, 4 and 5 of this Act shall terminate if the purpose because of which temporary stay was granted to an alien terminates or if required by reasons of protecting public policy, national security and public health.
(4) An appeal may be filed against the decision of the police administration or police station referred to in paragraphs 1 and 3 of this Article, where the Commission shall decide about the appeal.”

“VI MEASURES FOR LEAVING THE REPUBLIC OF CROATIA
Special protection
Article 100
(1) At the time of applying measures for leaving the Republic of Croatia, the best interest of minors and other vulnerable persons, family life and the health of the alien subject to measures shall be taken into account at the time of applying the measures for leaving the Republic of Croatia.
(2) Within the meaning of paragraph 1 of this Article, vulnerable persons means persons with disability, the elderly, pregnant women and single mothers with underage children, victims of violence and minors, especially unaccompanied minors. ”

“Prohibition of removal (forced return)
Article 118
(1) An alien shall not be subject to removal (forced return) to a state where his life or freedom would be jeopardised on account of his race, religion or nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion or where he might be exposed to torture or inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, or where he might be exposed to capital punishment, and to a state where he would be in danger of being subject to removal (forced
return) to such a state.
(2) An alien who is under age shall not be subject to removal (forced return) if that would be contrary to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, the European Convention for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, the Convention on the Rights of the Child, and the Convention on the Realisation of Children’s Rights.
(3) An unaccompanied alien who is under age shall be subject to removal (forced return) to a state in which he shall be handed over to a member of his family, to an appointed guardian or to an institution for receiving children. ”

 

Penalties
Penalties, Child Labour

Labour Code, 2014

“Minor offences by employers
Article 227.
(1) A fine in an amount ranging from HRK 10,000.00 to 30,000.00 shall be imposed on the employer who is a legal person:

1. for concluding an employment contract in which the duration of probationary period is longer than permitted by the Act (Article 53, paragraph 2),
2. for concluding an employment contract in which the duration of traineeship is longer than permitted by the Act (Article 57),

(2) An employer who is a natural person and the responsible person in the employer who is a legal person shall be fined in an amount ranging from HRK 1,000.00 to 3,000.00 for an offence referred to in paragraph I of this Article.
(3) Where the offence referred to in paragraph l of this Article is committed in respect of a minor worker, the fine shall be double the amount prescribed.”

“Most serious offences by employers
Article 229
(1) A fine in an amount ranging from HRK 61,000.00 to 100,000.00 shall be imposed on the employer who is a legal person for:

6. employing a person under fifteen, of fifteen or above fifteen years of age and under eighteen years of age who is still subject to compulsory full-time elementary schooling, or for employing a minor without the authorisation of his legal representative or the consent of the authority responsible for social welfare (Article 19 and Article 20, paragraphs 1 and 2),
7. employing a minor for works likely to harm his safety, health, morals or development (Article 21, paragraph 1),
17. requesting overtime work by minors (Article 65, paragraph 5)
24. allowing work by minors for a period exceeding 8 hours in a 24-hour period (Article 68, paragraph 1)
28. requesting, contrary to the provisions of this Act, night work by minors or for failing to ensure that the night work by minors is performed under the surveillance of an adult (Article 70, paragraphs 1 and 2)

(2) A fine in an amount ranging from HRK 7,000.00 to 10,000.00 for an offence referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article shall be imposed on the employer who is a natural person and the responsible person in the employer who is a legal person.
(7) Where the offence referred to in paragraph I of this Article is committed in respect of a minor worker, the fine shall be double the amount prescribed.”

Penalties, Human Trafficking

Penal Code, 2011

“Trgovanje ljudima
Članak 106.
(1) Tko uporabom sile ili prijetnje, obmanom, prijevarom, otmicom, zlouporabom ovlasti ili teškog položaja ili odnosa ovisnosti, davanjem ili primanjem novčane naknade ili druge koristi radi dobivanja pristanka osobe koja ima nadzor nad drugom osobom, ili na drugi način vrbuje, preveze, prevede, skriva ili prima osobu ili razmjenjuje ili prenosi nadzor nad osobom radi iskorištavanja njezinog rada putem prisilnog rada ili služenja, uspostavom ropstva ili njemu sličnog odnosa, ili radi njezinog iskorištavanja za prostituciju ili druge oblike spolnog iskorištavanja uključujući i pornografiju ili za sklapanje nedozvoljenog ili prisilnog braka, ili radi uzimanja dijelova njezinog tijela, ili radi njezinog korištenja u oružanim sukobima ili radi činjenja protupravne radnje, kaznit će se kaznom zatvora od jedne do deset godina.
(2) Kaznom iz stavka 1. ovoga članka kaznit će se tko vrbuje, preveze, prevede, skriva ili prima dijete, ili razmjenjuje ili prenosi nadzor nad djetetom radi iskorištavanja njegovog rada putem prisilnog rada ili služenja, uspostavom ropstva ili njemu sličnog odnosa, ili radi njegovog iskorištavanja za prostituciju ili druge oblike spolnog iskorištavanja uključujući i pornografiju ili za sklapanje nedozvoljenog ili prisilnog braka ili za nezakonito posvojenje, ili radi uzimanja dijelova njegovog tijela, ili radi njegovog korištenja u oružanim sukobima.
(3) Ako je kazneno djelo iz stavka 1. ovoga članka počinjeno prema djetetu, ili je kazneno djelo iz stavka 1. ili 2. ovoga članka počinila službena osoba u obavljanju svoje službe, ili je počinjeno u odnosu na veći broj osoba, ili je svjesno doveden u opasnost život jedne ili više osoba, počinitelj će se kazniti kaznom zatvora od tri do petnaest godina.
(4) Kaznom iz stavka 1. ovoga članka kaznit će se tko znajući da je osoba žrtva trgovanja ljudima koristi njezine usluge koje su rezultat jednog od oblika njezinog iskorištavanja navedenog u stavku 1. i 2. ovoga članka.
(5) Tko s ciljem omogućavanja počinjenja djela iz stavka 1., 2. i 3. ovoga članka zadrži, oduzme, sakrije, ošteti ili uništi putnu ispravu ili ispravu o dokazivanju identiteta druge osobe, kaznit će se kaznom zatvora do tri godine.
(6) Za pokušaj kaznenog djela iz stavka 5. ovoga članka počinitelj će se kazniti.
(7) Pristanak na iskorištavanje same osobe na čiju štetu je trgovanje ljudima počinjeno bez utjecaja je na postojanje tog kaznenog djela.”

Penalties, slavery

Penal Code, 2011

“Ropstvo
Članak 105.
(1) Tko kršeći pravila međunarodnog prava stavi drugog u ropski ili njemu sličan odnos ili ga drži u takvom odnosu, kupi, proda, preda ili posreduje u kupnji, prodaji ili predaji takve osobe ili potiče drugog da proda svoju slobodu ili slobodu osobe koju uzdržava ili se o njoj brine, kaznit će se kaznom zatvora od jedne do deset godina.
(2) Tko prevozi ljude koji se nalaze u ropskom ili njemu sličnom odnosu, kaznit će se kaznom zatvora od šest mjeseci do pet godina. (3) Tko djelo iz stavka 1. i 2. počini prema djetetu, kaznit će se kaznom zatvora od tri do petnaest godina.”

Penalties, General

Act on the Responsibility of Legal Persons for Criminal Offences, 2003

Data Commitments

A Call to Action to End Forced Labour, Modern Slavery and Human Trafficking, Not signed

1.ii. Take steps to measure, monitor and share data on prevalence and response to all such forms of exploitation, as appropriate to national circumstances;

Programs and Agencies for Enforcement

Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk of exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.

Social Protection Coverage: General (at Least One)
Social Protection (Source: ILO)

The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.

If a country does not appear on a chart, this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.

Social Protection Coverage: Unemployed
Social Protection Coverage: Pension
Social Protection Coverage: Vulnerable Groups
Social Protection Coverage: Poor
Social Protection Coverage: Children
Social Protection Coverage: Disabled

Delta 8.7 has received no Official Response to this dashboard from Croatia. If you are a representative of Croatia and wish to submit an Official Response, please contact us here.