Measuring the Change
Due to lack of nationally representative data, there is no change to report.
Best Target 8.7 Data: Human Trafficking
The data visualization displays the number of identified victims of human trafficking per year in Ireland. Detailed information is provided in the Measurement tab (above).
- Child labour: No nationally representative data
- Forced labour: No nationally representative data
- Human trafficking: Case data available
Human Development Index Score: 0.873 (2018)
Mean School Years: 11.7 years (2015)
Vulnerable Employment: 14.2% (2014)
Working Poverty Rate: no data
- ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Ratified 2017
- ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2000
- UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Ratified 2003
Social Protection Coverage
General (at least one): 61.3% (2016)
Unemployed: 37% (2014)
Pension: 100% (2014)
Vulnerable: 24.1% (2016)
Children: 60.3% (2016)
Disabled: 100% (2016)
Poor: 26.5% (2016)
Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.
Youth employment in Cyprus is permitted only to those ages 15 and up, and is regulated by the Protection of Young Persons at Work Act. There is no data available on child labour in Germany, most likely due to relatively low incidence.
Measuring the incidence of forced labour is a much more recent endeavour and presents unique methodological challenges compared to the measurement of child labour.
No nationally representative data is available on forced labour prevalence in Cyprus.
Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on new guidelines presented by the International Labour Organization and adopted by the International Conference of Labour Statisticians.
The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.
Identified Victims of Human Trafficking (Source: GRETA)
According to the European Commission, Cyprus is primarily a destination country for trafficking victims. The majority of victims in Cyprus are trafficked for the purpose of sexual and labour exploitation, and to a lesser extent, forced marriage. Victims have mainly been nationals from countries of the former Soviet Union, although in recent years a wide range of nationalities have been identified. Debt bondage is reported as the most frequent means of abuse and control of victims.
The graph on the right shows the number of identified victims of human trafficking per year in Cyprus, as reported by Cypriot authorities to the Group of Experts on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings (GRETA).
Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.
Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.
The chart displays information on human development in Cyprus between 2000 and 2018. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex.
The most recent year of the HDI, 2018, shows that the average human development score in Cyprus is 0.873. This score indicates that human development is very high.
HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)
Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.
As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:
“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”
The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in Cyprus over time.
Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction toward achieving Target 8.7.
HDI Vulnerable Employment (Source: UNDP)
There are reasons to believe that certain types of labour and labour arrangements are more likely to lead to labour exploitation. According to the ILO:
“Own-account workers and contributing family workers have a lower likelihood of having formal work arrangements, and are therefore more likely to lack elements associated with decent employment, such as adequate social security and a voice at work. The two statuses are summed to create a classification of ‘vulnerable employment’, while wage and salaried workers together with employers constitute ‘non-vulnerable employment’.”
Between 2000-2014 showed a decrease in the proportion of workers in vulnerable employment as compared to those in secure employment.
Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.
Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Source: UNHCR)
Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants.
According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children.”
As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements.”
The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in Cyprus.
Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.
This Law shall cover the employment of young persons by any employer.
Work relating to the provision of domestic service in a private household or any work considered as not being harmful, damaging or dangerous to adolescents in a family undertaking is excluded from the scope of application of this Law (Section 3).
“Adolescent” means any young person who is not under fifteen years of age and not over eighteen years of age,
“Child” means any young person who is under fifteen years of age, “Young person” means any person under 18 years of age,”
Employment of Children
The employment of children is prohibited except for the purpose of:
(a) Vocational or occupational training. A child who has attained the age of 14 and has successfully completed secondary school education or was released from his obligation to attend school (after approval by the Minister of Education and Culture) can be placed under a combined work-training scheme in accordance to a special licence issued in respect of the specific scheme by the Minister of Labour and Social Insurance (Section 6).
(b) Employment of a child in cultural, artistic, sports or advertising activities. Such employment shall be licensed by the Minister under certain circumstances, which will be provided by Regulations (Section 7).”
Working Hours of Children
The working time of children in cultural, artistic, sports or advertising activities may not exceed-
(a) two hours each day for a child of three to six years of age,
Protection of Young Persons at Work, No. 48(I)/2001
(b) three hours each day for a child of seven to twelve years of age, and
(c) four hours each day for a child of thirteen to fifteen years of age:
The above hours of daily work must not coincide, during the school year, with the hours of teaching (Section 7).
No child shall be employed in any work for more than thirty-six hours in any one week or for more than seven and a quarter hours in any one day (Section 8).
Any child who attends the work-training scheme and has educational evening classes shall not work after 4 p.m. on any day on which he so attends.
Worst Forms of Child Labour
Protection of Young Persons at Work, No. 48(I)/2001
Employment of Children
No child shall be engaged in street trading (Section 12)
– No child shall be employed in any work between 7 p.m. of any day and 7 a.m. of the following day.
– No adolescent shall be employed in any work between 11 p.m. of any day and 7 a.m. of the following day except in certain cases that will be provided by Regulations but nevertheless adolescents are not allowed to work between midnight and 4 a.m. (Section 13).
Working Hours of Adolescents
– The working time of adolescents who have not attained the age of 16 shall not exceed seven and a quarter hours in any day or thirty-six hours in any week.
– The working time of adolescents shall not exceed seven hours and forty five minutes in any day or thirty-eight hours in any week.
– The time spent in an undertaking by an adolescent working under a combined work-training scheme shall be calculated as working time.
– Where an adolescent is employed by more than one employer, his working days and working time shall be calculated cumulatively.
– The daily work of adolescents attending high schools, lyceums of any type, public or private schools, technical or vocational schools, shall begin at least two hours after the end of their lessons or end at least two hours before the beginning of their lessons.
– Overtime work by adolescents is prohibited.
Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the perpetration of forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour. These actions should be considered in efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.
Policies for Assistance
Policies for Assistance, Human Trafficking
Part II: Article 14
Part III:Article 29 (Protection from Criminalization)
2. In this Law, unless the context otherwise requires- ‘child’ means a natural person under the age of eighteen (18); ‘gender based violence’ means violence that is directed against a person because of that person’s gender, gender identity or gender expression or that affects persons of a particular gender disproportionately, including-
(a) violence in close relationships,
(b)sexual violence, including rape, sexual assault and
(c) trafficking in human beings,
(d) slavery, and
(e) different forms of harmful practices, including forced marriages, female genital mutilation and so-called ‘honour crimes’; “victim”’ means-
(a) a natural person who has suffered harm, including physical, mental or emotional harm or economic loss which was directly caused by a criminal offence;
(b) family members of a person whose death was directly caused by a criminal offence and who have suffered harm as a result of that person’s death: Provided that, a person shall be considered to be a victim, regardless of whether an offender is identified, apprehended prosecuted or convicted and regardless of the familial relationship between the said person and the offender;
3. This Law shall apply in relation to criminal offences committed in the territory of the Republic as well as in relation to criminal proceedings taking place in the Republic and shall afford rights to the victims of criminal offences committed in third countries only in relation to criminal proceedings taking place in the Republic and the rights provided for herein shall be applied without discrimination and independently of the status of his/her stay in the Republic:
Provided that complaints submitted to services involved outside of the Republic, such as embassies, shall not trigger the obligations provided for in this Law.
21.1. The Police shall proceed with a timely individual assessment of the victim, in order to-
(a) identify his/her specific protection needs; and
(b) decide whether and to what extent the victim may benefit from special measures in the course of criminal proceedings, as provided for under sections 22 and 23 due to his/her particular vulnerability to secondary and repeat victimisation, intimidation and to retaliation.
21.2. Depending on the result of the assessment referred to in subsection (1), the Police shall cooperate, where necessary, with the Social Welfare Services, the Mental Health Services and the Health Services for further assessment of the victim’s needs, in accordance with the provisions of section 11.
21.3. For the individual assessment, the following criteria shall be mostly taken into account:
(a) the personal characteristics of the victim;
(b) the type or nature of the crime; and
(c) the circumstances of the crime.
21.4. In the context of the individual assessment, the prosecution authorities in cooperation with the Social Welfare Services, the Mental Health Services and the Health Services, shall pay particular attention to victims who have suffered considerable harm due to the severity of the crime, to victims who have suffered a crime committed with a bias or discriminatory motive which could, in particular, be related to their personal characteristics, to victims whose relationship to and dependence on the offender make them particularly vulnerable, especially victims of terrorism, organised crime, human trafficking, gender-based violence, violence in a close relationship, sexual violence, exploitation or hate crime, and victims with disabilities.
21.5. For the purposes of this Law, where the victim is a child, it shall be presumed that the child victim has specific protection needs and in order to determine if and to what extent it would benefit from special measures as provided for under sections 22 and 23, the child victim shall be subject to an individual assessment as provided for in subsection (1).
21.6. The extent of the individual assessment may be adapted according to the severity of the crime and the degree of apparent harm suffered by the victim.
21.7. The individual assessment shall be carried out with the close involvement of the victim and shall take into account his/her wishes including where he/she does not wish to benefit from special measures as provided for under sections 22 and 23.
21.8. If the elements that form the basis of the individual assessment have changed significantly, the services involved shall ensure that it is updated throughout the criminal proceedings.
Penalties, Child Labour
– Anyone employing any person contrary to the provisions of this Law or Regulations issued under it, shall be guilty of an offence and liable to imprisonment not exceeding 2 years or to a fine not exceeding CY£10,000 or to both penalties (Section 30).
– A parent of a young person employed in any undertaking contrary to the provisions of this Law or regulations shall be guilty of an offence and shall be liable on conviction to imprisonment not exceeding 6 months or to a fine not exceeding CY£3,000 or to both penalties (Section 31).
– The owner of a public place in which a child is found engaging in street trading shall be guilty of an offence and shall be liable to imprisonment not exceeding 6 months or to a fine not exceeding CY£3,000 or to both penalties (Section 32).
– Section 33 provides for further violations that are sanctionable under this Law.
Articles 5 (Part II) and Article 6-26.
Social Protections Coverage: General (at least one)
The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.
If a country does not appear on a chart, this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.