Data Dashboards

Czech Republic
Measurement
Measuring the Change

using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards.

Due to lack of nationally representative data, there is no change to report.

%
Best Target 8.7 Data: Human Trafficking

The data visualization displays the number of identified victims of human trafficking per year in Czech Republic. Detailed information is provided in the Measurement tab (above).

Data Availability
  • Child labour: No ILO/UNICEF data
  • Forced labour: No nationally representative data
  • Human trafficking: Case data available
Context
Human Development

Human Development Index Score: 0.891 (2018)

Mean School Years: 12.7 years (2018)

 

Labour Indicators

Vulnerable Employment: 14.0% (2018)

Working Poverty Rate: No data available

Government Efforts
Key Ratifications
  • ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Ratified 2016
  • ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2001
  • UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Ratified 2014
Social Protection Coverage

General (at least one): 88.8% (2016)

Unemployed: 35.8% (2014)

Pension: 100% (2014)

Vulnerable: 32.0% (2016)

Children: No data

Disabled: 62.7% (2014)

Poor: 99.6% (2016)

Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.

Youth employment in the Czech Republic is permitted only to those ages 15 and up, and is regulated by the Czech Labour Code. There is no data available on child labour in the Czech Republic, most likely due to relatively low incidence.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on ILO-SIMPOC methods and guidelines for defining, measuring and collecting data on child labour.

Measuring the incidence of forced labour is a much more recent endeavour and presents unique methodological challenges compared to the measurement of child labour.

No nationally representative data is available on forced labour prevalence in Czech Republic.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on new guidelines presented by the International Labour Organization and adopted by the International Conference of Labour Statisticians.

The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.

According to the European Commission, the Czech Republic is considered mainly a target and a transit country. However, it can still be deemed as a source country as well. The most common forms of human trafficking in the Czech Republic remain trafficking for the purpose of sexual exploitation and trafficking for the purpose of labour exploitation—although the latter is represented less in statistical data.

The graph on the right shows the number of identified victims of human trafficking per year in the Czech Republic, as reported by Czech authorities to the Group of Experts on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings (GRETA).

Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.

Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.

The chart displays information on human development in Czechia between 1990 and 2018. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex. 

The most recent year of the HDI, 2018, shows that the average human development score in Czechia is 0.891. This score indicates that human development is very high. 

 

HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)

Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.

As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:

“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”

The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in Czechia over time.

 

Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in the availability of equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction towards achieving Target 8.7.

HDI Vulnerable Employment (Source: UNDP)

There are reasons to believe that certain types of labour and labour arrangements are more likely to lead to labour exploitation. According to the ILO:

“Own-account workers and contributing family workers have a lower likelihood of having formal work arrangements, and are therefore more likely to lack elements associated with decent employment, such as adequate social security and a voice at work. The two statuses are summed to create a classification of ‘vulnerable employment’, while wage and salaried workers together with employers constitute ‘non-vulnerable employment’.”

Between 1991 and 2018, Czechia showed an increase in the proportion of workers in vulnerable employment as compared to those in secure employment.

 

Labour Productivity (Source: ILO)

Labour productivity is an important economic indicator that is closely linked to economic growth, competitiveness, and living standards within an economy.” However, when increased labour output does not produce rising wages, this can point to increasing inequality. As indicated by a recent ILO report (2015), there is a “growing disconnect between wages and productivity growth, in both developed and emerging economies”. The lack of decent work available increases vulnerability to situations of labour exploitation. 

Labour productivity represents the total volume of output (measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product, GDP) produced per unit of labour (measured in terms of the number of employed persons) during a given period.

 

Rates of Non-fatal Occupational Injuries (Source: ILO)

Occupational injury and fatality data can also be crucial in prevention and response efforts. 

As the ILO explains:

“Data on occupational injuries are essential for planning preventive measures. For instance, workers in occupations and activities of highest risk can be targeted more effectively for inspection visits, development of regulations and procedures, and also for safety campaigns.”

There are serious gaps in existing data coverage, particularly among groups that may be highly vulnerable to labour exploitation. For example, few countries provide information on injuries disaggregated between migrant and non-migrant workers.

Rates of Fatal Occupational Injuries (Source: ILO)

Data on occupational health and safety may reveal conditions of exploitation, even if exploitation may lead to under-reporting of workplace injuries and safety breaches. At present, the ILO collects data on occupational injuries, both fatal and non-fatal, disaggregating by sex and migrant status.

Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.

Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Source: UNHCR)

Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants.

According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children. “

As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements, as recognized by Member States in the New York declaration for refugees and migrants of September 2016.”

The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in Czech Republic.

Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.

Official Definitions
Forced Labour

Labour Code, 1965

“Section 346b
(1) The employer may neither impose a monetary penalty nor require such penalty from
an employee due to breach of an obligation arising to him from his basic labour relationship; this shall not apply to damage for which the employee is liable.
(2) The employer may not transfer risks from performance of dependent work to employees. (3) In connection with performance of dependent work the employer may not require
a monetary guarantee (bond) from an employee.
(4) The employer may not impose any sanctions on an employee or put him at a disadvantage due to the fact that such employee claims rights arising from labour relations in a lawful manner.
Section 346c
The employee may not relieve the employer from the obligation to pay him wage, salary, remuneration pursuant to an agreement, compensatory pay, severance pay, remuneration for standby and reimbursement of expenses due to the employee in connection with performance of his work.”

Charter of Fundamental Rights and Freedoms, 1991

“Article 9
1) Nobody may be subjected to forced labour or service.
2) The provision of paragraph 1 shall not apply to

a) work ordered in accordance with the law to persons serving other penalties replacing the penalty of imprisonment,
b) military service or to other service prescribed by law in place of military duty,
c) service required on the basis of law in cases of natural disasters, accidents, or other danger threatering human life, health, or considerable material values,
d) action ordered by law to protect the life, health, or rights of others.”

“Article 28
Employees are entitled to fair remuneration for work and to satisfactory working conditions. Detailed provisions are set by law.”

Constitution, 1992

“ARTICLE 3
The Charter of Fundamental Rights and Basic Freedoms forms a part of the constitutional order of the Czech Republic.
ARTICLE 4
The fundamental rights and basic freedoms shall enjoy the protection of judicial bodies.”

Child Labour

Employment Act, 2004

“Section 121
Basic Conditions
(1) For the purposes of this Act, a child shall be deemed to be a natural person

a) under the age of 15, or
b) older than 15 years as long as they are still undergoing compulsory schooling, until the date this is concluded.

(2) A child may perform artistic, cultural, sporting and advertising activities (hereinafter referred to as the “”child’s activities””) for a legal entity or natural person (hereinafter referred to as the “”employer””), only if the activity is commensurate with his age, is not dangerous for the child, is not harmful to his training or school attendance and participation in educational programmes, and does not harm his health, physical, mental, moral or social development. 57) A child may only pursue this activity on the basis of a permission issued for a certain child and a certain activity (hereinafter referred to as “”permission””).
(3) Child’s activities are deemed to be

a) interesting cultural activities in amateur groups and primary music schools,
b) performing in artistic and cultural events organized by schools, educational facilities or social care institutions, or in events in which schools, educational facilities or social care institutions participated,
c) activities performed within the scope of upbringing and education in schools and educational facilities together with educational programmes,
d) participation in artistic and sporting competitions, provided these activities are not remunerated, or
e) activities performed as part of extra-curricular education and during other non-commercial interesting activities, which are not remunerated.

(4) The organiser of the activities shall be obliged to ensure

a) constant supervision by a competent person during the period agreed for the child’s activity, and where necessary also when transporting the child to it, unless this is done by the legal representative,
b) suitable conditions reflecting the nature of the activities the child will perform.

(5) Children’s activities are regulated by Section 101, 245 and 246 of the Labour Code; the provisions of Section 103 to 106 of the Labour Code apply commensurately.”

Labour Code, 1965

“Section 346a
The work of individuals (natural persons) until 15 years of age or over the age of 15 until the end of compulsory school attendance shall be prohibited. These persons may only perform artistic, cultural, advertising or sporting activity under the conditions laid down in other statutory provisions.”

Worst Forms of Child Labour

Charter of Fundamental Rights and Freedoms, 1991

“Article 29
(1) Women, adolescents, and handicapped persons are entitled to increased protection of their health at work and to special working conditions.
(2) Adolescents and handicapped persons are entitled to special protection in labour relations and to assistance in vocational training.
(3) Detailed provisions in this respect shall be set by law.”

Labour Code, 2006

“Section 101
(1) The employer shall ensure occupational safety and health protection of employees at work with regard to risks which might endanger his employees’ life and health during performance of work (hereafter “risks”; in Czech „rizika“).
(2) The care for occupational safety and health protection, imposed on the employer by subsection (1) or other statutory provisions, forms an integral and equal part of managerial employees’ obligations, at all levels (stages) of management, within the scope of their positions.”

“Section 243
Employers shall create favourable conditions for the general development of physical and mental (intellectual) abilities of adolescent employees also by a special adjustment of their working conditions.
Section 244
Employers may only employ adolescent employees on those types of work which are adequate to their physical and intellectual development and shall devote special care to their needs at work.”

“Section 245
(1) It is prohibited to employ adolescent employees on overtime work or at night. Adolescent employees who are over 16 years of age may exceptionally carry out night work not exceeding one hour where this is necessary for their vocational training and such night work shall be done under the supervision of an employee who is over 18 years of age if this supervision is necessary for the sake of the adolescent employee concerned. Night work of
an adolescent employee must immediately follow his daytime work according to the schedule of working shifts.
(2) Where it is prohibited to assign an adolescent employee to the type of work for which
the employee has vocational education due to the fact that performance of such work by adolescent employees is prohibited or due to the fact that under the relevant medical certificate issued by the occupational medical services provider such work is hazardous to
the adolescent employee’s health, the employer shall assign this employee to alternative suitable work, if possible corresponding to his qualification, until the time when the employee can perform the type of work for which he has qualification.”

“Section 246
(1) It is prohibited to employ adolescent employees underground on the extraction of minerals
or drilling tunnels or galleries.
(2) It is prohibited to employ adolescent employees on those types of work which are inadequate, hazardous or harmful to their health with a view to anatomical, physiological and psychic attributes of persons of this age. The Ministry of Health, acting in agreement with the Ministry of Industry and Trade and the Ministry of Education, Youth and Physical Education, shall lay down in a Decree those types of work and workplaces which are prohibited for adolescent employees and the conditions under which adolescent employees may exceptionally perform such types of work for the purposes of their vocational training.
(3) It is prohibited to employ adolescent employees on those types of work which expose them to an increased risk of injury or on the performance of which they could seriously put at risk the safety and health of fellow employees or other natural persons.
(4) The prohibition of carrying out certain types of work may also be extended by a Decree pursuant to subsection (2) to employees whose age is below 21 years.
(5) The employer shall keep a list of adolescent employees employed by him; the list shall include the full name, date of birth and the type of work performed by each adolescent employee.”

“Section 350
(2) “Adolescent employees” (or “juvenile employees”) shall mean employees under 18 years of age.”

Decree No. 288/2003

Defining activities and working places that are prohibited to minors and conditions under which minors can exceptionally execute such work as a part of their training.

Trafficking in Human Beings

Criminal Code, 2009

“Section 168 Trafficking in Human Beings
(1) Whoever forces, procures, hires, incites, entices, transports, conceals, detains, or consigns a child to be used by another for

a. sexual intercourse or other forms of sexual abuse or harassment, or for production of pornographic works,
b. extraction of tissue, cell, or organs from his/her body,
c. service in the armed forces,
d. slavery or servitude, or
e. forced labour or other forms of exploitation, or
who profits on such a conduct,
shall be sentenced to imprisonment for two to ten years.

(2) The same sentence shall be imposed to anyone who forces, procures, hires, incites, entices, transports, hides, detains, or consigns a person other than referred to in Sub-section (1) by using violence, threat of violence or other grievous harm or deceit, or by abusing his/ehr error, distress, or addiction in order to use him/her for

a) sexual intercourse or other forms of sexual abuse or harassment, or for the production of pornographic works,
b) extraction of tissue, cell, or organs from their body,
c) service in the armed forces,
d) slavery or servitude, or
e) forced labour or other forms of exploitation, or
who profits on such conduct.

(3) An offender shall be sentenced to imprisonment for five to twelve years or to confiscation of property if he/she

a) commits then act referred to in Sub-section (1) or (2) as a member of an organised group,
b) exposes another person to a risk of grievous bodily harm or death by such an act,
c) commits such an act with the intention to gain a substantial profit for him-/herself or for another, or
d) commits such an act with the intention to use another person for prostitution.

(4) An offender shall be sentenced to imprisonment for eight to fifteen years or to confiscation of property if he/she

a) causes grievous bodily harm by the act referred to in Sub-section (1) or (2),
b) commits such an act with the intention to gain extensive profit for him-/herself or for another, or
c) commits such an act in connection to an organised group operating in several states.

(5) An offender shall be sentenced to imprisonment for ten to eighteen years or to confiscation of property, if he/she causes death by the act referred to in Sub-section (1) or (2).
(6) Preparation is criminal.”

 

Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the  perpetration of forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour. These actions should be considered in wider societal efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.

Programs and Agencies for Victim Support

Policies for Assistance
General

Criminal Code, 2009

“Section 28 Extreme Necessity
(1) An act otherwise criminal, by which a person repels an impending danger to an interest protected by this Code, shall not be considered as a criminal offence.
(2) Extreme necessity is not concerned if such danger could have been repelled otherwise under the given conditions, or if the consequences caused are evidently equally serious or even more serious than the imminent consequence, or if the person threatened by the consequence was obliged to bear it.”

“Section 203 Impunity of a Child
A child who requests monetary reward, advantages or benefits for sexual intercourse with them, their masturbation, indecent exposure, or other comparable conduct, shall not be criminally liable for such an act, not even under the provisions on instigator and accessory.”

Act 45/2013 on Victims of Crime, 2013

Zakon c. 326/1999 Sb., o pobytu cizincu na uzemi Ceske republiky a o zmene nekterych zakonu (Act No. 326/1999 Coll., on Residence of Aliens in the Territory of the Czech Republic.) 1999

“Section 42e (as of 26 June 2006) Long-Term Residence Permit for the Purpose of Receiving Protection in the Territory
(1) A long-term residence permit for the purpose of receiving protection in the Territory will be granted by the Ministry at the request of an alien who is:
a. the probable victim of the criminal act of trafficking in human beings; or
b. a person for which illegal crossing of state border was arranged or enabled to, or whose testimony is significant for revealing the perpetrator or organized groups that are involved in organizing or enabling illegal crossing of state borders., under the condition that he/she cooperates with the authorities responsible for penal proceedings in course of prosecution of perpetrator suspected of committing this criminal act and does not cooperate with the suspect(s).”

Code of Criminal Procedure, 1961

Section 8b(2) Nobody shall, in connection to a criminal offence committed against an aggrieved person, in any way disclose information that enable identification of the aggrieved person who is under the age of 18, or against whom was committed an offence of trafficking in human beings or propagation of pornography, or an offence against life and health, freedom and human dignity or an offence against family and juveniles.

 

Penalties
Human Trafficking

Criminal Code, 2009

“Section 168 Trafficking in Human Beings
(1) Whoever forces, procures, hires, incites, entices, transports, conceals, detains, or consigns a child to be used by another for

a. sexual intercourse or other forms of sexual abuse or harassment, or for production of pornographic works,
b. extraction of tissue, cell, or organs from his/her body,
c. service in the armed forces,
d. slavery or servitude, or
e. forced labour or other forms of exploitation, or
who profits on such a conduct,
shall be sentenced to imprisonment for two to ten years.

(2) The same sentence shall be imposed to anyone who forces, procures, hires, incites, entices, transports, hides, detains, or consigns a person other than referred to in Sub-section (1) by using violence, threat of violence or other grievous harm or deceit, or by abusing his/ehr error, distress, or addiction in order to use him/her for

a) sexual intercourse or other forms of sexual abuse or harassment, or for the production of pornographic works,
b) extraction of tissue, cell, or organs from their body,
c) service in the armed forces,
d) slavery or servitude, or
e) forced labour or other forms of exploitation, or
who profits on such conduct.

(3) An offender shall be sentenced to imprisonment for five to twelve years or to confiscation of property if he/she

a) commits then act referred to in Sub-section (1) or (2) as a member of an organised group,
b) exposes another person to a risk of grievous bodily harm or death by such an act,
c) commits such an act with the intention to gain a substantial profit for him-/herself or for another, or
d) commits such an act with the intention to use another person for prostitution.

(4) An offender shall be sentenced to imprisonment for eight to fifteen years or to confiscation of property if he/she

a) causes grievous bodily harm by the act referred to in Sub-section (1) or (2),
b) commits such an act with the intention to gain extensive profit for him-/herself or for another, or
c) commits such an act in connection to an organised group operating in several states.

(5) An offender shall be sentenced to imprisonment for ten to eighteen years or to confiscation of property, if he/she causes death by the act referred to in Sub-section (1) or (2).
(6) Preparation is criminal.”

General

Criminal Code, 2009

“Section 342 Illicit Employment of Foreigners
(1) Whoever in larger extent illicitly employs or arranges employment of foreigners staying in the territory of the Czech Republic without authorisation, or
whoever in larger extent illicitly employs or arranges employment of foreigners that do not have valid permit for employment according to another legal regulation,
shall be sentenced to imprisonment for up to six months, to confiscation of a thing or other asset value or to prohibition of activity.
(2) An offender shall be sentenced to imprisonment for up to one year, if he/she commits the act referred to in Sub-section (1)
a) as a member of an organised group,
b) for payment, or
c) repeatedly.
(3) An offender shall be sentenced to imprisonment for six months to three years, if he/she gains for him-/herself or for another substantial profit by the act referred to in Sub-section (1).
(4) An offender shall be sentenced to imprisonment for one year to five years, eventually in parallel to this sentence also to confiscation of property, if he/she gains for him-/herself or for another extensive profit by the act referred to in Sub-section (1).”

Data Commitments

A Call to Action to End Forced Labour, Modern Slavery and Human Trafficking, Signed 2017

1.ii. Take steps to measure, monitor and share data on prevalence and response to all such forms of exploitation, as appropriate to national circumstances;

Programs and Agencies for Enforcement

Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk of exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.

Social Protection Coverage: General (at Least One)
Social Protection (Source: ILO)

The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.

If a country does not appear on a chart, this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.

Social Protection Coverage: Unemployed
Social Protection Coverage: Pension
Social Protection Coverage: Vulnerable Groups
Social Protection Coverage: Poor
Social Protection Coverage: Children
Social Protection Coverage: Disabled