Data Dashboards

Democratic Republic of the Congo
Measurement
Measuring the Change

using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards.

Child labour data with a complete statistical definition is only provided for 2012. There is no change to report.

%
Best Target 8.7 Data: Child Labour Rate

The data visualization displays yearly child labour statistics based on a variety of nationally-representative household surveys. All years of data hold up to standards set by interagency collaboration between ILO, UNICEF and World Bank, though, in some cases are not perfectly comparable between years. Detailed information on each data point is provided in the Measurement tab (above).

Data Availability
  • Child labour: ILO/UNICEF data
  • Forced labour: No nationally representative data
  • Human trafficking: No nationally representative data
Context
Human Development

Human Development Index Score: 0.459 (2018)

Mean School Years: 6.8 years (2018)

Labour Indicators

Vulnerable Employment: 79.7% (2018)

Working Poverty Rate: 68.3% (2020)

Government Efforts
Key Ratifications
  • ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Not Ratified
  • ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2001
  • UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Accession 2005
Social Protection Coverage

General (at least one): 14.1% (2016)

Unemployed: 15.0% (2009)

Pension: No data

Vulnerable: 5.6% (2016)

Children: No data

Disabled: No data

Poor: 8.8% (2016)

Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.

Child Labour Rate, Aged 5-17 (Source: ILO)

Based on the international conventions and the International Conference of Labour Statisticians (ICLS)  resolution, and consistent with the approach utilized in the ILO global child labour estimates exercise, the statistical definition of child labour used includes:

a) children aged 5-11 years in all forms of economic activity;
b) children aged 12-14 years in all forms of economic activity except permissible “light” work;
c) children and adolescents aged 15-17 years in hazardous work; and
d) children aged 5-14 years performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week.

Only the measure provided for 2012 covers the full definition of hazardous work and cannot be compared directly with data from other sample years. 

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 5-17 in child labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2001, 2005, 2007, 2010, 2012, and 2013.  

Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Hazardous child labour is the largest category of the worst forms of child labour with an estimated 73 million children aged 5-17 working in dangerous conditions in a wide range of sectors. Worldwide, the ILO estimates that some 22,000 children are killed at work every year.

In Democratic Republic of Congo, the latest estimates show that 0.7 percent of children aged 5-14 were engaged in hazardous work in 2012. 

Only the measure provided for 2012 covers the full definition of hazardous work and cannot be compared directly with data from other sample years.

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 5-14 in hazardous labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2001, 2005, 2007, 2010, 2012, and 2013.  

Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 15-17 (Source: ILO)

Children aged 15-17 are permitted to engage in economic activities by international conventions in most cases, except when the work is likely to harm the health, safety or morals of children (Article 3 (d) of ILO Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour, 1999 (No. 182)). 

In Democratic Republic of the Congo, the latest estimates show that 5.0 percent of children aged 15-17 were engaged in hazardous work in 2012. The percentage is lower than in 2005, and has decreased from 21.4 percent.

Only the measures provided for 2005 and 2012 cover the full definition of hazardous work and cannot be compared directly with data from other sample years.

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 15-17 in hazardous labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2001, 2005, 2007, 2010, 2012, and 2013.  

 

Weekly Work Hours, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Children aged 5-11 are considered to be subjected to child labour when engaging in any form of economic activity. Children aged 12-14 are permitted to engage in “light” work that is not considered hazardous and falls below 14 hours per week.

According to the latest 2013 estimates, the average number of hours worked per week by children aged 5-14 in Democratic Republic of the Congo was 7.1 hours. The average number of hours worked has decreased from 21.0 hours in 2012.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours that children aged 5-14 work in economic activities by sex and region. The sample includes all children of this age group. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2001, 2005, 2007, 2010, 2012, and 2013.  

 

Weekly Work Hours Children Only in Economic Activity, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Children not attending school who are engaged in economic activity can be subjected to longer working hours. 

In 2013, the latest year with available data, children in economic activity only, meaning they are not in school, worked an average of 7.1 hours per week. This number has decreased since 2012, when the average number of hours worked by this age group was 24.2. 

The chart displays differences in the number of hours worked by children aged 5-14 who are not in school, by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2001, 2005, 2007, 2010, 2012, and 2013.  

Weekly Hours Household Chores, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Researchers recognize that children involved in economic activities are not the only children working. The ICLS recommended definition of child labour includes children aged 5-14 performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week. 

Children aged 5-14, on average, are found to work on household chores  10.5 hours per week according to the 2013 estimate. This estimate represents a decrease in hours worked across all age groups since the last estimate in 2012, which found that children aged 5-14 in Democratic Republic of the Congo worked an average of 12.4 hours per week.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours children aged 5-14 work on household chores by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2001, 2005, 2007, 2010, 2012, and 2013.  

Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: total (Source: ILO)

Identifying the sectors in which the most child labour exists can help policy actors and practitioners target efforts toward those industries. 

The latest data available on child labour by sector for Democratic Republic of the Congo is from 2012. By the 2012 estimate, the Agriculture sector had the most child labourers, followed by the Commerce, Hotels and Restaurants sector, the Other Services sector, the Construction, Mining and Other Industrial Sectors, and the manufacturing sector.

The chart to the right displays child labour prevalence in each sector for all children. The charts below show the differences in child labour by sector with comparisons between groups by sex and region.

Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: sex (Source: ILO)
Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: area (Source: ILO)

Measuring the incidence of forced labour is a much more recent endeavour and presents unique methodological challenges compared to the measurement of child labour.

No nationally representative data is available on forced labour prevalence in Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on new guidelines presented by the International Labour Organization and adopted by the International Conference of Labour Statisticians.

The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.

No nationally representative data is available on human trafficking prevalence in Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page to learn about measuring human trafficking prevalence, including information on collecting data through national referral mechanisms and producing prevalence statistics using Multiple Systems Estimation (MSE).

Case Data: International and Non-Governmental Organizations

Civil society organizations (CSOs) focused on human trafficking victim assistance can serve as crucial sources of data given their ability to reach a population that is notoriously difficult to sample.

Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (CTDC): The International Organization for Migration (IOM), Polaris and Liberty Asia have launched a global data repository on human trafficking, with data contributed by counter-trafficking partner organizations around the world. Not only does the CTDC serve as a central repository for this critical information, it also publishes normed and harmonized data from various organizations using a unified schema. This global dataset facilitates an unparalleled level of cross-border, trans-agency analysis and provides the counter-trafficking movement with a deeper understanding of this complex issue. Equipped with this information, decision makers will be empowered to create more targeted and effective intervention strategies.

Prosecution Data

UNODC compiles a global dataset on detected and prosecuted traffickers, which serves as the basis in their Global Report for country profiles. This information is beginning to paint a picture of trends over time, and case-specific information can assist investigators and prosecutors.

Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.

 

Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.

The chart displays information on human development in Democratic Republic of the Congo between 1990 and 2018. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex. 

The most recent year of the HDI, 2018, shows that the average human development score in Democratic Republic of the Congo is 0.459. This score indicates that human development is low.

HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)

Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.

As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:

“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”

The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in Democratic Republic of the Congo over time.

 

Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in the availability of equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction towards achieving Target 8.7.

HDI Vulnerable Employment (Source: UNDP)

There are reasons to believe that certain types of labour and labour arrangements are more likely to lead to labour exploitation. According to the ILO:

“Own-account workers and contributing family workers have a lower likelihood of having formal work arrangements, and are therefore more likely to lack elements associated with decent employment, such as adequate social security and a voice at work. The two statuses are summed to create a classification of ‘vulnerable employment’, while wage and salaried workers together with employers constitute ‘non-vulnerable employment’.”

Between 1991 and 2018, the Democratic Republic of the Congo showed a decrease in the proportion of workers in vulnerable employment as compared to those in secure employment.

 

Working Poverty Rate (Source: ILO)

Labour income tells us about a household’s vulnerability. As the ILO explains in Profits and Poverty

“Poor households find it particularly difficult to deal with income shocks, especially when they push households below the food poverty line. In the presence of such shocks, men and women without social protection nets tend to borrow to smooth consumption, and to accept any job for themselves or their children, even under exploitative conditions.”

ILO indicators that measure poverty with respect to the labour force include working poverty rate, disaggregated by sex, with temporal coverage spanning from 2000 to 2020. The chart displays linear trends in working poverty rate over time for all individuals over 15 years of age.

 

Labour Productivity (Source: ILO)

Labour productivity is an important economic indicator that is closely linked to economic growth, competitiveness, and living standards within an economy.” However, when increased labour output does not produce rising wages, this can point to increasing inequality. As indicated by a recent ILO report (2015), there is a “growing disconnect between wages and productivity growth, in both developed and emerging economies”. The lack of decent work available increases vulnerability to situations of labour exploitation. 

Labour productivity represents the total volume of output (measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product, GDP) produced per unit of labour (measured in terms of the number of employed persons) during a given period.

 

Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.

Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Source: UNHCR)

Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants.

According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children. “

As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements, as recognized by Member States in the New York declaration for refugees and migrants of September 2016.”

The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.

Official Definitions
Forced Labour

Constitution, 2006

“Article 16
The human person is sacred. The State has the obligation to respect it and to protect it.
All persons have the right to life, to physical integrity as well as to the free development of their personality, under respect for the law, of public order, of the rights of others and of public morality.
No one may be held in slavery or in an analagous condition.
No one may be subjected to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment. No one may be subjected to forced or compulsory labor.”

Code du Travail, 2002

“Chapitre II :
DU DROIT AU TRAVAIL
Article 2 :
Le travail est pour chacun un droit et un devoir. Il constitue une obligation morale pour tous ceux qui n’en sont pas empêchés par l’âge ou l’inaptitude au travail constatée par un médecin.
Le travail forcé ou obligatoire est interdit.
Tombe également sous le coup de l’interdiction, tout travail ou service exigé d’un individu sous menace d’une peine quelconque et pour lequel ledit individu ne s’est pas offert de plein gré.”

Travail des enfants

Code du Travail, 2002

“Article 6 :
La capacité d’une personne d’engager ses services est régie par la loi du pays auquel elle appartient, ou à défaut de nationalité connue, par la loi congolaise.
Au sens du présent Code, la capacité de contracter est fixée à seize ans sous réserve des dispositions suivantes :

a) une personne âgée de 15 ans ne peut être engagée ou maintenue en service que moyennant dérogation expresse de l’Inspecteur du Travail et de l’autorité parentale ou tutélaire ;
b) toutefois l’opposition de l’Inspecteur du Travail et de l’autorité parentale ou tutélaire à la dérogation prévue au litera a) ci-dessus peut être levée par le Tribunal lorsque les circonstances ou l’équité le justifient ;
c) une personne âgée de 15 ans ne peut être engagée ou maintenue en service que pour l’exécution des travaux légers et salubres prévus par un arrêté du Ministre ayant le Travail et la Prévoyance Sociale dans ses attributions, pris en application de l’article 38 du présent Code ;
d) toute forme de recrutement est interdite sur tout le territoire national ;
e)à défaut d’acte de naissance, le contrôle de l’âge du travailleur visé aux literas a) et b) ci-dessus est exercé selon les modalités fixées par un arrêté du Ministre ayant le Travail et la Prévoyance Sociale dans ses attributions.”

“Article 133 :
Les enfants ne peuvent être employés dans une entreprise même comme apprentis, avant l’âge de 15 ans sauf dérogation expresse de l’Inspecteur du Travail du ressort et de l’autorité parentale ou tutélaire.
En aucun cas, l’autorisation expresse de l’Inspecteur du Travail du ressort et de l’autorité parentale ou tutélaire ne doit être accordée en dessous de 15 ans.”

Arrêté ministériel n° 12/CAB.MIN/TPSI/045 /08 fixant les conditions de travail des enfants, 2008

“Article 2 :
Au sens du présent Arrêté, l’expression « enfant» désigne toute personne âgée de moins de 18 ans.
Chapitre VII: Des dérogations
Article 19 :
Lorsque des raisons impérieuses de formation professionnelle l’exigent, l’Inspecteur du Travail du ressort peut accorder des dérogations temporaires aux dispositions de l’article 12 au profit des enfants de moins de 16 ans révolus et de moins de 18 ans, et ce sur demande de l’employeur.
Celles-ci ne sont pas applicables aux travailleurs du sexe féminin.”

Loi 09/001 portant protection de l’enfant, 2009

“Article 2
Au sens de la présente loi, il faut entendre par:
1. enfant: toute personne âgée de moins de dix-huit ans,”

“Section 2 : De l’enfant au travail
Article 50
L’enfant ne peut être employé avant l’âge de seize ans révolus.
L’enfant âgé de quinze ans ne peut être engagé ou maintenu en service, même comme apprenti, que moyennant dérogation expresse du juge pour enfants, après avis psycho- médical d’un expert et de l’inspecteur du travail.
Le juge est saisi à la demande des parents ou de toute personne exerçant l’autorité parentale ou tutélaire sur l’enfant, par l’inspecteur du travail ou toute personne intéressée.
Article 51
Sans préjudice pour son emploi, l’enfant conserve le droit de poursuivre ses études jusqu’à dix-huit ans.
Article 52
Aucun maître, homme ou femme, s’il ne vit en famille ou en communauté, ne peut loger comme apprenti l’enfant âgé de moins de dix-huit ans”

Pires Formes de Travail des Enfants

Code du Travail, 2002

“Article 3 :
Toutes les pires formes de travail des enfants sont abolies.
L’expression « les pires formes de travail des enfants » comprend notamment:

a) toutes les formes d’esclavage ou pratiques analogues, telles que la vente et la traite des enfants, la servitude pour dettes et le servage ainsi que le travail forcé ou obligatoire, y compris le recrutement forcé ou obligatoire des enfants en vue de leur utilisation dans des conflits armés ;
b) l’utilisation, le recrutement ou l’offre d’un enfant à des fins de prostitution, de production de matériel pornographique de spectacles pornographiques ou des danses obscènes ;
c) l’utilisation, le recrutement ou l’offre d’un enfant aux fins d’activités illicites, notamment pour la production et le trafic de stupéfiants ;
d) les travaux qui, par leur nature ou les conditions dans lesquelles ils s’exercent, sont susceptibles de nuire à la santé, à la sécurité, à la dignité ou à la moralité de l’enfant.”

“Article 125 :
Les femmes, les enfants de moins de 18 ans et les personnes avec handicap ne peuvent pas travailler la nuit dans 1es établissements industriels publics ou privés.
Le terme nuit visé à l’alinéa précédent signifie la période allant de 19 heures à 17 heures.”

Arrêté ministériel n° 12/CAB.MIN/TPSI/045 /08 fixant les conditions de travail des enfants, 2008

“Article 1er :
Il est interdit à tout employeur, personne physique ou morale d’occuper des enfants à des travaux excédant leurs forces, les exposant à des risques professionnels élevés, ou qui par leur nature ou par les conditions dans lesquelles ils sont effectués, sont susceptibles de blesser leur moralité.

Les enfants âgés de moins de 18 ans ne pourront effectuer plus de 8 heures de travail effectif par jour.
Lorsque la durée du travail effectif dépasse 4 heures par jour, celle- ci 1 doit être coupée d’un ou plusieurs repos dont la durée totale ne peut être inférieure à une heure.
Chapitre III : Du travail de samedi de dimanche et de nuit
Article 6 :
Aucun enfant âgé de moins de 18 ans ne peut être occupé le samedi et le dimanche.
Article 7 :
Le travail de nuit est interdit à tout enfant âgé de moins de 18 ans.
Chapitre IV: Les travaux interdits aux enfants
Section 1 : Des pires formes de travail des enfants”

Loi 09/001 portant protection de l’enfant, 2009

“Article 53
Les pires formes de travail des enfants sont interdites.
Sont considérées comme pires formes de travail des enfants:
b) toutes les formes d’esclavage ou pratiques analogues, telles que la vente et la traite des enfants, la servitude pour dettes et le servage ainsi que le travail forcé ou obligatoire,
c) le recrutement forcé ou obligatoire des enfants en vue de leur utilisation dans les conflits armés;
d) l’utilisation, le recrutement ou l’offre d’un enfant à des fins de prostitution, de production de matériel pornographique de spectacles pornographiques;
e) l’utilisation, le recrutement ou l’offre d’un enfant aux fins d’activités illicites, notamment pour la production et le trafic des stupéfiants’
f) les travaux qui, par leur nature et les conditions dans lesquelles ils s’exercent, sont susceptibles de nuire à la santé, à la croissance, à la sécurité, à l’épanouissement, à la dignité ou à la moralité de l’enfant.
Article 54
L’enfant âgé de seize à moins de dix-huit ans ne peut être engagé ni maintenu en service que pour l’exécution des travaux légers et salubres,
Un arrêté du ministre ayant le travail dans ses attributions détermine les travaux légers et salubres.
Article 55
L’enfant ne doit pas travailler plus de quatre heures par jour.
Le travail de nuit d’un enfant, soit de dix-huit heures à six heures, est interdit.”

“Article 58
L’enfant est protégé contre toutes les formes d’exploitation économique.
L’exploitation économique s’entend de toute forme d’utilisation abusive de l’enfant à des fins économiques L’abus concerne notamment le poids du travail par rapport à l’âge de J’enfant, le temps et la durée do travail, l’insuffisance ou l’absence de la rémunération, l’entrave du travail par rapport à l’accès à l’éducation, au développement physique, mental, moral, spirituel et social de l’enfant.”

Human Trafficking

Loi n° 06/013 du 12 juin 2006 autorisant l’adhésion de la République démocratique du Congo au Protocole additionnel à la convention des Nations Unies contre la criminalité transnationale organisée visant à prévenir, réprimer et punir la traite des personnes, en particulier des femmes et des enfants.

Slavery

Constitution, 2006

“Article 16
The human person is sacred. The State has the obligation to respect it and to protect it.
All persons have the right to life, to physical integrity as well as to the free development of their personality, under respect for the law, of public order, of the rights of others and of public morality.
No one may be held in slavery or in an analagous condition.
No one may be subjected to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment. No one may be subjected to forced or compulsory labor.”

“Article 61
In no case, even when the state of siege or the state of urgency has been proclaimed in accordance with Articles 85 and 86 of this Constitution, can there be derogation of the rights and fundamental principles enumerated as follows:
1. the right to life;
2. the prohibition of torture and of cruel, inhuman or degrading punishments
or treatment;
3. the prohibition of slavery and of servitude;
4. the principle of the legality of infractions and of penalties;
5. the right to [a] defense and the right to recourse;
6. the prohibition of imprisonment for debts;
7. the freedom of thought, of conscience and of religion.”

 

International Commitments
International Ratifications

ILO Forced Labour Convention, C029, Ratification 1960

ILO Abolition of Forced Labour Convention, C105, Ratification 2001

ILO Minimum Age Convention, C138, Ratification 2001 (minimum age specified: 14 years)

ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182, Ratification 2001

Slavery Convention 1926 and amended by the Protocol of 1953, Not signed

UN Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, Accession 1975

UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol), Accession 2005

UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, Ratification 1990

UN Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Ratification 2001

UN Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, Accession 2001

National Action Plans, National Strategies

National Action Plan to Combat the Worst Forms of Child Labor (2012–2020)

Developed by the NCCL in consultation with UNICEF to eliminate the worst forms of child labor in the DRC by 2020. Promotes the enforcement of legislation on the worst forms of child labor, awareness raising, and empowering communities to stop child labor practices; universal primary education; prevention and reintegration services; improved monitoring and evaluation efforts; and improved coordination of stakeholders. In 2017, at the IV Global Conference on the Sustained Eradication of Child Labor, the government pledged to mobilize the resources necessary to implement this plan, and indicated its intention to conduct awareness-raising campaigns in 2018 and 2019 regarding the hazards of child labor in agriculture, mining, and armed conflict.

Action Plan to End the Recruitment and Use of Child Soldiers (Child Soldiers Action Plan)

UN-backed plan that aims to prevent and end the use of children in armed forces, provide support and reintegration services, pursue accountability for perpetrators, and create a partnership framework for the UN and the government. Includes standard operating procedures for age verification to help the FARDC avoid underage recruitment. In 2017, MONUSCO and the FARDC worked with military prosecutors to bring charges against elements who use children in armed conflict; following these efforts, MONUSCO screened and secured the release of more than 100 children from detention. Also during the reporting period, provided training on child protection and age verification to more than 1,240 FARDC and police officers.

UEPN-DDR’s National Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration Plan (PNDDR) DDR III

Aims to provide rehabilitation and reintegration services to demobilized combatants, including children. Implemented with the support of the UN and international partners in support of the 2013 Framework Agreement for Peace, Security and Cooperation for the DRC and the Great Lakes Region. Requires children separated from armed groups to be immediately transferred to UNICEF. In 2017, separated as many as 2,360 children from armed groups.

National Sectoral Strategy to Combat Child Labor in Artisanal Mines and Artisanal Mining Sites (2017–2025)

Ministry of Mines policy that aims to eradicate child labor in artisanal mines by 2025 through strengthening the regulatory framework, improving data collection on the prevalence of child labor in the mining sector, promoting responsible sourcing regulations, improving child protection, and building stakeholder capacity. In 2017, the government and IOM validated 93 new artisanal mining sites in the eastern DRC as free of conflict and child labor, raising the total number of certified mining sites to 417.

IMC’s Triennial Action Plan (2017–2020)

Aims to eradicate child labor in mining by 2020, particularly in the tin, tantalum, tungsten, cobalt, and copper sectors by monitoring existing policies and strengthening measures to remove children from mining sites.

National Action Plan Against Sexual Violence in Conflict

MOGF policy in support of UN Resolution 1325 on women, peace, and security that aims to combat sexual violence against girls associated with armed groups and ensure prosecution of perpetrators. In 2017, the President’s Special Advisor on Sexual Violence and Child Recruitment worked with Child Soldiers International to publish a practical guide for child protection actors to facilitate the demobilization and reintegration of girls associated with armed groups.

 

Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the  perpetration of forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour. These actions should be considered in wider societal efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.

Programs and Agencies for Victim Support
Policies for Assistance
Policies for Assistance, General

Loi 09/001 portant protection de l’enfant, 2009

 

Penalties
Penalties, Forced Labour

Code du Travail, 2002

“Article 326 :
Sans préjudice des lois pénales prévoyant des peines plus sévères, sera puni d’une peine de servitude pénale principale de six mois au maximum et d’une amende de 30.000 F.C. constants ou de l’une de ces peines seulement, quiconque aura contrevenu aux dispositions des articles 2 alinéa 2, 3, 173 et 315 du présent Code.”

Penalties, Child Labour

Code du Travail, 2002

“Article 318 :
Lorsqu’à l’expiration du délai de mise en demeure, l’employeur ou son préposé, persiste dans la violation des dispositions relatives aux articles 6 literas (a) et (e), 87, 119, 120, 121, 125, 126, 128, 133, 171, 177, 255, et leurs textes d’application ou d’exécution, s’il échet, le Ministre ayant le Travail et la Prévoyance Sociale dans ses attributions ou son délégué, sur proposition de l’Inspecteur du Travail, peut, sans préjudice des dispositions pénales prévues, ordonner la fermeture provisoire de tout ou partie de l’entreprise.
Pendant la fermeture, jusqu’au moment où il est mis fin aux irrégularités constatées, les salaires et autres avantages sociaux sont dus et il ne peut être mis fin au contrat en cours.”

“Article 321 :
Sont punis d’une amende qui ne dépasse pas 20.000 F.C. constants, les auteurs des infractions aux dispositions :

a) des articles 6 literas a), b), c) et d),
8, 18, 19, 20, 21, 25, 26, 33 alinéa 2, 44, 47, 51, 55 alinéa 3, 56, 60, 64, 65, 66, 78, 79, 84, 89, 90, 98, 99, 100, 101, 103, 111, 112, 114, 116, 117, 118, 119, 121, 122, 125, 126, 129, 133, 136, 137 alinéa 2, 138, 140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 145, 146, 148 alinéa 1, 152, 154, 157, 167, 176, 178, 181, 212, 213, 215, 216, 217, 218, 221, 229, 234, 258, 265, 268 , 269 ;
b) des décrets prévus aux articles 87 et 123 ,
c) des arrêtés pris en application des articles 35, 38, 47, 56, 58, 94, 103, 112, 120, 121, 123, 124, 128, 139, 156, 158, 169, 171, 177, 207, 219, 222, 236 et 255.
Est passible de la même peine, toute personne invitée ou chargée de la représentation des parties à un litige individuel ou à un conflit collectif devant l’Inspecteur ou le Contrôleur du Travail qui ne se sera pas rendue à la troisième invitation qui lui aura été remise moyennant accusé de réception. Dans ce cas, l’article 322 du présent Code n’est pas d’application.”

“Article 328:
En ce qui concerne :

a) les infractions aux dispositions de l’article 215, l’amende est appliquée autant de fois qu’il y a de travailleurs non inscrits ou de renseignements omis,
b) les infractions aux dispositions des articles 55 alinéa 3, 56, 79, 86, 89, 98, 99, 112, 113, 120, 121, 125, 126, 128, 133, 137 alinéa 2, 140, 141, 234, l’amende est appliquée autant de fois qu’il y a des travailleurs concernés par l’infraction.
c) Toutefois, le montant total des amendes infligées en vertu du présent article ne peut excéder cinquante fois les taux maxima prévus aux articles ci- dessus.”

Arrêté ministériel n° 12/CAB.MIN/TPSI/045 /08 fixant les conditions de travail des enfants, 2008

“Article 20 :
Les infractions aux dispositions du présent Arrêté sont punies des peines prévues aux articles 321 a) et 328 b) du Code du Travail.”

Loi 09/001 portant protection de l’enfant, 2009

“Article 131
Sont punis d’une servitude pénale principale de un à cinq ans et d’une amende de cent mille à deux cent cinquante mille francs congolais ou de l’une de ces peines seulement, le père, la mère, le tuteur ou toute autre personne qui:
1. soustrait ou tente de soustraire un enfant à la procédure intentée contre lui en vertu ce la présente loi;
2. le soustrait ou tente de le soustraire à la garde des personnes ou institution à qui l’autorité judiciaire l’a confié;
3. ne le présente pas à ceux qui ont le droit de le réclamer;
4. l’enlève ou le fait enlever, même avec son consentement
Si le coupable est déchu de l’autorité parentale en tout ou en partie, la servitude pénale principale peut être élevée de deux à cinq ans et à une amende de cent mille à deux cent cinquante mille francs congolais”

Penalties, General

Code du Travail, 2002

“Article 323 :
Sans préjudice des dispositions du Code pénal, est puni d’une peine de servitude pénale d’un mois et d’une amende qui n’excède pas 25.000 F.C. constants ou de l’une de ces peines seulement quiconque :

a) use de violence, de menace ou de
toute autre contrainte, de promesses mensongères ou de manœuvres frauduleuses soit pour engager ou se faire engager, pour s’opposer à un engagement, soit pour contraindre un travailleur à participer à une cessation collective du travail soit à empêcher le travail ou la reprise du travail ;
b) incite un travailleur à refuser l’exécution des obligations qui lui sont imposées par la législation, la réglementation, la convention collective, le contrat individuel ou l’empêche de remplir ses obligations;
c) détruit ou lacère volontairement le contrat écrit, rend illisibles les inscriptions qui y sont portées, les altère ou les modifie frauduleusement ;
d) fait usage d’un contrat écrit ou d’un décompte dans lequel les inscriptions ont été détériorées ou modifiées frauduleusement ;
e) enfreint la réglementation sur la protection de la main-d’oeuvre nationale.”

Code Penal, 1940

“Article 68 :
Est puni des peines prévues par et selon les distinctions de l’article précédent celui qui a enlevé ou
fait enlever, arrêté ou fait arrêter, détenu ou fait détenir des personnes quelconques pour les
vendre comme esclaves ou qui a disposé de personnes placées sous son autorité dans le même
but.”

Data Commitments

A Call to Action to End Forced Labour, Modern Slavery and Human Trafficking, Not Signed

1.ii. Take steps to measure, monitor and share data on prevalence and response to all such forms of exploitation, as appropriate to national circumstances;

Programs and Agencies for Enforcement

Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk of exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.

Social Protection Coverage: General (at Least One)
Social Protection (Source: ILO)

The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.

If a country does not appear on a chart, this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.

Social Protection Coverage: Pension
Social Protection Coverage: Vulnerable Groups
Social Protection Coverage: Children
Social Protection Coverage: Disabled

Delta 8.7 has received no Official Response to this dashboard from the Democratic Republic of Congo. If you are a representative of the Democratic Republic of Congo and wish to submit an Official Response, please contact us here.