Data Dashboards

Dominica
Measurement
Measuring the Change

using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards.

Due to lack of nationally representative data, there is no change to report.

%
Best Target 8.7 Data: Child Labour Rate

No data available

Data Availability
  • Child labour: No ILO/UNICEF data
  • Forced labour: No nationally representative data
  • Human trafficking: No nationally representative data
Context
Human Development

Human Development Index Score: 0.724 (2018)

Mean School Years: 7.8 years (2018)

Labour Indicators

Vulnerable Employment: No data available

Working Poverty Rate: No data available

Government Efforts
Key Ratifications
  • ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Not Ratified
  • ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2001
  • UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Accession 2013
Social Protection Coverage

General (at least one): No data

Unemployed: No data

Pension: 38.5% (2011)

Vulnerable: No data

Children: No data

Disabled: No data

Poor: No data

Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.

No nationally representative data is available on child labour prevalence in Dominica.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on ILO-SIMPOC methods and guidelines for defining, measuring and collecting data on child labour.

Measuring the incidence of forced labour is a much more recent endeavour and presents unique methodological challenges compared to the measurement of child labour.

No nationally representative data is available on forced labour prevalence in Dominica.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on new guidelines presented by the International Labour Organization and adopted by the International Conference of Labour Statisticians.

The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.

No nationally representative data is available on human trafficking prevalence in Dominica.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page to learn about measuring human trafficking prevalence, including information on collecting data through national referral mechanisms and producing prevalence statistics using Multiple Systems Estimation (MSE).

Case Data: International and Non-Governmental Organizations

Civil society organizations (CSOs) focused on human trafficking victim assistance can serve as crucial sources of data given their ability to reach a population that is notoriously difficult to sample.

Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (CTDC): The International Organization for Migration (IOM), Polaris and Liberty Asia have launched a global data repository on human trafficking, with data contributed by counter-trafficking partner organizations around the world. Not only does the CTDC serve as a central repository for this critical information, it also publishes normed and harmonized data from various organizations using a unified schema. This global dataset facilitates an unparalleled level of cross-border, trans-agency analysis and provides the counter-trafficking movement with a deeper understanding of this complex issue. Equipped with this information, decision makers will be empowered to create more targeted and effective intervention strategies.

Prosecution Data

UNODC compiles a global dataset on detected and prosecuted traffickers, which serves as the basis in their Global Report for country profiles. This information is beginning to paint a picture of trends over time, and case-specific information can assist investigators and prosecutors.

Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.

 

Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.

The chart displays information on human development in Dominica between 2000 and 2018. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex. 

The most recent year of the HDI, 2018, shows that the average human development score in Dominica is 0.724. This score indicates that human development is high. 

 

HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)

Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.

As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:

“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”

The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in Dominica over time.

 

Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in the availability of equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction towards achieving Target 8.7.

 

Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.

Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.

Official Definitions

Forced Labour

Constitution Order, 1978

“Protection from slavery and forced labour.

4. (1) No person shall be held in slavery or servitude.
(2) No person shall be required to perform force labour.
(3) For the purposes of this section, the expression “”forced labour”” does not include-

(a) any labour required in consequence of the sentence or order of a court;
(b) labour required of any person while he is lawfully detained that, though not required in consequence of the sentence or order of a court, is reasonably necessary in the interests of hygiene or for the maintenance of the place at which he is detained;
(c) any labour of a member of a disciplined force in pursuance of his duties as such or, in the case of a person who has conscientious objections to service as a member of a naval, military or air force, any labour that person is required by law to perform in place of such service;
(d) any labour required during any period of public emergency or in the event of any other emergency or calamity that threatens the life and well-being of the community, to the extent that the requiring of such labour is reasonably justifiable in the circumstances of any situation arising or existing during that period or as a result of that other emergency or calamity, for the purpose of dealing with that situation.”

Child Labour

Education Act, 1977

“2. In this Act unless the context otherwise requires –
“”compulsory school age”” means from five years of age to sixteen years of age;”

Recruiting of Workers Act, 1943

4. Persons under the age of eighteen shall not be recruited; but the Minister may by Regualtions permit persons under that age but of or above the age of sixteen to be recruited with the consent of their parents or guardians for employment upon light work subject to such conditions as he may subscribe.

Labour Contracts Act, 1983

“7. (1) Every person of the full age of eighteen years or more shall have the capacity to enter into a labour contract pursuant to this Act.
(2) Subject ot the Employment of Children Prohibition Act and the Employment of Women, Young Persons and Children Act, a person under the age of eighteen years may enter into a labour contract only with the written consent of a parent or guardian of the person or, where the person has not parent or guardian, the written consent of the Labour Commissioner or the police officer in charge of the district in which the labour contract is to be made or performed.”

Employment of Children (Prohibition) Act, 1939

3. No person shall take into his employment or employ in any occupation whatsoever any child; but a child may be employed in domestic work or agricultural work of a light nature at home by the parents or guardian of the child

Employment of Women, Young Persons and Children Act, 1939

4. (1) No child shall be employed or work in any public or private industrial undertaking, or in any branch thereof, other than an undertaking in which only members of the same family are employed and any person who employs any child or permits him to work in contraveniton of this section is guilty of an offence.

Worst Forms of Child Labour

Employment of Women, Young Persons and Children Act, 1939

“2. In this Act —
“”child”” means a person under the age of fourteen years
“”industrial undertaking”” includes —

(a) mines, quarries and other works for the extraction of minerals from the earth;
(b) industries in which articles are manufactured, altered, cleaned, repaired, ornamented, finished, adapted for sale, broken up or demolished, or in which materials are transformed, including shipbuilding, and the generation, transformation and transmisison of electricity or motive power of any kind;
(c) construction, reconstruction, maintenance, repair, alteration, or demolition of any building, railway, tramway, harbour, dock, pier, canal, inland waterway, road, tunnel, bridge, viaduct, sewer, drain, well, telegrahic or telephonic installation, electrical undertaking,[…] well as the preparation for or laying the foundations of any such work or structure;
and, in relation to the employment of young persons and children, also includes —
(d) transport of passengers or goods by road or rail or inland waterway, includign the handling of goods at docks, quays, wharves and warehouses, but excluding transport by hand;
“”young person”” means a person who has ceased to be a child and who is under the age of eighteen years.”

“5. Prohibition of employment of children on ships
7. Restrictions on employment at night of young persons”

Human Trafficking

Transnational Organized Crime (Prevention and Control) Act, 2013

“8. (1) A person who, for the purpose of exploitation of another person organizes or facilitates –

(a) the entry or proposed entry of the other person into Dominica;
(b) the exit or proposed exit of the other person from Dominica; or
(c) the receipt of the other person into Dominica,
by any of the means specified in subsection (6) and thereby obtains the compliance of the other person in respect of the entry or proposed entry or the exit or proposed exit or in respect of that receipt, commits the offence of trafficking in persons.

(2) A person who –

(a) organizes or facilitates –

(i) the entry or proposed entry;
(ii) the exit or proposed exit; or
(iii) the receipt of another person in accordance with subsection (1); and

(b) in organizing or facilitating that action, is reckless as to whether the other person will be exploited after that entry or proposed entry or after that exit or proposed exit or after the receipt of that person, commits the offence of trafficking in persons.

(3) A person referred to in subsection (1), who deceives the other person about the fact that the entry or proposed entry or receipt of the other person or any arrangements for the stay of the other person in Dominica will involve –

(a) the provision by the other person of sexual services;
(b) the exploitation or debt bondage of the other person;
(c) the removal of human organs or human tissue; or
(d) the confiscation of the travel or identity documents of the other person, commits the offence of trafficking in persons.

(4) A person referred to in subsection (1), who –

(a) arranges or knows of an arrangement for the other person to –

(i) provide sexual services;
(ii) provide forced labour, slavery, servitude or a similar practice; or
(iii) have any human organs or human tissue removed; and

(b) deceives the other person about any of the following –

(i) the nature of the sexual services to be provided;
(ii) the extent to which the other person will be free to leave the place or area where the other person provides sexual services;
(iii) the extent to which the other person will be free to cease providing sexual services;
(iv) the extent to which the other person will be free to leave his place of residence;
(v) where there is a debt owed or claimed to be owed by the other person in connection with the arrangement for the other person to provide sexual services, the quantum or the existence of the debt owed or claimed to be owed; and
(vi) where there will be a removal of a human organ or human tissue in circumstances amounting to exploitation, the removal of that organ or human tissue,
commits the offence of trafficking in persons.

(5) A person who for the purpose of exploitation, recruits, transports, transfers, harbours or receives a person referred to in subsection (1) by any of the means specified in subsection (6) commits the offence of trafficking in persons.
(6) The means referred to in subsections (1) and (5) are –

(a) threats or use of force or other forms of coercion;
(b) abduction;
(c) deception or fraud;
(d) the abuse of – (i) power; or

(ii) a position of vulnerability;

(e) the giving or receiving of payments or of a benefit in order to obtain the consent of a person who has control over another person.”

Slavery

Constitution Order, 1978

“Protection from slavery and forced labour.

4. (1) No person shall be held in slavery or servitude. “

Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the  perpetration of forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour. These actions should be considered in wider societal efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.

Programs and Agencies for Victim Support

Policies for Assistance

Policies for Assistance, Human Trafficking

Transnational Organized Crime (Prevention and Control) Act, 2013

“(4) Restitution must compensate, where applicable, for any of the following –

(a) costs of medical and psychological treatment; (b) costs of physical and occupational therapy and
rehabilitation;
(c) costs of necessary transportation, temporary housing and child care;
(d) lost income;
(e) attorney’s fees and other legal costs;
(f) compensation for emotional distress, pain and suffering;
(g) any other losses suffered by the victim which the court considers applicable.”

Policies for Assistance, General

Protection of Witnesses Act, 2013

Children and Young Persons Welfare Act, 1972

Children and Young Persons Act, 1991

Penalties

Penalties, Child Labour

Education Act, 1997

“Compulsory school age and offences
46. (1) Subject to subsection (3) a person who employs a child of school age during the school year is guilty of an offence and liable on summary conviction to a fine of two thousand dollars.
(2) If a body corporate contravenes subsection (1) in addition to the said body corporate, every director and officer of the body corporate, who authorises, permits or acquiesces in such contravention is guilty of an offence and liable on summary conviction to the same penalty as the corporation.
(3) Notwithstanding subsection (1), a person may employ a student over fourteen years of age-

(a) during the vacation periods of the school year as specified by the Minister; or
(b) if the employment of the student is part of the school programme ot prepare students for future employment.”

Employment of Children (Prohibition) Act, 1939

4. Any person who contravenes this Act is liable on summary conviction to a fine of five hundred dollars

Children and Young Persons Act, 1991

“2. In this Act-
“”child”” means a person under the age of fourteen years;
“”juvenile”” means a person under the age of eighteen years;
“”young person”” means a person who has attained the age fo fourteen years and is under the age of eighteen years.
6. (1) Any person who —

(a) causes or procures any juvenile; or
(b) having the custody, chrage or care of a juvenile, allows him,
to be in any street, premises or place for the prupose of begging or receiving alms, or of inducing the giving of alms (whether or not there is any pretence of singing, playing, performing, offering anything for sale, or otherwise) is guilty of an offence against this Act.

(2) If a person having the custody, charge or care of a juvenile is charged with an offence under this section, and it is proved –

(a) that the juvenile was in any street, premises or place for any such purpose as is mentioned in subsection (I); and
(b) that the person charged allowed the juvenile to be in the street, premises or place,
he shall be presumed to have allowed him to be in the street, premises or place for that purpose unless the contrary is proved.

(3) If any person while singing, playing, performing or offering anything for sale in a street or public place has with him a child who has been lent or hired out to him, the child shall, for the purposes of this section, be deemed to be in that street or place for the purpose of inducing the giving of alms.”

Employment of Women, Young Persons and Children Act, 1939

“6. Liability of parent or guardian
16. Penalty
Any person guilty of an offence against this Act or any Rules made thereunder for which no penalty is expressly provided is liable on summary convitction to a fine of two hundred and fifty diollars and in the case of a second or subsequent offence to a fine of five hundred dollars”

Penalties, Human Trafficking

“8. (1) A person who, for the purpose of exploitation of another person organizes or facilitates –

(a) the entry or proposed entry of the other person into Dominica;
(b) the exit or proposed exit of the other person from Dominica; or
(c) the receipt of the other person into Dominica,
by any of the means specified in subsection (6) and thereby obtains the compliance of the other person in respect of the entry or proposed entry or the exit or proposed exit or in respect of that receipt, commits the offence of trafficking in persons.

(2) A person who –

(a) organizes or facilitates –

(i) the entry or proposed entry;
(ii) the exit or proposed exit; or
(iii) the receipt of another person in accordance with subsection (1); and

(b) in organizing or facilitating that action, is reckless as to whether the other person will be exploited after that entry or proposed entry or after that exit or proposed exit or after the receipt of that person, commits the offence of trafficking in persons.

(3) A person referred to in subsection (1), who deceives the other person about the fact that the entry or proposed entry or receipt of the other person or any arrangements for the stay of the other person in Dominica will involve –

(a) the provision by the other person of sexual services;
(b) the exploitation or debt bondage of the other person;
(c) the removal of human organs or human tissue; or
(d) the confiscation of the travel or identity documents of the other person, commits the offence of trafficking in persons.

(4) A person referred to in subsection (1), who –

(a) arranges or knows of an arrangement for the other person to –

(i) provide sexual services;
(ii) provide forced labour, slavery, servitude or a similar practice; or
(iii) have any human organs or human tissue removed; and

(b) deceives the other person about any of the following –

(i) the nature of the sexual services to be provided;
(ii) the extent to which the other person will be free to leave the place or area where the other person provides sexual services;
(iii) the extent to which the other person will be free to cease providing sexual services;
(iv) the extent to which the other person will be free to leave his place of residence;
(v) where there is a debt owed or claimed to be owed by the other person in connection with the arrangement for the other person to provide sexual services, the quantum or the existence of the debt owed or claimed to be owed; and
(vi) where there will be a removal of a human organ or human tissue in circumstances amounting to exploitation, the removal of that organ or human tissue,
commits the offence of trafficking in persons.

(5) A person who for the purpose of exploitation, recruits, transports, transfers, harbours or receives a person referred to in subsection (1) by any of the means specified in subsection (6) commits the offence of trafficking in persons.
(6) The means referred to in subsections (1) and (5) are –

(a) threats or use of force or other forms of coercion;
(b) abduction;
(c) deception or fraud;
(d) the abuse of – (i) power; or

(ii) a position of vulnerability;

(e) the giving or receiving of payments or of a benefit in order to obtain the consent of a person who has control over another person.”

“13. (1) Where a person is convicted of the offence of trafficking in persons under section 8 and the victim of the offence –

(a) is a child, that person is liable on conviction on indictment to imprisonment for life;
(b) is not a child, that person is liable on conviction on indictment to a fine of $2,000,000 or to imprisonment for 15 years or to both.

(2) A person who is convicted of an offence under –

(a) section9(1), is liable on conviction on indictment to a fine of $2,000,000 or to imprisonment for 15 years; or
(b) section9(2),is liable on conviction on indictment to a fine of $3,000,000 or to imprisonment for 25 years or to both.

(3) Where a person is convicted of the offence of trafficking in persons, the court may, in addition to any penalty imposed under this section, order that person to pay restitution to the victim.”

Immigration and Passport (Amendment) Act, 2003

“27B. (1) A person is guilty of an offence of human trafficking if that person assists any other person to enter or leave Dominica in an unlawful manner.
(2) A person who is convicted of an offence under subsection (1) is liable to a fine of one hundred thousand dollars or to imprisonment for seven years or to both such fine and imprisonment”

Data Commitments

A Call to Action to End Forced Labour, Modern Slavery and Human Trafficking, Not signed

1.ii. Take steps to measure, monitor and share data on prevalence and response to all such forms of exploitation, as appropriate to national circumstances;

Programs and Agencies for Enforcement

Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk of exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.

Social Protection Coverage: General (at Least One)
Social Protection (Source: ILO)

The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.

If a country does not appear on a chart, this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.

Social Protection Coverage: Unemployed
Social Protection Coverage: Pension
Social Protection Coverage: Vulnerable Groups
Social Protection Coverage: Poor
Social Protection Coverage: Children
Social Protection Coverage: Disabled