Data Dashboards

Egypt
Measurement
Measuring the Change

using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards.

Child labour between 2009 and 2012 decreased by 45%

-45%

2009- 2012

Best Target 8.7 Data: Child Labour Rate

The data visualization displays yearly child labour statistics based on a variety of nationally-representative household surveys. All years of data hold up to standards set by interagency collaboration between ILO, UNICEF and World Bank, though, in some cases are not perfectly comparable between years. Detailed information on each data point is provided in the Measurement tab (above).

Data Availability
  • Child labour: ILO/UNICEF data
  • Forced labour: No nationally representative data
  • Human trafficking: No nationally representative data
Context
Human Development

Human Development Index Score: 0.700 (2018)

Mean School Years: 7.3 years (2018)

Labour Indicators

Vulnerable Employment: 21.3% (2018)

Working Poverty Rate: 0.4% (2020)

Government Efforts
Key Ratifications
  • ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Not Ratified
  • ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2002
  • UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Ratified 2004
Social Protection Coverage

General (at least one): 36.9% (2016)

Unemployed: No data

Pension: No data

Vulnerable: No data

Children: No data

Disabled: No data

Poor: No data

Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.

Child Labour Rate, Aged 5-17 (Source: ILO)

Based on the international conventions and the International Conference of Labour Statisticians (ICLS) resolution, and consistent with the approach utilized in the ILO global child labour estimates exercise, the statistical definition of child labour used includes:

a) children aged 5-11 years in all forms of economic activity;
b) children aged 12-14 years in all forms of economic activity except permissible “light” work;
c) children and adolescents aged 15-17 years in hazardous work; and
d) children aged 5-14 years performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week.

In Egypt, the percentage of child labourers has decreased overall from 2009 to 2012. The measure provided for 1998 does not cover the full definition of hazardous work and cannot be compared directly with data from other sample years.

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 5-17 in child labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 1998, 2009 and 2012. 

 

Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Hazardous child labour is the largest category of the worst forms of child labour with an estimated 73 million children aged 5-17 working in dangerous conditions in a wide range of sectors. Worldwide, the ILO estimates that some 22,000 children are killed at work every year.

In Egypt, the latest estimates show that 0.7 percent of children aged 5-14 were engaged in hazardous work in 2012. The number is lower than in 2009, and has decreased from 1.4 percent.

Measures provided for 1998 and 2005 do not cover the full definition of hazardous work and cannot be compared directly with data from other sample years.

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 5-14 in hazardous labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 1998, 2005, 2009 and 2012. 

 

 

Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 15-17 (Source: ILO)

Children aged 15-17 are permitted to engage in economic activities by international conventions in most cases, except when the work is likely to harm the health, safety or morals of children (Article 3 (d) of ILO Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour, 1999 (No. 182)).

In Egypt, the latest estimates show that 5.7 percent of children aged 15-17 were engaged in hazardous work in 2012. The percentage is lower than in 2009, and has decreased from 7.8 percent.

Measures provided for 1998 do not cover the full definition of hazardous work and cannot be compared directly with data from other sample years. 

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 15-17 in hazardous labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 1998, 2009 and 2012. 

 

Weekly Work Hours, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Children aged 5-11 are considered to be subjected to child labour when engaging in any form of economic activity. Children aged 12-14 are permitted to engage in “light” work that is not considered hazardous and falls below 14 hours per week.

According to the latest 2012 estimates, the average number of hours worked per week by children aged 5-14 in Egypt was 42.2 hours. The average number of hours worked has increased from 35.3 hours in 2009.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours that children aged 5-14 work in economic activities by sex and region. The sample includes all children of this age group. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 1998, 2005, 2008, 2009 and 2012.

Weekly Work Hours Children Only in Economic Activity, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Children not attending school who are engaged in economic activity can be subjected to longer working hours. 

In 2012, the latest year with available data, children in economic activity only, meaning they are not in school, worked an average of 43.3 hours per week. This number has decreased since 2009, when the average number of hours worked by this age group was 48.8. 

The chart displays differences in the number of hours worked by children aged 5-14 who are not in school, by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 1998, 2005, 2008, 2009 and 2012.

Weekly Hours Household Chores, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Researchers recognize that children involved in economic activities are not the only children working. The ICLS recommended definition of child labour includes children aged 5-14 performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week. 

Children aged 5-14, on average, are found to work on household chores 8.3 hours per week according to the 2005 estimate. 

The chart displays differences in the number of hours children aged 5-14 work on household chores by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2005. 

Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: total (Source: ILO)

Identifying the sectors in which the most child labour exists can help policy actors and practitioners target efforts toward those industries. 

The latest data available on child labour by sector for Egypt is from 2012. By the 2012 estimate, the Agriculture sector had the most child labourers, followed by the Commerce, Hotels and Restaurants sector, the Construction, Mining and Other Industrial Sectors, the Manufacturing sector,  and the Other Services sector.

The chart to the right displays child labour prevalence in each sector for all children. The charts below show the differences in child labour by sector with comparisons between groups by sex and region. 

 

Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: sex (Source: ILO)
Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: area (Source: ILO)

Measuring the incidence of forced labour is a much more recent endeavour and presents unique methodological challenges compared to the measurement of child labour.

No nationally representative data is available on forced labour prevalence in Egypt.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on new guidelines presented by the International Labour Organization and adopted by the International Conference of Labour Statisticians.

The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.

No nationally representative data is available on human trafficking prevalence in Egypt.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page to learn about measuring human trafficking prevalence, including information on collecting data through national referral mechanisms and producing prevalence statistics using Multiple Systems Estimation (MSE).

Case Data: International and Non-Governmental Organizations

Civil society organizations (CSOs) focused on human trafficking victim assistance can serve as crucial sources of data given their ability to reach a population that is notoriously difficult to sample.

Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (CTDC): The International Organization for Migration (IOM), Polaris and Liberty Asia have launched a global data repository on human trafficking, with data contributed by counter-trafficking partner organizations around the world. Not only does the CTDC serve as a central repository for this critical information, it also publishes normed and harmonized data from various organizations using a unified schema. This global dataset facilitates an unparalleled level of cross-border, trans-agency analysis and provides the counter-trafficking movement with a deeper understanding of this complex issue. Equipped with this information, decision makers will be empowered to create more targeted and effective intervention strategies.

Prosecution Data

UNODC compiles a global dataset on detected and prosecuted traffickers, which serves as the basis in their Global Report for country profiles. This information is beginning to paint a picture of trends over time, and case-specific information can assist investigators and prosecutors.

Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.

Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.

The chart displays information on human development in Egypt between 1990 and 2018. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex. 

The most recent year of the HDI, 2018, shows that the average human development score in Egypt is 0.700. This score indicates that human development is high.

HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)

Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.

As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:

“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”

The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in Egypt over time.

 

Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in the availability of equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction towards achieving Target 8.7.

HDI Vulnerable Employment (Source: UNDP)

There are reasons to believe that certain types of labour and labour arrangements are more likely to lead to labour exploitation. According to the ILO:

“Own-account workers and contributing family workers have a lower likelihood of having formal work arrangements, and are therefore more likely to lack elements associated with decent employment, such as adequate social security and a voice at work. The two statuses are summed to create a classification of ‘vulnerable employment’, while wage and salaried workers together with employers constitute ‘non-vulnerable employment’.”

Between 1991 and 2018, Egypt showed a decrease in the proportion of workers in vulnerable employment as compared to those in secure employment.

 

Working Poverty Rate (Source: ILO)

Labour income tells us about a household’s vulnerability. As the ILO explains in Profits and Poverty

“Poor households find it particularly difficult to deal with income shocks, especially when they push households below the food poverty line. In the presence of such shocks, men and women without social protection nets tend to borrow to smooth consumption, and to accept any job for themselves or their children, even under exploitative conditions.”

ILO indicators that measure poverty with respect to the labour force include working poverty rate, disaggregated by sex, with temporal coverage spanning from 2000 to 2020. The chart displays linear trends in working poverty rate over time for all individuals over 15 years of age.

 

Labour Productivity (Source: ILO)

Labour productivity is an important economic indicator that is closely linked to economic growth, competitiveness, and living standards within an economy.” However, when increased labour output does not produce rising wages, this can point to increasing inequality. As indicated by a recent ILO report (2015), there is a “growing disconnect between wages and productivity growth, in both developed and emerging economies”. The lack of decent work available increases vulnerability to situations of labour exploitation. 

Labour productivity represents the total volume of output (measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product, GDP) produced per unit of labour (measured in terms of the number of employed persons) during a given period.

 

Rates of Non-fatal Occupational Injuries (Source: ILO)

Occupational injury and fatality data can also be crucial in prevention and response efforts. 

As the ILO explains:

“Data on occupational injuries are essential for planning preventive measures. For instance, workers in occupations and activities of highest risk can be targeted more effectively for inspection visits, development of regulations and procedures, and also for safety campaigns.”

There are serious gaps in existing data coverage, particularly among groups that may be highly vulnerable to labour exploitation. For example, few countries provide information on injuries disaggregated between migrant and non-migrant workers.

 

Rates of Fatal Occupational Injuries (Source: ILO)

Data on occupational health and safety may reveal conditions of exploitation, even if exploitation may lead to under-reporting of workplace injuries and safety breaches. At present, the ILO collects data on occupational injuries, both fatal and non-fatal, disaggregating by sex and migrant status. 

 

Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.

Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Source: UNHCR)

Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants.

According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children. “

As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements, as recognized by Member States in the New York declaration for refugees and migrants of September 2016.”

The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in Egypt.

Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.

Official Definitions
Forced Labour

Constitution, 2014

“Article (12)
Work is a right, duty and honor guaranteed by the State. No citizen may be forced to work except as required by Law and for the purpose of performing a public service for a fixed period in return for a fair consideration, and without prejudice to the basic rights of those obliged to carry out such work.”

“Article (89)
All forms of slavery, oppression, forced exploitation of human beings, sex trade, and other forms of human trafficking are prohibited and criminalized by Law.”

Child Labour

Constitution, 2014

“Article (80)
Anyone under the age of 18 shall be considered a child. Each child shall have the right to a name, identity documents, free compulsory vaccination, health and family or alternative care, basic nutrition, safe shelter, religious education, and emotional and cognitive development.
The State shall ensure the rights of children with disabilities, their rehabilitation and their integration in the society.
The State shall provide children with care and protection from all forms of violence, abuse, mistreatment and commercial and sexual exploitation.
Every child shall be entitled to acquire early education in a childhood center until the age of six. It is prohibited to employ children before the age of completing their preparatory education (six years of primary and three years of preparatory) or in jobs which subject them to danger.
The State shall also develop a judicial system for children that have been victims and or are witnesses. Children may not be held criminally accountable or detained save as provided in the Law and for the period of time specified therein. In such a case, they shall be provided with legal assistance and detained in appropriate locations separate from those allocated for the detention of adults.
The State shall endeavor to achieve the best interest of children in all measures taken against them.”

Labour Code, 2003

“Chapter 3 Employment of infants/juveniles
Article 98
In applying the provisions of the present Law, an infant/juvenile shall mean any person reaching fourteen years of age, or past the age of elementary education and not reaching eighteen complete years of age.
An employer appointing an infant/juvenile under sixteen years of age shall grant him a card proving that he works for him. A picture of the infant/juvenile shall be stuck on the card and approved by the concerned manpower office.”

“Article 99
Employing female and male infants/juveniles not reachign the age of compelte elementary education or fourteen yeras of age, whicheer is older, shall be prohibited. However, the ymay be trained once they reach twelves years of age. ”

Child Act, 1996

“Article 64
Without prejudice to the provision of Article 18, paragraph 2, of the Law No.139 of 1981 on Education, children shall not be employed for work before reaching the age of fifteen (15) calendar years. Nor shall they be provided with training before they reach the age of thirteen (13) years.
Children of twelve (12) to fourteen (14) years of age may, by a decree from the concerned Governor and subject to the approval of the Minister of Education, be licensed for seasonal employment which has no harmful consequence to their health or growth, nor interferes with their school attendance.”

Worst Forms of Child Labour

Labour Code, 2003

“Article 100
Article 101
Article 103”

Decree No 118 of the Ministry of Manpower dermining system of employing children, and conditions, terms and cases in which they are employed, as well as works, vocations and industries in which it is prohibited to employ children, 2003

“Sets forth list of jobs for which children under the age of 18 shall not be employed. Inter alia these include: treatment, preparation, or storage of ash comprising lead, and extraction of silver from lead; production of tin and metallurgical compounds; production of lead monoxide or yellow lead oxide, lead dioxide, lead carbonate, orange lead oxide and lead sulfate, chromate and ingots; and mixing and kneading processes in the manufacture and repair of electronic batteries. Also establishes list of jobs for which children under the age of 16 shall not be employed.”

Child Act, 1996

“Article 65
The employment of children in any type of work that, by its nature or the circumstances in which it is carried out, is likely to harm the health, safety, or morals of children shall be prohibited, in particular regarding the employment of a child in any type of work set forth in the ILO Convention No. 182 of 1999 on the Worst Forms of Child Labour.
Taking into account the provisions set forth in the first paragraph, the By-laws shall determine the system for child employment, the cases in which employment is permitted, and the types of work, crafts, and trades in which children may work, according to their different ages.”

Human Trafficking

Constitution, 2014

“Article (89)
All forms of slavery, oppression, forced exploitation of human beings, sex trade, and other forms of human trafficking are prohibited and criminalized by Law.”

Law No 64 regarding Combating Human Trafficking, 2010

“Article (2) :
A person who commits the crime of human trafficking shall be considered one who deals in any manner in a natural person, including: the sale, offer for sale, purchase, or promise thereof; or the use, transport, delivery, harboring, reception, or receipt, whether within the country or across its national borders; if this occurred through the use of force, violence, or threat thereof; or through abduction, fraud, deception, abuse of power, or exploitation of a position of vulnerability or need; or through a promise to give or receive payments or benefits in exchange for obtaining the consent of a person to traffic another having control over him; or if the purpose of the transaction was exploitation in any of its forms, including: exploitation of acts of prostitution and all forms of sexual exploitation, exploitation of children in such acts and in pornography, forced labor or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery or servitude, or begging or removal of human organs, tissues or a part thereof.”

“Article (3) :
The consent of the victim to exploitation in any of the forms of human trafficking shall be irrelevant as long as any of the means stipulated in Article (2) of this law have been used.
To establish trafficking in a child or in the incapacitated, use of any of the means referred to is not required, and in all cases his consent or the consent of the person responsible for him or his guardian shall be irrelevant.”

Slavery

Constitution, 2014

“Article (89)
All forms of slavery, oppression, forced exploitation of human beings, sex trade, and other forms of human trafficking are prohibited and criminalized by Law.”

 

International Commitments
International Ratifications

ILO Forced Labour Convention, C029, Ratification 1955

ILO Abolition of Forced Labour Convention, C105, Ratification 1958

ILO Minimum Age Convention, C138, Ratification 1999 (minimum age specified: 15 years)

ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182, Ratification 2002

Slavery Convention 1926 and amended by the Protocol of 1953, Definitive Signature 1954

UN Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, Accession 1958

UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol), Ratification 2004

UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, Ratification 1990

UN Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Accession 2007

UN Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, Accession 2002

National Action Plans, National Strategies

National Plan of Action Against the Worst Forms of Child Labor and Supporting Families

Aims to eliminate the worst forms of child labor by 2025 and identify roles of government agencies responsible for assisting child laborers. In 2017, government agencies, in cooperation with international organizations, concluded the main Action Plan elements, including expansion of the child labor knowledge base; capacity building of agencies providing support; social protection, with links to existing programs; enhanced education, including vocational education for children; and advocacy and awareness raising.

Third National Plan of Action Against Human Trafficking (2016–2021)

Aims to maintain referral mechanisms, train law enforcement officials, and combat trafficking of street children. During the reporting period, the National Coordination Committee on Preventing Illegal Migration and Combating Trafficking in Persons began to work on improving the national referral mechanism. Several government agencies provided human trafficking training to officials. In 2017 and 2018, the Ministry of Social Solidarity provided services to thousands of street-based children.

 

Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the  perpetration of forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour. These actions should be considered in wider societal efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.

 

Programs and Agencies for Victim Support

Policies for Assistance
Policies for Assistance, General

Constitution, 2014

“Article (80)
Anyone under the age of 18 shall be considered a child. Each child shall have the right to a name, identity documents, free compulsory vaccination, health and family or alternative care, basic nutrition, safe shelter, religious education, and emotional and cognitive development.
The State shall ensure the rights of children with disabilities, their rehabilitation and their integration in the society.
The State shall provide children with care and protection from all forms of violence, abuse, mistreatment and commercial and sexual exploitation.
Every child shall be entitled to acquire early education in a childhood center until the age of six. It is prohibited to employ children before the age of completing their preparatory education (six years of primary and three years of preparatory) or in jobs which subject them to danger.
The State shall also develop a judicial system for children that have been victims and or are witnesses. Children may not be held criminally accountable or detained save as provided in the Law and for the period of time specified therein. In such a case, they shall be provided with legal assistance and detained in appropriate locations separate from those allocated for the detention of adults.
The State shall endeavor to achieve the best interest of children in all measures taken against them.”

Child Act, 1996

Policies for Assistance, Human Trafficking

Law No 64 regarding Combating Human Trafficking, 2010

Chapter Five: Protection of Victims

Penalties
Penalties, Child Labour

Labour Code, 2003

Article 248

Child Act, 1996

Penalties, Human Trafficking

Law No 64 regarding Combating Human Trafficking, 2010

“Chapter Two Crimes and Punishments
Article (4) :
Without prejudice to any harsher penalty prescribed in another law, the crimes stipulated in the following articles shall be subject to the penalties prescribed thereto.

Article (5) :
Aggravated imprisonment and a fine not less than 50,000 pounds and not to exceed 200,000 pounds or a fine equal to the value of the benefit gained, whichever is greater, shall be imposed on anyone who committed the crime of human trafficking.”

“Article (6) :
Life imprisonment and a fine not less than 100,000 pounds and not to exceed 500,000 pounds shall be imposed on anyone who committed the crime of human trafficking in the following cases:

1) If the perpetrator established, organized, or managed an organized criminal group for the purposes of human trafficking, if he was a leader thereof, if he was one of its members or belonged thereto, or if the crime was of a transnational nature;
2) If the act was committed by way of threats of death, serious harm or physical or psychological torture; or if the act was committed by a person carrying a weapon;
3) If the perpetrator was the spouse, one of the ascendants or descendants, or custodian or guardian of the victim, or was responsible for the supervision or care or had authority over the victim;
4) If the perpetrator was a public official or was assigned to carry out a public service and committed the crime by exploiting the office or public service;
5) If the crime resulted in the death of the victim or caused him to suffer a permanent disability or an incurable disease;
6) If the victim was a child, was incapacitated or was a person with disabilities;
7) If the crime was committed by an organized criminal group.”

“Article (7) :
Imprisonment shall be imposed on anyone who uses force, threats, or offers gifts or benefits of any kind or a promise thereof to induce another to provide false testimony, to conceal a matter, or to provide untrue statements or information in any stages of evidence collection, investigation, or trial in procedures related to the commission of any of the crimes stipulated in this law.

Article (8) :
Imprisonment shall be imposed on anyone who knowingly conceals one of the perpetrators, objects, or funds derived from any of the crimes stipulated in this law or dealt therein or concealed any traces of the crime or its instrumentalities. The court may exempt from penalty a person who concealed the perpetrators if he was the spouse, one of the ascendants or descendants.”

“Article 9:
Imprisonment shall be imposed on anyone who disclosed or revealed the identity of a victim or witness, endangering him; or caused him to suffer harm, facilitated the perpetrator’s contact with him, or provided him with inaccurate information regarding his legal rights, with the intent to harm him or to violate his physical, psychological or mental well-being.”

“Article (10) :
Imprisonment shall be imposed on anyone who induces another by any means to commit a crime referenced to in the aforementioned articles, irrespective of whether the inducement had an effect.

Article (11) :
The person responsible for the actual management of a juristic person shall be punished if any of the crimes stipulated in this law was committed by one of the employees of the juristic person in his name and for his benefit with the same penalties specified for the committed crime if it is proven that he had knowledge of the crime or if the crime occurred due to breach of the duties of his job.
A juristic person shall be jointly liable for fulfilling the financial penalties and damages prescribed in the judgment; if the crime was committed by one of the employees in his name and for his benefit, the court shall order in its decision of conviction the publication of the decision at the expense of the juristic person in two widely circulated daily newspapers and may order a cessation of the activity of the juristic person for a period not to exceed one year.”

Data Commitments

A Call to Action to End Forced Labour, Modern Slavery and Human Trafficking, Not Signed

1.ii. Take steps to measure, monitor and share data on prevalence and response to all such forms of exploitation, as appropriate to national circumstances;

Programs and Agencies for Enforcement

Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk of exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.

 

Social Protection Coverage: General (at Least One)
Social Protection (Source: ILO)

The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.

If a country does not appear on a chart, this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.

Social Protection Coverage: Pension
Social Protection Coverage: Vulnerable Groups
Social Protection Coverage: Children
Social Protection Coverage: Disabled

Delta 8.7 has received no Official Response to this dashboard from Egypt. If you are a representative of Egypt and wish to submit an Official Response, please contact us here.