Measuring the Change
using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards.
Due to lack of nationally representative data, there is no change to report.
Best Target 8.7 Data: Child Labour Rate
No data available
- Child labour: No ILO/UNICEF data
- Forced labour: No nationally representative data
- Human trafficking: No nationally representative data
Human Development Index Score: 0.592 (2019)
Mean School Years: 5.9 years (2019)
Vulnerable Employment: 55.8% (2018)
Working Poverty Rate: 9.2% (2020)
- ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Not Ratified
- ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2001
- UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Ratified 2003
Social Protection Coverage
General (at least one): No data
Unemployed: No data
Pension: No data
Vulnerable: No data
Children: No data
Disabled: No data
Poor: No data
Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.
Measuring the incidence of forced labour is a much more recent endeavour and presents unique methodological challenges compared to the measurement of child labour.
No nationally representative data is available on forced labour prevalence in Equatorial Guinea.
Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on new guidelines presented by the International Labour Organization and adopted by the International Conference of Labour Statisticians.
The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.
No nationally representative data is available on human trafficking prevalence in Equatorial Guinea.
Visit the How to Measure the Change page to learn about measuring human trafficking prevalence, including information on collecting data through national referral mechanisms and producing prevalence statistics using Multiple Systems Estimation (MSE).
Case Data: International and Non-Governmental Organizations
Civil society organizations (CSOs) focused on human trafficking victim assistance can serve as crucial sources of data given their ability to reach a population that is notoriously difficult to sample.
Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (CTDC): The International Organization for Migration (IOM), Polaris and Liberty Asia have launched a global data repository on human trafficking, with data contributed by counter-trafficking partner organizations around the world. Not only does the CTDC serve as a central repository for this critical information, it also publishes normed and harmonized data from various organizations using a unified schema. This global dataset facilitates an unparalleled level of cross-border, trans-agency analysis and provides the counter-trafficking movement with a deeper understanding of this complex issue. Equipped with this information, decision makers will be empowered to create more targeted and effective intervention strategies.
UNODC compiles a global dataset on detected and prosecuted traffickers, which serves as the basis in their Global Report for country profiles. This information is beginning to paint a picture of trends over time, and case-specific information can assist investigators and prosecutors.
Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.
Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.
The chart displays information on human development in Equatorial Guinea between 2000 and 2019. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex.
The most recent year of the HDI, 2019, shows that the average human development score in Equatorial Guinea is 0.592. This score indicates that human development is medium.
HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)
Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.
As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:
“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”
The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in Equatorial Guinea over time.
Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in the availability of equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction towards achieving Target 8.7.
HDI Vulnerable Employment (Source: UNDP)
There are reasons to believe that certain types of labour and labour arrangements are more likely to lead to labour exploitation. According to the ILO:
“Own-account workers and contributing family workers have a lower likelihood of having formal work arrangements, and are therefore more likely to lack elements associated with decent employment, such as adequate social security and a voice at work. The two statuses are summed to create a classification of ‘vulnerable employment’, while wage and salaried workers together with employers constitute ‘non-vulnerable employment’.”
Between 1991 and 2018, Equatorial Guinea showed a decrease in the proportion of workers in vulnerable employment as compared to those in secure employment.
Working Poverty Rate (Source: ILO)
Labour income tells us about a household’s vulnerability. As the ILO explains in Profits and Poverty:
“Poor households find it particularly difficult to deal with income shocks, especially when they push households below the food poverty line. In the presence of such shocks, men and women without social protection nets tend to borrow to smooth consumption, and to accept any job for themselves or their children, even under exploitative conditions.”
ILO indicators that measure poverty with respect to the labour force include working poverty rate, disaggregated by sex, with temporal coverage spanning from 2000 to 2020. The chart displays linear trends in working poverty rate over time for all individuals over 15 years of age.
Labour Productivity (Source: ILO)
“Labour productivity is an important economic indicator that is closely linked to economic growth, competitiveness, and living standards within an economy.” However, when increased labour output does not produce rising wages, this can point to increasing inequality. As indicated by a recent ILO report (2015), there is a “growing disconnect between wages and productivity growth, in both developed and emerging economies”. The lack of decent work available increases vulnerability to situations of labour exploitation.
Labour productivity represents the total volume of output (measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product, GDP) produced per unit of labour (measured in terms of the number of employed persons) during a given period.
Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.
Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Source: UNHCR)
Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants.
According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children. “
As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements, as recognized by Member States in the New York declaration for refugees and migrants of September 2016.”
The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in Equatorial Guinea.
Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.
“The Committee has noted section 3 of the Law on the General Organization of Labour, according to which “the freedom of labour shall be subject to no restrictions other than those properly established in the law. Consequently, no one may be constrained to work, without prejudice to the social duty incumbent on people to contribute through their own efforts to the performance of normal civic obligations and minor communal services freely determined by the community”. ”
Trabajo de infantil
“Artículo 11. Trabajo de Menores
1. Ninguna persona menor de dieciocho años deberá ser admitida al empleo ni a trabajar en ocupación alguna.
2.- No obstante, quienes hayan cumplido dieciséis años, previa autorización del Ministerio de Trabajo v Seguridad Social podrán realizar trabajos ligeros, a condición de que no sean susceptibles de perjudicar su salud o desarrollo, así como tampoco su asistencia a la escuela, su participación en programas de orientación o de formación profesional aprobados por las autoridades competentes, ni el aprovechamiento de la enseñanza que reciben.
3.- Los menores de edad no pueden celebrar contratos de trabajo sin la autorización de su padre, madre o representante legal. ”
Worst Forms of Child Labour
“Artículo 11. Trabajo de Menores
4.- El empleador que contrate los servicios de menores que no hayan alcanzado la edad mínima requerida para trabajar, o que no estén legalmente autorizados para ello, deberá en todo caso pagarles el salario y las demás prestaciones legales, sin perjuicio de las sanciones legales que puedan corresponderle. ”
Trata de personas
“Artículo 1 Definiciones Para los fines de la presente Ley, se entenderá por
a. Trata de personas: la catación, el transporte, el traslado, la acogida o la recepción de personas, recurriendo a la amenaza, a la fuerza, a la coaccion, al rapto, al fraude, al engaño, al abuso de poder, o situaciones de vulnerabilidad o a la concesión o recepción de pagos o beneficios para obtener el consentimiento de una persona que tenga autoridad sobre otra, con fines de explotación, para que ejerza cualquier forma de explotación sexual, pornografía, servidumbre por deudas, trabajos o servicios forzados, matrimonio social, adopción irregular, esclavitud y/o prácticas análogas a estos, o a la extracción de órganos
b. Niño: toda persona desde su nacimiento hasta diez años, inclusive;
c. Adolescente: toda persona desde once años hasta dieciocho años;”
National Action Plans, National Strategies
Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the perpetration of forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour. These actions should be considered in wider societal efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.
Programs and Agencies for Victim Support
Policies for Assistance
Policies for Assistance, Human Trafficking
Artículo 12. Protección
Penalties, Child Labour
“Artículo 4. Delito de abuso parental del menor
Artículo 5. Delito de trabajo infantil
Artículo 6. Decomiso del producto del trabajo infantil”
“Tītulo IX Infracciones, sanciones y prescripción de acciones
Artículo 100. Infracciones de los Empleadores
3. El empleador que ocupe a trabajadores menores de 18 años de edad en labores insalubres o peligrosas o trabajar en jornada nocturna, será sancionado con multa de 10 a 20 mensualidades del salario mínimo interprofesional por menor afectado sin perjuicio de la responsabilidad económica por los daños causados al trabajador.
4. El empleador que ocupe a menores de 16 años de edad, será sancionado con multa de 15 mensualidades del salario mínimo interprofesional por cada menor ocupado en contravencion de la Ley, cuya multa será duplicada en caso de reincidencia.”
Penalties, Human Trafficking
“Artículo 3. Delito de trata de personas
Artículo 10. Circunstancias agravantes de la responsabilidad criminal”
1.ii. Take steps to measure, monitor and share data on prevalence and response to all such forms of exploitation, as appropriate to national circumstances;
Programs and Agencies for Enforcement
Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk of exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.
Social Protection Coverage: General (at Least One)
Social Protection (Source: ILO)
The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.
If a country does not appear on a chart, this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.