Data Dashboards

Eritrea
Measurement
Measuring the Change

using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards.

Due to lack of nationally representative data, there is no change to report.

%
Best Target 8.7 Data: Child Labour Rate

No data available

Data Availability
  • Child labour: No ILO/UNICEF data
  • Forced labour: No nationally representative data
  • Human trafficking: No nationally representative data
Context
Human Development

Human Development Index Score: 0.434 (2018)

Mean School Years: 3.9 years (2018)

Labour Indicators

Vulnerable Employment: 78.2% (2018)

Working Poverty Rate: 46.1% (2020)

Government Efforts
Key Ratifications
  • ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Not Ratified
  • ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2019
  • UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Accession 2014
Social Protection Coverage

General (at least one): No data

Unemployed: No data

Pension: No data

Vulnerable: No data

Children: No data

Disabled: No data

Poor: No data

Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.

No nationally representative data is available on child labour prevalence in Eritrea.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on ILO-SIMPOC methods and guidelines for defining, measuring and collecting data on child labour.

Measuring the incidence of forced labour is a much more recent endeavour and presents unique methodological challenges compared to the measurement of child labour.

No nationally representative data is available on forced labour prevalence in Eritrea.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on new guidelines presented by the International Labour Organization and adopted by the International Conference of Labour Statisticians.

The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.

No nationally representative data is available on human trafficking prevalence in Eritrea.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page to learn about measuring human trafficking prevalence, including information on collecting data through national referral mechanisms and producing prevalence statistics using Multiple Systems Estimation (MSE).

Case Data: International and Non-Governmental Organizations

Civil society organizations (CSOs) focused on human trafficking victim assistance can serve as crucial sources of data given their ability to reach a population that is notoriously difficult to sample.

Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (CTDC): The International Organization for Migration (IOM), Polaris and Liberty Asia have launched a global data repository on human trafficking, with data contributed by counter-trafficking partner organizations around the world. Not only does the CTDC serve as a central repository for this critical information, it also publishes normed and harmonized data from various organizations using a unified schema. This global dataset facilitates an unparalleled level of cross-border, trans-agency analysis and provides the counter-trafficking movement with a deeper understanding of this complex issue. Equipped with this information, decision makers will be empowered to create more targeted and effective intervention strategies.

Prosecution Data

UNODC compiles a global dataset on detected and prosecuted traffickers, which serves as the basis in their Global Report for country profiles. This information is beginning to paint a picture of trends over time, and case-specific information can assist investigators and prosecutors.

Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.

Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.

The chart displays information on human development in Eritrea between 2005 and 2018. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex. 

The most recent year of the HDI, 2018, shows that the average human development score in Eritrea is 0.434. This score indicates that human development is low. 

 

HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)

Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.

As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:

“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”

The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in Eritrea over time.

 

Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in the availability of equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction towards achieving Target 8.7.

HDI Vulnerable Employment (Source: UNDP)

There are reasons to believe that certain types of labour and labour arrangements are more likely to lead to labour exploitation. According to the ILO:

“Own-account workers and contributing family workers have a lower likelihood of having formal work arrangements, and are therefore more likely to lack elements associated with decent employment, such as adequate social security and a voice at work. The two statuses are summed to create a classification of ‘vulnerable employment’, while wage and salaried workers together with employers constitute ‘non-vulnerable employment’.”

Between 1991 and 2018, Eritrea showed a decrease in the proportion of workers in vulnerable employment as compared to those in secure employment.

 

Working Poverty Rate (Source: ILO)

Labour income tells us about a household’s vulnerability. As the ILO explains in Profits and Poverty

“Poor households find it particularly difficult to deal with income shocks, especially when they push households below the food poverty line. In the presence of such shocks, men and women without social protection nets tend to borrow to smooth consumption, and to accept any job for themselves or their children, even under exploitative conditions.”

ILO indicators that measure poverty with respect to the labour force include working poverty rate, disaggregated by sex, with temporal coverage spanning from 2000 to 2020. The chart displays linear trends in working poverty rate over time for all individuals over 15 years of age.

 

Labour Productivity (Source: ILO)

Labour productivity is an important economic indicator that is closely linked to economic growth, competitiveness, and living standards within an economy.” However, when increased labour output does not produce rising wages, this can point to increasing inequality. As indicated by a recent ILO report (2015), there is a “growing disconnect between wages and productivity growth, in both developed and emerging economies”. The lack of decent work available increases vulnerability to situations of labour exploitation. 

Labour productivity represents the total volume of output (measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product, GDP) produced per unit of labour (measured in terms of the number of employed persons) during a given period.

 

Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.

Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Source: UNHCR)

Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants.

According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children. “

As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements, as recognized by Member States in the New York declaration for refugees and migrants of September 2016.”

The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in Eritrea.

Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.

Official Definitions
Forced Labour

Labour Proclamation, 2001

“Article 3. Interpretation
Unless the context otherwise requires, in this proclamation: “Forced Labour,” means any service which a person performed involuntarily due to the coercion of another person and includes the following:

a. any work performed by a young person contrary to the provisions of this proclamation; and
b. any work performed involuntarily merely because of someone’s influence as a result of his holding a public office or traditional status of chieftaincy.
Compulsory national service, normal civic obligations, forced labour as a provided for in the Penal Code, communal services and services rendered during emergency may not, however, be regarded as a forced labour.”

Constitution, 1997

“Article 16 – Right to Human Dignity
1. The dignity of all persons shall be inviolable.
2. No person shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or
degrading treatment or punishment.
3. No person shall be held in slavery or servitude nor shall any
person be required to perform forced labour not authorised by law.”

Child Labour

Labour Proclamation, 2001

“Title III
Employment Relations Chapter 1. Contract of Employment
Article 9. General
(1) Notwithstanding any provisions in the Civil Code, any person fourteen years of age or older has the capacity to enter into a contract of employment.
(2) No contract of employment shall be enforceable against a person below the age of eighteen if it is determined to be prejudicial to the interests of that person, and in such a case, such a young person shall not be liable for any damages against him arising from the contract.”

Worst Forms of Child Labour

Labour Proclamation, 2001

“Section 2. Working condition of Young Employees
Article 68. General
(1) It is prohibited to employ a person under the age of fourteen years.
(2) A young employee may not be assigned to work between 6:00 P.M. and
6:00 A.M.
(3) A young employee may not be made to work for more than seven hours per day.

Article 69. Employment Prohibited to a Young Employee
(1) The Minister may, by regulation, issue a list of activities prohibited to young employees, including apprentices, which shall, in particular, include:

(a) Work in the transport of passengers and goods by road, railway, air and sea and in docksides and warehouses involving heavy weight lifting, pulling or pushing or any other related type of labour;
(b) Work connected with toxic chemicals, dangerous machines, electric power generation plants, transformers or transmission lines;
(c) underground work, such as mines, quarries similar works; an
and
(d) work in sewers and digging tunnels.

(2) Sub-article (1) of this Article shall not apply to any type of training carried out and supervised by a competent authority.”

Human Trafficking

Penal Code, 2015

“Art. 315. – Traffic in Women, Infants and Young Persons.
A person who for gain or to gratify the passions of others:

(a) traffics in women or infants and young persons, whether by seducing them, by enticing them, or by procuring them or otherwise inducing them to engage in prostitution or the production of pornography or for pornographic performances, even with their consent; or
(b) keeps such a persons in a disorderly house or to let them out to prostitution,
is guilty of traffic in women, infants and young persons, a Class 7 serious offence, punishable with a definite term of imprisonment of not less than 5 years and not more than 7 years.”

Slavery

Constitution, 1997

“Article 16 – Right to Human Dignity
1. The dignity of all persons shall be inviolable.
2. No person shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or
degrading treatment or punishment.
3. No person shall be held in slavery or servitude nor shall any
person be required to perform forced labour not authorised by law.”

Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the  perpetration of forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour. These actions should be considered in wider societal efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.

Programs and Agencies for Victim Support

Policies for Assistance

There is no sufficient information available on policies of assistance in Eritrea.

Penalties
Penalties, Forced Labour

Labour Proclamation, 2001

“Title III
Employment Relations Chapter 1. Contract of Employment
Article 9. General
(6) An employer who engages in forced labour shall be punishable under the Penal Code.”

Penalties, Child Labour

Labour Proclamation, 2001

“Article 154. General
Article 155.
Unless the provisions of the Penal Code provide for more severe penalties, the penalties laid down in this Chapter shall apply.
Offenses by an Employer
(1) An employer who:

(a) causes an employee to work beyond the maximum working hours set forth in this Proclamation or contravenes in any manner the provisions relating to working hours; or
(b) infringes the provisions of this Proclamation regulating weekly rest days, public holidays or leave;
shall be liable to a fine up to five hundred (500.00) Nakfa.

(2) An employer who:

(a) fails to fulfill the obligations laid down in Article 20(4) of this Proclamation; or
(b) fails to keep records required by this Proclamation; shall be liable to a fine up to one thousand (1,000.00) Nakfa.”

Penalties, Human Trafficking

Penal Code, 2015

“Art. 315. – Traffic in Women, Infants and Young Persons.
A person who for gain or to gratify the passions of others:

(a) traffics in women or infants and young persons, whether by seducing them, by enticing them, or by procuring them or otherwise inducing them to engage in prostitution or the production of pornography or for pornographic performances, even with their consent; or
(b) keeps such a persons in a disorderly house or to let them out to prostitution,
is guilty of traffic in women, infants and young persons, a Class 7 serious offence, punishable with a definite term of imprisonment of not less than 5 years and not more than 7 years.”

“Art. 316. – Aggravated Traffic in Women, Infants and Young Persons.
A person who commits an offence under Article 315 and where:

(a) he professionally procures children under fifteen years of age;
(b) he professionally procures his wife or his descendant, his adopted child or the child of his spouse, his brother or his sister, or his ward or anybody entrusted to his custody or care;
(c) he has taken unfair advantage of the physical or mental distress of his victim, or his position as a protector, employer, teacher, landlord or creditor, or any other like situation;
(d) he has made use of trickery, fraud, violence, intimidation or coercion, or where he has misused his authority over the victim;
(e) he intends to deliver the victim to a professional procurer, or the victim is taken abroad or the victims whereabouts or place of abode cannot be established; or
(f) the victim has been driven to suicide by shame, distress or despair,
is guilty of aggravated trafficking in women, infants and young persons, a Class 6 serious offence, punishable with a definite term of imprisonment of not less than 7 years and not more than 10 years.”

“Art. 317. – Organization of Traffic in Persons.
A person who makes arrangements or provisions of any kind for the trafficking of women, or infants and young persons,
is guilty of organization of traffic in persons, a Class 8 serious offence, punishable with a definite term of imprisonment of not less than 3 years and not more than 5 years.

Art. 318. – Aggravated Organization of Traffic in Persons.
A person who commits an offence under Article 317 as a professional procurer and fully makes arrangements involving many victims,
is guilty of aggravated organization of traffic in persons, a Class 7 serious offence, punishable with a definite term of imprisonment of not less than 5 years and not more than 7 years.”

“Art. 297. – Enslavement and Abetting Traffic.
(1) A person who:

(a) sells, alienates, pledges, buys, trades, traffics or otherwise enslaves another person;
(b) keeps or maintains another person in a condition of slavery even in disguised form; or
(c) knowingly transports whether by land, sea or air persons enslaved or aids and abets such traffic whether within Eritrean territory or otherwise,
is guilty of enslavement and abetting traffic, a Class 6 serious offence, punishable with a definite term of imprisonment of not less than 7 years and not more than 10 years.

(2) If the person enslaved is under eighteen years of age, the offence shall be a Class 4 serious offence,
punishable with a definite term of imprisonment of not less than 13 years and not more than 16 years.”

Data Commitments

A Call to Action to End Forced Labour, Modern Slavery and Human Trafficking, Not signed

1.ii. Take steps to measure, monitor and share data on prevalence and response to all such forms of exploitation, as appropriate to national circumstances;

Programs and Agencies for Enforcement

Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk of exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.

Social Protection Coverage: General (at Least One)
Social Protection (Source: ILO)

The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.

If a country does not appear on a chart, this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.

Social Protection Coverage: Pension
Social Protection Coverage: Vulnerable Groups
Social Protection Coverage: Children
Social Protection Coverage: Disabled

Delta 8.7 has received no Official Response to this dashboard from Eritrea. If you are a representative of Eritrea and wish to submit an Official Response, please contact us here.