Data Dashboards

Estonia
Measurement
Measuring the Change

Due to lack of nationally representative data, there is no change to report.

%
Best Target 8.7 Data: Child Labour Rate

No Data Available

Data Availability
  • Child labour: No nationally representative data
  • Forced labour: No nationally representative data
  • Human trafficking: No nationally representative data
Context
Human Development

Human Development Index Score: 0.865 (2015)

Mean School Years: 12.5 years (2015)

Labour Indicators

Vulnerable Employment: no data

Working Poverty Rate: no data

Government Efforts
Key Ratifications
  • ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Not ratified
  • ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2001
  • UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Accession 2004
Social Protection Coverage

General (at least one): 98.1% (2016

Unemployed: 27.6 (2014)

Pension: 100% (2016)

Vulnerable: 91.7% (2016)

Children: 100% (2016)

Disabled: 100% (2016)

Poor: 100% (2016)

Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.

No nationally representative data is available on child labour prevalence in Estonia.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on ILO-SIMPOC methods and guidelines for defining, measuring and collecting data on child labour.

Measuring the incidence of forced labour is a much more recent endeavour and presents unique methodological challenges compared to the measurement of child labour.

No nationally representative data is available on forced labour prevalence in Estonia.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on new guidelines presented by the International Labour Organization and adopted by the International Conference of Labour Statisticians.

The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.

No nationally representative data is available on human trafficking prevalence in Estonia.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page to learn about measuring human trafficking prevalence, including information on collecting data through national referral mechanisms and producing prevalence statistics using Multiple Systems Estimation (MSE).

Case Data: International and Non-Governmental Organizations

Civil society organizations (CSOs) focused on human trafficking victim assistance can serve as crucial sources of data given their ability to reach a population that is notoriously difficult to sample.

Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (CTDC): The International Organization for Migration (IOM), Polaris and Liberty Asia have launched a global data repository on human trafficking, with data contributed by counter-trafficking partner organizations around the world. Not only does the CTDC serve as a central repository for this critical information, it also publishes normed and harmonized data from various organizations using a unified schema. This global dataset facilitates an unparalleled level of cross-border, trans-agency analysis and provides the counter-trafficking movement with a deeper understanding of this complex issue. Equipped with this information, decision makers will be empowered to create more targeted and effective intervention strategies.

Prosecution Data

UNODC compiles a global dataset on detected and prosecuted traffickers, which serves as the basis in their Global Report for country profiles. This information is beginning to paint a picture of trends over time, and case-specific information can assist investigators and prosecutors.

Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.

Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.

The chart displays information on human development in Estonia between 1999 and 2015. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex. 

The most recent year of the HDI, 2015, shows that the average human development score in Estonia is 0.856. This score indicates that human development is very high.

HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)

Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.

As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:

“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”

The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in Estonia over time.

Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in the availability of equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction towards achieving Target 8.7.

Labour Productivity (Source: ILO)

Labour productivity is an important economic indicator that is closely linked to economic growth, competitiveness, and living standards within an economy.” However, when increased labour output does not produce rising wages, this can point to increasing inequality. As indicated by a recent ILO report (2015), there is a “growing disconnect between wages and productivity growth, in both developed and emerging economies”. The lack of decent work available increases vulnerability to situations of labour exploitation. 

Labour productivity represents the total volume of output (measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product, GDP) produced per unit of labour (measured in terms of the number of employed persons) during a given period.

Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.

Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Source: UNHCR)

Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants. 

According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children.”

 As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements.”

The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in Chad.

Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.

Official Definitions
Forced Labour

Constitution of the Republic of Estonia, 1992

§ 29. Every citizen of Estonia is entitled to freely choose his or her area of activity, profession and position of employment. The law may provide conditions and procedures for the exercise of this right. Unless otherwise provided by law, citizens of foreign states and stateless persons in Estonia enjoy this right equally with citizens of Estonia.
No one may be compelled to perform work or service against his or her free will, except for service in the defence forces or alternative service, or work required to prevent the spread of an infectious disease or to contain a natural disaster or catastrophe, or work which a convicted offender is required to perform according to the law and pursuant to a procedure established by law.

Child Labour

Child Protection Act, 1992

§ 14. Right of child to protection from economic, physical and mental exploitation
(1) The child shall be protected from economic exploitation and from performing work which is hazardous, beyond the child’s capabilities, harmful to the child’s development or may interfere with the child’s education.
(2) The child shall not be subjected to physical or mental exploitation.
§ 21. Child and work
(1) Voluntary work appropriate to the age of the child is an important condition for the normal development of the child. The child shall care for himself or herself and shall participate in the common activities and work of his or her family.
(2) The state and local governments shall create conditions necessary for work by the child. The social services departments shall monitor compliance of work performed by children with the requirements for safety and health at work and with the principles of this Act.
§ 22. Compulsory school attendance of child
The child shall attend school in accordance with the Republic of Estonia Education Act.

§ 43. Admission of child to employment
(1) A child who has completed general education and who does not wish or is not able to continue with his or her studies may be admitted to employment pursuant to law.
(2) The employment offices together with the social services departments shall decide whether a child who has not completed general education, who is an orphan or who has been deprived of parental care may be admitted to employment.

Law on Employment Contracts, 2008

§ 7. Entry into employment contracts with minors
(1) An employer shall not enter into an employment contract with a minor under 15 years of age or a minor subject to the obligation to attend school, or allow such minor to work, except in the events provided for in subsection (4) of this section.
(2) An employer shall not enter into an employment contract with a minor or allow a minor to work if the work: 1) is beyond the minor’s physical or psychological capacity;
2) is likely to harm the moral development of the minor;
3) involves risks which the minor cannot recognise or avoid owing to their lack of experience or training;
4) is likely to harm the minor’s social development or to jeopardise their education;
5) involves health hazards to the minor arising from the nature of the work or from the working environment.
(3) The list of the work and hazards specified in clause (2) 5) of this section shall be established by a regulation of the Government of the Republic.
(4) An employer may enter into an employment contract with a minor of 13-14 years of age or a minor of 15-16 years of age subject to the obligation to attend school and allow them to work if the duties are simple and do not require any major physical or mental effort (light work). Minors of 7-12 years of age are allowed to do light work in the field of culture, art, sports or advertising.
(5) The types of light work which may be done by minors shall be established by a regulation of the Government of the Republic.
(6) An employment contract made in breach of the restrictions specified in this section is void.

§ 8. Consent for employment of minors
(1) An expression of will made by a minor for entry into an employment contract without the consent of a legal representative is void, unless the legal representative subsequently approves the expression of will.
(2) The legal representative of a minor may not consent to the employment during the school holiday of a minor subject to the obligation to attend school for more than a half of each term of the school holiday.
(3) To enter into an employment contract with a minor of 7-14 years of age the employer shall apply to the labour inspector of the place of business for consent. In the application the employer shall indicate information about the working conditions of the minor, including the minor’s place of work, duties, age and whether the minor is subject to the obligation to attend school.
(4) If the labour inspector verifies that the work is not prohibited for the minor and the minor’s working conditions are in accordance with the requirements provided by law and the minor wants to do the work, the labour inspectorate shall grant the employer the consent specified in subsection (3) of this section.
(5) If, in ascertaining the will of a minor of 7-12 years of age, the labour inspectorate has a reasonable doubt that the minor is not expressing their true will in the presence of the legal representative, the labour inspector shall ascertain the will of the minor in the presence of the minor and a local child protection official.
(6) An employment contract which has been made with a minor without the consent specified in this section is void. (7) An employer is prohibited to allow a minor to work without the consent or approval of the legal representative.

§ 43. Working time
(1) It is presumed that the employee works 40 hours per seven days (full-time work), unless the employer and the employee have agreed on a shorter working time (part-time work).
(2) It is presumed that the employee works 8 hours a day.
(3) In the case of calculation of the total working time the agreed working time of the employee per period of seven days during the calculation period is taken into account.
(4) Unless the employer and the employee have agreed on a shorter working time, full-time work (shortened full-time work) means:
1) in the case of employees who are 7-12 years of age, 3 hours per day and 15 hours per seven days;
2) in the case of employees who are 13-14 years of age or subject to the obligation to attend school, 4 hours per day and 20 hours per seven days;
3) in the case of employees who are 15 years of age and not subject to the obligation to attend school, 6 hours per day and 30 hours per seven days;
4) in the case of employees who are 16 years of age and not subject to the obligation to attend school, and employees who are 17 years of age, 7 hours per day and 35 hours per seven days.
(5) An agreement in which the calculation of the total working time applied to a minor exceeds the limit provided for in subsection (4) of this section is void.
(6) The Government of the Republic shall establish the working time of educators by a regulation.

Worst Forms of Child Labour

Regulation on the list of hazardous occupations where employment of minors is prohibited (No. 94/2009) (RT I 2009, 31, 196)

Decree on implementation of the Decree on putting into effect the Employment Contracts Act, 1992

Human Trafficking

Penal Code, 2001

§ 133. Trafficking in human beings
(1) Placing a person in a situation where he or she is forced to work under unusual conditions, engage in prostitution, beg, commit a criminal offence or perform other disagreeable duties, or keeping a person in such situation, if such act is performed through deprivation of liberty, violence, deceit, threatening to cause damage, by taking advantage of dependence on another person, helpless or vulnerable situation of the person,
is punishable by one to seven years’ imprisonment.
(5) For the purposes of this section, vulnerable situation is a situation where a person lacks an actual or acceptable opportunity not to commit any of the acts specified in subsection (1) of this section.

 

Governments take action that assists victims and prevents or ends perpetration of modern slavery, forced labour, child labour and human trafficking. These actions should be considered in efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.

Programs and Agencies for Victim Support

Policies for Assistance
Policies for Assistance, Child Labour

Child Protection Act, 1992

§ 31. General principle of treatment of child
(1) Every child shall at all times be treated as an individual with consideration for his or her character, age and sex. It is prohibited to humiliate, frighten or punish the child in any way which abuses the child, causes bodily harm or otherwise endangers his or her mental or physical health.
(2) If an adult treats a child in a prohibited manner, the social services departments are competent to intervene in order to resolve the conflict and, if necessary, to apply for punishment of the person at fault under administration or criminal procedure.
(3) A child who has suffered violent treatment or mistreatment shall be accorded necessary assistance.
(4) An adult who treats a child violently shall also receive counselling in order to prevent further mistreatment.

Policies for Assistance, General

Victim Support Law, 2003
State Legal Aid Act, 2004
Social Welfare Act, 2015
Constitution of the Republic of Estonia, 1992

§ 25. Everyone is entitled to compensation for intangible as well as tangible harm that he or she has suffered because of the unlawful actions of any person.

Aliens Act, 2009

§ 203. Cases of temporary residence permits issued in case of substantial public interest
(1) An alien may be granted a temporary residence permit in case of substantial public interest (hereinafter a temporary residence permit in case of substantial public interest) for assistance in the ascertaining of the facts of the subject of proof of a criminal offence if:
1) he or she is a victim or a witness in a criminal procedure, the object of which is a criminal offence related to trafficking in persons for the purposes of the 2002/629/JHA: Council Framework Decision on combating trafficking in human beings (OJ L 203, 1.08.2002, pp. 1-4);
2) a victim who was illegally employed or a witness was a minor child;
3) a victim who was illegally employed or a witness was exposed to a situation where he or she was compelled against his or her will to work for the benefit of another person or fulfil other duties or he or she was kept in such a situation and the respective act was committed by means of violence or deceit or exploitation of the vulnerability of the person (slavery) or
4) the health and life of a victim who was illegally employed or of a witness was endangered or their human dignity was violated.
[RT I, 30.06.2011, 1 – entry into force 20.07.2011]
(2) In case of the issue of a temporary residence permit in case of substantial public interest the victim or witness specified in subsection (1) of this section shall have previously facilitated the ascertaining of facts relating to the subject of proof of a criminal offence or has given consent for doing so and has broken off all the relations with the persons who are being suspected or accused of committing the respective offence. [RT I, 30.06.2011, 1 – entry into force 20.07.2011]

Code of Criminal Procedure, 2003

Penalties
Penalties, Human Trafficking

Penal Code, 2001 

§ 133. Trafficking in human beings
(1) Placing a person in a situation where he or she is forced to work under unusual conditions, engage in prostitution, beg, commit a criminal offence or perform other disagreeable duties, or keeping a person in such situation, if such act is performed through deprivation of liberty, violence, deceit, threatening to cause damage, by taking advantage of dependence on another person, helpless or vulnerable situation of the person,
is punishable by one to seven years’ imprisonment.
(2) The same act if:
1) committed against two or more persons;
2) committed against a person of less than eighteen years of age;
3) committed against a person in a helpless situation;
4) committed in a torturous or cruel manner;
5) serious health damage is caused thereby;
6) danger to life is caused thereby;
7) committed by a group;
[RT I, 12.07.2014, 1 – entry into force 01.01.2015]
8) committed by taking advantage of official position,
9) serious consequences are caused thereby;
10) committed by a person who has previously committed a criminal offence provided for in this section or §§ 1331, 1332, 1333 or 175;
is punishable by three to fifteen years’ imprisonment.
[RT I, 13.12.2013, 5 – entry into force 23.12.2013]
(3) An act provided for in subsection (1) or (2) of this section, if committed by a legal person,
is punishable by a pecuniary punishment.
[RT I, 12.07.2014, 1 – entry into force 01.01.2015]
(4) For the criminal offence provided for in this section, the court shall impose extended confiscation of assets or property acquired by the criminal offence pursuant to the provisions of § 832 of this Code.
(5) For the purposes of this section, vulnerable situation is a situation where a person lacks an actual or acceptable opportunity not to commit any of the acts specified in subsection (1) of this section.
[RT I, 04.04.2012, 1 – entry into force 14.04.2012]

§ 133.1. Support to human trafficking
(1) Transportation, delivery, escorting, acceptance, concealment or accommodation without prior authorisation of a person placed in a situation specified in subsection 133 (1) of this Code, or aiding without prior authorisation his or her forced acts in any other way,
is punishable by up to five years’ imprisonment.
(2) The same act if:
1) committed against two or more persons;
2) committed against a person of less than eighteen years of age;
3) committed against a person in a helpless situation;
4) committed by taking advantage of official position,
is punishable by two to ten years’ imprisonment.
(3) An act provided for in subsection (1) or (2) of this section, if committed by a legal person,
is punishable by a pecuniary punishment.
[RT I, 12.07.2014, 1 – entry into force 01.01.2015]
(4) For the criminal offence provided for in this section, the court shall impose extended confiscation of assets or property acquired by the criminal offence pursuant to the provisions of § 832 of this Code.
[RT I, 04.04.2012, 1 – entry into force 14.04.2012]

§ 133.2. Pimping
(1) Organisation of a meeting of a person engaged in prostitution with a client, owning, managing of a brothel, aiding of prostitution or renting of premises for keeping a brothel, or influencing of a person to cause him or her to commence or continue prostitution, if the act does not contain the necessary elements of an offence provided for §§ 133 or 1331 of this Code,
is punishable by a pecuniary punishment or up to five years’ imprisonment.
(2) The same act if:
1) committed by a person who has previously committed an offence provided for in this section or §§ 133, 1331, 1333 or 175;
2) committed for the purpose of large proprietary gain,
is punishable by one to five years’ imprisonment.
(3) The same act, if committed by a legal person,
is punishable by a pecuniary punishment.
(4) For the criminal offence provided for in this section, the court shall impose extended confiscation of assets or property acquired by the criminal offence pursuant to the provisions of § 832 of this Code.
(5) For the purposes of this section, a brothel denotes any premises or limited area where a third party mediates the engagement of two or more people in prostitution or aids engagement of two or more people in prostitution.
§ 133.3. Aiding prostitution
(1) Knowing aiding of prostitution if the act does not contain the necessary elements of an offence provided for §§ 133, 1331 or 1332 of this Code,
is punishable by a pecuniary punishment or up to three years’ imprisonment.
(2) The same act, if committed by a legal person,
is punishable by a pecuniary punishment.

§ 145.1. Buying sex from minors
(1) Engaging in sexual intercourse or committing another act of sexual nature with a person of less than eighteen years of age for monetary payment or any other benefit,
is punishable by up to three years’ imprisonment.
(2) An act specified in subsection (1) of this section, if committed against a person of less than fourteen years of age,
is punishable by up to five years’ imprisonment.
(3) The act specified in subsections (1) and (2) of this section, if it was committed by a person who has previously committed a criminal offence provided for in this Division,
is punishable by two to eight years’ imprisonment.
(4) An act specified in subsection (1) or (2) of this section, if committed by a legal person,
is punishable by a pecuniary punishment.
[RT I, 13.12.2013, 5 – entry into force 23.12.2013]

§ 175. Human trafficking in order to take advantage of minors
(1) Influencing of a person of less than eighteen years of age in order to cause him or her to commence or continue commission of a criminal offence, begging, engagement in prostitution or working under unusual conditions or to appear as a model or actor in the manufacture of a pornographic or erotic performance or work, but it does not contain the necessary elements of an offence provided for in § 133 of this Code, and a person aiding in other manner in the activities specified in this section of a person of less than eighteen years of age,
is punishable by two to ten years’ imprisonment.
(11) The same act if committed by a person who has previously committed a criminal offence provided for in this section or §§ 133 to 1333, § 1751 or §§ 178 to 179,
is punishable by three to ten years’ imprisonment.
(2) The same act, if committed by a legal person,
is punishable by a pecuniary punishment.
(3) For the criminal offence provided for in this section, the court shall impose extended confiscation of assets or property acquired by the criminal offence pursuant to the provisions of § 832 of this Code.

Programs and Agencies for Enforcement

Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk of exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.

Social Protection Coverage: General (at Least One)
Social Protection (Source: ILO)

The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.

If a country does not appear on a chart, this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.

Social Protection Coverage: Pension
Social Protection Coverage: Vulnerable Groups
Social Protection Coverage: Children
Social Protection Coverage: Disabled
Social Protection Coverage: Poor
Social Protection Coverage: Unemployed