Papan Pemuka Data

eSwatini
Measurement
Measuring the Change

using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards.

Child labour data is only available for 2000. There is no change to report.

%
Best Target 8.7 Data: Child Labour Rate


The data visualization displays yearly child labour statistics based on a variety of nationally-representative household surveys. All years of data hold up to standards set by interagency collaboration between ILO, UNICEF and World Bank, though, in some cases are not perfectly comparable between years. Detailed information on each data point is provided in the Measurement tab (above).

Data Availability
  • Child labour: ILO/UNICEF data
  • Forced labour: No nationally representative data
  • Human trafficking: No nationally representative data
Context
Human Development

Human Development Index Score: 0.541 (2015)

Mean School Years: 6.8 years (2015)

Labour Indicators

Vulnerable Employment: No data

Working Poverty Rate: 11.1% (2016)

Government Efforts
Key Ratifications
  • ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Not ratified
  • ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2002
  • UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Ratified 2012
Social Protection Coverage

General (at least one): No data

Unemployed: No data

Pension: 86% (2011)

Vulnerable: No data

Children: No data

Disabled: No data

Poor: No data

Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.

Child Labour Rate, Aged 5-17 (Source: ILO)

Based on the international conventions and the International Conference of Labour Statisticians (ICLS) resolution, and consistent with the approach utilized in the ILO global child labour estimates exercise, the statistical definition of child labour used includes:

a) children aged 5-11 years in all forms of economic activity;
b) children aged 12-14 years in all forms of economic activity except permissible “light” work;
c) children and adolescents aged 15-17 years in hazardous work; and
d) children aged 5-14 years performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week.

In eSwatini, data on the percentage of child labourers is provided for 2000. The measure provided for 2000 does not cover the full definition of hazardous work.

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 5-17 in child labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2000.

Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Hazardous child labour is the largest category of the worst forms of child labour with an estimated 73 million children aged 5-17 working in dangerous conditions in a wide range of sectors. Worldwide, the ILO estimates that some 22,000 children are killed at work every year.

In eSwatini, the estimates show that 0.3 percent of children aged 5-14 were engaged in hazardous work in 2000. The measure provided for 2000 does not cover the full definition of hazardous work.

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 5-14 in hazardous labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is not provided for 2010.

Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 15-17 (Source: ILO)

Children aged 15-17 are permitted to engage in economic activities by international conventions in most cases, except when the work is likely to harm the health, safety or morals of children (Article 3 (d) of ILO Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour, 1999 (No. 182)).

In eSwatini, the latest estimates show that 1.1 percent of children aged 15-17 were engaged in hazardous work in 2000. The measure provided for 2000 does not cover the full definition of hazardous work.

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 15-17 in hazardous labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2000.

Weekly Work Hours, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Children aged 5-11 are considered to be subjected to child labour when engaging in any form of economic activity. Children aged 12-14 are permitted to engage in “light” work that is not considered hazardous and falls below 14 hours per week.

According to the latest 2010 estimates, the average number of hours worked per week by children aged 5-14 in eSwatini was 4.2 hours. The average number of hours worked has decreased from 10.8 hours in 2000.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours that children aged 5-14 work in economic activities by sex and region. The sample includes all children of this age group. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2000 and 2010.

Weekly Work Hours, Children Only in Economic Activity, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Children not attending school who are engaged in economic activity can be subjected to longer working hours.

In 2010, the latest year with available data, children in economic activity only, meaning they are not in school, worked an average of 5.9 hours per week. This number has decreased since 2000, when the average number of hours worked by this age group was 15.4.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours worked by children aged 5-14 who are not in school, by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2000 and 2010.

Weekly Hours Household Chores, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Researchers recognize that children involved in economic activities are not the only children working. The ICLS recommended definition of child labour includes children aged 5-14 performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week.

Children aged 5-14, on average, are found to work on household chores 4.9 hours per week according to the 2010 estimate. This estimate represents a decrease in hours worked across all age groups since the last estimate in 2000, which found that children aged 5-14 in eSwatini worked an average of 8.5 hours per week.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours children aged 5-14 work on household chores by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2000 and 2010.

Measuring the incidence of forced labour is a much more recent endeavour and presents unique methodological challenges compared to the measurement of child labour.

No nationally representative data is available on forced labour prevalence in eSwatini.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on new guidelines presented by the International Labour Organization and adopted by the International Conference of Labour Statisticians.

The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.

No nationally representative data is available on human trafficking prevalence in eSwatini.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page to learn about measuring human trafficking prevalence, including information on collecting data through national referral mechanisms and producing prevalence statistics using Multiple Systems Estimation (MSE).

Case Data: International and Non-Governmental Organizations

Civil society organizations (CSOs) focused on human trafficking victim assistance can serve as crucial sources of data given their ability to reach a population that is notoriously difficult to sample.

Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (CTDC): The International Organization for Migration (IOM), Polaris and Liberty Asia have launched a global data repository on human trafficking, with data contributed by counter-trafficking partner organizations around the world. Not only does the CTDC serve as a central repository for this critical information, it also publishes normed and harmonized data from various organizations using a unified schema. This global dataset facilitates an unparalleled level of cross-border, trans-agency analysis and provides the counter-trafficking movement with a deeper understanding of this complex issue. Equipped with this information, decision makers will be empowered to create more targeted and effective intervention strategies.

Prosecution Data

UNODC compiles a global dataset on detected and prosecuted traffickers, which serves as the basis in their Global Report for country profiles. This information is beginning to paint a picture of trends over time, and case-specific information can assist investigators and prosecutors.

Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.

Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.

The chart displays information on human development in eSwatini between 1990 and 2015. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex.

The most recent year of the HDI, 2015, shows that the average human development score in eSwatini is 0.541. This score indicates that human development is low.

HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)

Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.

As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:

“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”

The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in eSwatini over time.

Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction toward achieving Target 8.7.

Working Poverty Rate (Source: ILO)

Labour income tells us about a household’s vulnerability. As the ILO explains in Profits and Poverty:

“Poor households find it particularly difficult to deal with income shocks, especially when they push households below the food poverty line. In the presence of such shocks, men and women without social protection nets tend to borrow to smooth consumption, and to accept any job for themselves or their children, even under exploitative conditions.”

ILO indicators that measure poverty with respect to the labour force include working poverty rate, disaggregated by sex, with temporal coverage spanning from 2000 to 2016. The chart displays linear trends in working poverty rate over time for all individuals over 15 years of age.

Labour Productivity (Source: ILO)

Labour productivity is an important economic indicator that is closely linked to economic growth, competitiveness, and living standards within an economy.” However, when increased labour output does not produce rising wages, this can point to increasing inequality. As indicated by a recent ILO report (2015), there is a “growing disconnect between wages and productivity growth, in both developed and emerging economies”. The lack of decent work available increases vulnerability to situations of labour exploitation.

Labour productivity represents the total volume of output (measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product, GDP) produced per unit of labour (measured in terms of the number of employed persons) during a given period.

Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.

Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Source: UNHCR)

Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants.

According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children.”

As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements.”

The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in eSwatini.

Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.

Official Definitions
Forced Labour

The Constitution of the Kingdom of Swaziland Act, 2005
Protection from slavery and forced labour
17.1. A person shall not be held in slavery or servitude.
17.2. A person shall not be required to perform forced labour.
17.3. For the purposes of this section, the expression “forced labour” does not
include any labour –

a.required in consequence of the sentence or order of a court;
b.required of any person while that person is lawfully detained which, though not required in consequence of the sentence or order of the court, is reasonably necessary in the interests of hygiene or for the maintenance of the place at which that person is detained;
c. required of a member of a disciplined force in pursuance of the duties of that member or, in the case of a person who has conscientious objections to service as a member of a naval, military or air force, any labour that that person is required by law to perform in place of that service;
d.required during a period of public emergency or in the event of any other emergency or calamity that threatens the life or well-being of the community, to the extent that the requiring of that labour is reasonably justifiable in the circumstances of any situation arising or existing during that period or as a result of that other emergency or calamity, for the purpose of dealing with that situation; or
e.reasonably required as part of reasonable and normal parental, cultural, communal or other civic obligations, unless it is repugnant to the general principles of humanity.

Employment Act, 1980
Part XIV-Forced Labour
Interpretation. 144.1. In this Part unless the context otherwise requires-

“forced labour” means all work or service which is exacted from any person under the threat of any penalty and for which the said person has not offered himself voluntarily, but does not include-

a. any work or service exacted by virtue of any compulsory military service law for work of a military character;
b. any work or service exacted from any person as a consequence of a conviction in a court of law;
c. any park or service exacted in case of emergency, that is to say, in the event of war or a calamity or threatened calamity such as fire, flood, famine, earthquake, epidemic, or epizootic disease, invasion by animals or insect pests of plant diseases or pests and in general any circumstances which might endanger the existence or well-being of the whole or part of the population;
d. communal services of a kind which are to be performed by the members of a community in the direct interests of the community and not being for purposes of financial gain.

144.2. No work or service specified in paragraphs a, b, c or d of subsection 1 shall be imposed as a means of-

i. political coercion or education or as a punishment for holding or expressing political views or views ideologically opposed to the established political, social or economic system;
ii. mobilizing and using, labour for purposes of economic development
iii. labour discipline or as a punishment for having participated in strikes; or
iv. racial, social, national or religious discrimination.

144.3. Any work or service carried out under the supervision or control of a public authority as required by paragraphs a and b of subsection 1 shall not be carried out on behalf of, or for the benefit of any private person.
144.4. Before communal services of the kind mentioned in paragraph d of subsection 1 are exacted, the persons concerned or their representatives shall be consulted with regard to the need for those services.

The People Trafficking and People Smuggling (Prohibition) Act, No 7 of 2009
Interpretation.
2. In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires—

“exploitation” includes all forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of human organs;

Child Labour

The Constitution of the Kingdom of Swaziland Act, 2005
Rights of the child
29.1. A child has the right to be protected from engaging in work that constitutes a threat to the health, education or development of that child

Employment Act, 1980
Interpretation. 2. For the purposes of this Act-

“child” means a person under age of fifteen years;
“young person” means a person who has attained the age of fifteen years but is under the age of eighteen years;

Employment of children. 97.1. No person shall employ any child in any industrial undertaking other than-

a. an industrial undertaking in which only members of his immediate family are employed;
b. a technical school under the supervision of a teacher or person authorized by the Minister responsible for Education;
c. an industrial undertaking which is not being conducted for commercial profit and where the work is essentially of an educative character approved as such by the Labour Commissioner in writing.

97.2. No person shall employ any child in any undertaking-

a. during school hours;
b. between the hours of 6:00 pm of one day and 7 am of the following day;
c. for more than six hours in any one day;
d. for more than 33 hours in one week;
e. for more than four hours continuously, without an interval of at least one hour for a meal or rest.

97.3. In this section ‘school hours’ means the school hours prescribed in accordance with the Education Act, 1964.

Children’s Protection and Welfare Act, 2012
Minimum age for child labour.
234. The minimum age for admission of a child to employment shall be fifteen years.

Non-engagement of children and young persons in industrial undertakings.
237.1. No employer in an industrial undertaking shall engage a child in employment without satisfactory proof of the child’s age.
237.2. An employer in an industrial undertaking shall keep a register of the children employed by him and of the dates of their births.
237.3. An industrial undertaking is an undertaking other than one in commerce or agriculture and includes-

a. mines, quarries and other works of the extraction of minerals from the earth; or
b. undertakings in which articles are manufactured, altered, cleaned, repaired, ornamented, finished, adopted for sale; broken up or demolished, or in the generation, transformation or transmission of electricity or motive power of any kind;

237.4. Any person or organisation which has a reasonable suspicion that a child is engaged in an industrial undertaking shall report to the Minister of Labour and Employment

Worst Forms of Child Labour

Employment Act, 1980
Employment of young persons.
98.1. No person shall employ a young person in an undertaking other than an agricultural undertaking between the hours of 6:00 pm n one day and 7 am on the following day except for the purposes of apprenticeship or vocational training approved by the Minister in writing after consultation with the Labour Advisory Board.
98.2. Where the Minister approves the employment of a young person pursuant to subsection 1, that young person shall be granted a period of rest of at least 13 consecutive hours between any two periods of such employment.
98.3. No person shall employ a child or young person in –

a. premises or any part thereof which are wholly or mainly used for the sale of intoxicating drinks for consumption on the premises;
b. work which is likely to cause injury to his morals or conduct;
c. work underground;
d. dangerous or unhealthy work
e. such other employment as the Minister may prescribe.

Minister may grant exemptions.
99.1. Notwithstanding sections 97 and 98 a child or young person may be employed during the prohibited hours in the interest of art, science or education, or any form of public entertainment or for the purposes of making cinematographic films, under and in accordance with the conditions of a licence granted by the Minister who may at any time, at his absolute discretion, revoke, vary or suspend the conditions of the license.
99.2. No licence shall be granted by the Minister under this section when, because of the nature of the entertainment, or the circumstance in which it is carried on, or the nature of the cinematographic film or the conditions under which it is made, participation in the entertainment or in the making of the film may be dangerous to the life, health or morals of the child or young person.
99.3. Every license shall contain the following conditions –

a. that the period of employment shall not continue after midnight;
b. that the child or young person shall be allowed a rest period of at least 14 consecutive hours; and
c. safeguards to protect the health and morals of the child or young person and to avoid interfering with his education.

Children’s Protection and Welfare Act, 2012
Right to protection from exploitative labour.
13. A child has a right to be protected from exploitative labour as provided for under section 236 of this Act and other international instruments on child labour.

Children not to be used for begging.
49. Any person who causes or procures any child or, being a person having the care of a child, allows that child to be on any street, premises or place for the purposes of-

a. begging, receiving alms, whether or not there is any pretence of singing, playing, performing or offering anything for sale; or
b. carrying out illegal hawking, lotteries, gambling or other illegal activities detrimental to the health, welfare and education advancement of the child,

commits an offence and is liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding ten thousand Emalangeni or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years or both.

Exploitative child labour.
232.1. No person shall engage a child in exploitative labour.
232.2. for the purposes of this Act, labour is exploitative if it deprives or hinders the child access to health, education or development.

Prohibition of child labour at night and in industrial undertakings.
233. No person shall engage a child in night work or work in industrial undertakings.

Minimum age for night work.
235.1. The minimum age for the engagement of a child in night work shall be sixteen years.
235.2. For the purposes of this Act, night work constitutes work between the hours of six o’clock in the evening to six o’clock in the morning.

Minimum age for hazardous employment.
236.1. No child below the age of eighteen years shall be engaged in any form of hazardous employment.
236.2. Work is hazardous when it poses a danger to the morals, health, safety and development of a person.

Human Trafficking

The People Trafficking and People Smuggling (Prohibition) Act, No 7 of 2009
Interpretation.
2. In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires—

“people trafficking” means the recruiting, transporting, transferring, harbouring, providing or receiving of a person for the purpose of exploitation;

Slavery

The People Trafficking and People Smuggling (Prohibition) Act, No 7 of 2009
Interpretation.
2. In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires—

“exploitation” includes all forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of human organs;
“slavery” includes a situation where a person is compelled to work through force or coercion or inducement or fraud without pay or pay below subsistence;

International Commitments
National Strategies

National Action Plan for Children

“Implements the Children’s Protection and Welfare Act mandate by developing a plan to address child labor, especially in hazardous work.”

National Children’s Policy

“Represents the policy framework of the Children’s Protection and Welfare Act.”

National Plan of Action for Orphans and Vulnerable Children

“Supports strategic objectives, such as providing education, psychosocial support, child protection, research and monitoring, and support to help orphans and vulnerable children enroll in school. Identifies child laborers as a vulnerable group of children.”

National Strategic Framework and Action Plan to Combat People Trafficking

“Assigns responsibilities to relevant government agencies on trafficking in persons.”

International Ratifications

ILO Forced Labour Convention, C029, Ratification 1978

ILO Abolition of Forced Labour Convention, C105, Ratification 1979

ILO Minimum Age Convention, C138, Ratification 2002

ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182, Ratification 2002

UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol), Ratification 2012

UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, Ratification 1995

UN Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Accession 2012

UN Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, Accession 2012

Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the perpetration of modern slavery, forced labour, child labour and human trafficking. These actions should be considered in wider societal efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.

Programs and Agencies for Victim Support (Source: U.S. Department of Labor)

Policies for Assistance
Policies for Assistance, Child Labour

Children’s Protection and Welfare Act, 2012
Child in need of rehabilitation. 38. A child is in need of rehabilitation if there is reasonable cause to believe that the child-

a. is being induced to perform any sexual act, or is in any physical or social environment which may lead to the performance of such act;
b. lives in or frequents any brothel or place of assignation;
c. is habitually in the company or under the control of brothel-keepers or procurers or persons employed or directly interested in the business carried on in brothels or in connection with prostitution; or
d. is a victim of sexual violence or labour exploitation or is denied access to education; or
e. is a habitual substance abuser.

Removal of a child in need of rehabilitation to a place of safety.
39.1. Any social worker, police officer or chief who is satisfied on reasonable grounds that a child is in need of rehabilitation may order the child to be removed to a place of safety and the child shall be temporarily kept in such a place of safety.
39.2. Any child who is temporarily kept under subsection 1 shall be brought before the Children’s Court within 48 hours exclusive of the time necessary for the journey from the place where the child was so removed to the Children’s Court.
39.3. If it is not possible to bring a child before the Children’s Court within the time specified in subsection 2, the child shall be kept in a place of safety for a period not exceeding seven days within which the child shall be brought before the Children’s Court.
39.4. If the Children’s Court is satisfied that the child brought before it is in need of rehabilitation, the Children’s Court may order the child to be kept in a place of safety until-

a. an inquiry into the circumstance of the child’ s case has been completed; and
b. a report of the inquiry has been submitted to the Children’s Court by the social worker.

39.5. If the Children’s Court Is not satisfied that a child brought before it is in need of rehabilitation, the Children’s Court shall order the child to be returned to the care of the parent or guardian.

Child in need of urgent protection.
41.1. A child is in need of urgent protection if there is reasonable cause to believe that-

a. that child is being threatened or intimidated for purposes of prostitution or for purposes of having sexual intercourse with another or for any immoral purpose;
d. the child is subjected to hazardous conditions of labour;

41.2. Any person or the affected child who is in need of urgent protection may, on his own make an application to a social worker, chief or police officer for admission into a place of safety.

Policies for Assistance, Human Trafficking

The People Trafficking and People Smuggling (Prohibition) Act, No 7 of 2009
Part VI Care and Protection of Trafficked and Smuggled Persons
Place of refuge.
41.1. The Minister may, after consultation with the Minister responsible for social welfare, declare any house, building or place, or any part thereof, to be a place of refuge for the care and protection of trafficked and smuggled persons and may, in like manner, declare that such place of refuge ceases to be a place of refuge.
41.2. The Minister may, from time to time, direct the separation of different categories of trafficked and smuggled persons, among others, according to age and gender either at the same place of refuge or at different places of refuge.

Taking a person into temporary custody.
43.1. An enforcement officer may, on reasonable suspicion that any person who is found or rescued is a trafficked or smuggled person, take that person into temporary custody to be determined by a protection officer and produce him before a magistrate within twenty- four (24) hours, exclusive of the time necessary for the journey to a Magistrate’s Court, for the purpose of obtaining an interim protection order.
43.2. A Magistrate may make an interim protection order for the person to be placed at a place of refuge for a period of fourteen days for the purpose of carrying out an investigation and enquiry under section 50.
43.3. The enforcement officer shall, upon obtaining the order issued under subsection 2., surrender the trafficked or smuggled person to a protection officer to place that trafficked or smuggled person at the place of refuge specified in the order.

Immunity from criminal prosecution.
63. A trafficked or smuggled person shall not be liable to criminal prosecution in respect of—

a. his illegal entry into the receiving country;
b. his period of unlawful residence in the receiving country; or
c. his procurement or possession of any fraudulent travel or identity document which he obtained, or with which he was supplied, for the purpose of entering the receiving country,

where such acts are the direct consequence of an act of people trafficking or people smuggling that is alleged to have been committed or was committed.

Restriction on media reporting and publication.
67.1. Notwithstanding any written laws to the contrary, any mass media report regarding—

a. any step taken in relation to a trafficked or smuggled person in any proceedings be it at the pre-trial, trial or post-trial stage;
b. any trafficked or smuggled person in respect of whom custody or protection is accorded under this Act; or
c. any other matters under this Act,
shall not reveal the name or address, or include any particulars calculated to lead to the identification of any trafficked or smuggled person so concerned either as being the trafficked or smuggled person or as being a witness to any proceedings.

67.2. A picture of—

a. any trafficked or smuggled person in any of the matters mentioned in subsection 1.; or
b. any other person, place or thing which may lead to the identification of the trafficked or smuggled person,
shall not be published in any newspaper or magazine or transmitted through any electronic medium.

67.3. A person who contravenes subsection 1. or 2. commits an offence.

Penalties
Penalties, Forced Labour

Employment Act, 1980
Exaction of forced labour prohibited. 145. any person who exacts or imposed forced labour or causes or permits forced labour to be executed or imposed contrary to this Part shall be guilty of an offence and liable to a fine of five hundred Emalangeni or to imprisonment for six months.

Concessions not to include forced labour. 146. No concession granted to any person shall involve any form of forced labour for the production or collection of products which such private person utilizes or in which he trades.

Penalty for official coercion.
147. Any person who, acting in his official capacity, puts any coercion upon the population under his charge, or upon any individual members of such population to work for any private individual, company or association shall be guilty of an offence and liable to a fin of not exceeding three thousand Emalangeni or to imprisonment not exceeding one year or both.

Penalties, Child Labour

Employment Act, 1980
Offences and Penalties.
109.1. Any person who employs a child or a young person in contravention of any of the provisions of this Part shall be guilty of an offence and liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding three thousand Emalangeni or to imprisonment not exceeding one year or both.

Children’s Protection and Welfare Act, 2012
Children not to be used for begging.
49. Any person who causes or procures any child or, being a person having the care of a child, allows that child to be on any street, premises or place for the purposes of-

a. begging, receiving alms, whether or not there is any pretence of singing, playing, performing or offering anything for sale; or
b. carrying out illegal hawking, lotteries, gambling or other illegal activities detrimental to the health, welfare and education advancement of the child,

commits an offence and is liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding ten thousand Emalangeni or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years or both.

Offences.
238.1. Any person who contravenes the provisions of this Part commits an offence and is liable on conviction a fine of not less than fifteen thousand or to imprisonment for a term of not less than two years or both.
238.2. Notwithstanding subsection 1, any person who contravenes the provisions of sections 232.1, 234 and 236 commits an offence and –

a. on first conviction is liable to a fine of not less than one hundred thousand emalangeni or to imprisonment for a term of not less than five years or both;
b. on second or subsequent conviction to imprisonment for a minimum term of ten years without the option of a fine.

Penalties, Human Trafficking

The People Trafficking and People Smuggling (Prohibition) Act, No 7 of 2009
Offence of people trafficking.
12.1. A person who recruits, transports, transfers, harbours, receive, employs, maintains or holds any person or persons for the purpose of exploitation, by one or more of the following means—

a. threat;
b. use of force or other forms of coercion;
c. abduction;d. fraud;
e. deception;
f. abuse of power, or law or legal process;
g. abuse of the position of vulnerability of a person to an act of trafficking in persons; or
h. the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to obtain the consent of a person having control over the trafficked person,
commits an offence and is, on conviction liable to a term of imprisonment not exceeding twenty (20) years.

12.2. A person convicted under this section shall in addition to any penalty under sub- section 1. pay the trafficked person (victim) any amount of the loss as may be determined by court.

Offence of trafficking in children.
13. A person, “recruits, transport, transfers, harbours, obtains, receives, employs, maintains, or holds any person or persons, knowing or in reckless disregard that the person is a child”, for the purpose of exploitation, commits an offence and is, on conviction, liable to a term of imprisonment not exceeding twenty-five (25) years.

Offence of profiting from exploitation of a trafficked person.
14. A person who profits from the exploitation of a trafficked person commits an offence and is, on conviction, liable to a term of imprisonment not exceeding fifteen (15) years and to a fine not exceeding eight hundred thousand Emalangeni.

Consent of trafficked person irrelevant.
16. In a prosecution for an offence under this Part, it shall not be a defence that the trafficked person consented to the act of people trafficking or to the exploitation.

Past sexual behaviour irrelevant.
17. A trafficked person’s past sexual behaviour is irrelevant and inadmissible for the purpose of proving that the trafficked person was engaged in other sexual behaviour or to prove the trafficked person’s sexual predisposition.

General penalty.
72. Any person who commits an offence under this Act for which no penalty is expressly provided shall, on conviction, be liable to a term of imprisonment not exceeding seven (7) years or to a fine not exceeding fifty thousand emalangeni or to both.

Programs and Agencies for Enforcement (Source: U.S. Department of Labor)

Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk for exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.

Social Protection Coverage: General (at Least One)
Social Protection (Source: ILO)

The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.

If a country does not appear on a chart, this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.

Social Protection Coverage: Pension
Social Protection Coverage: Vulnerable Groups
Social Protection Coverage: Children
Social Protection Coverage: Disabled

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