Papan Pemuka Data

Ethiopia
Measurement
Measuring the Change

using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards.

Child labour measures between 2001 and 2005 are not comparable.

%
Best Target 8.7 Data: Child Labour Rate


The data visualization displays yearly child labour statistics based on a variety of nationally-representative household surveys. All years of data hold up to standards set by interagency collaboration between ILO, UNICEF and World Bank, though, in some cases are not perfectly comparable between years. Detailed information on each data point is provided in the Measurement tab (above).

Data Availability
  • Child labour: ILO/UNICEF Data
  • Forced labour: No nationally representative data
  • Human trafficking: No nationally representative data
Context
Human Development

Human Development Index Score: 0.448 (2015)

Mean School Years: 2.6 years (2015)

Labour Indicators

Vulnerable Employment: 88.8% (2013)

Working Poverty Rate: 5.5% (2016)

Government Efforts
Key Ratifications
  • ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Not ratified
  • ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2003
  • UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Accession 2012
Social Protection Coverage

General (at least one): 11.6% (2016)

Unemployed: 0% (2016)

Pension: 15.3% (2016)

Vulnerable: 8% (2016)

Children: No data

Disabled: No data

Poor: No data

Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.

Child Labour Rate, Aged 5-17 (Source: ILO)

Based on the international conventions and the International Conference of Labour Statisticians (ICLS) resolution, and consistent with the approach utilized in the ILO global child labour estimates exercise, the statistical definition of child labour used includes: 

a) children aged 5-11 years in all forms of economic activity;
b) children aged 12-14 years in all forms of economic activity except permissible “light” work;
c) children and adolescents aged 15-17 years in hazardous work; and
d) children aged 5-14 years performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week.

In Ethiopia, 49.4 percent of children were in child labour in 2005. The measure provided for 2001 does not cover the full definition of hazardous child labour and cannot be compared directly with data from other sample years.

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 5-17 in child labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2001 and 2005.

Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Hazardous child labour is the largest category of the worst forms of child labour with an estimated 73 million children aged 5-17 working in dangerous conditions in a wide range of sectors. Worldwide, the ILO estimates that some 22,000 children are killed at work every year.

In Ethiopia, the latest estimates show that 2.4 percent of children aged 5-14 were engaged in hazardous work in 2011. The number is lower than the estimate of 14.4 percent of children aged 5-14 engaged in hazardous work in 2001.  The measures provided for 2001 and 2011 do not cover the full definition of hazardous child labour and cannot be compared with data from other sample years.

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 5-14 in hazardous labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2001, 2005 and 2011.

Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 15-17 (Source: ILO)

Children aged 15-17 are permitted to engage in economic activities by international conventions in most cases, except when the work is likely to harm the health, safety or morals of children (Article 3 (d) of ILO Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour, 1999 (No. 182)).

In Ethiopia, the latest estimates show that 50.3 percent of children aged 15-17 were engaged in hazardous work in 2005. The measure provided for 2001 does not cover the full definition of hazardous child labour and cannot be compared directly with data from other sample years.  

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 15-17 in hazardous labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2001 and 2005.

Weekly Work Hours, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Children aged 5-11 are considered to be subjected to child labour when engaging in any form of economic activity. Children aged 12-14 are permitted to engage in “light” work that is not considered hazardous and falls below 14 hours per week.

According to the latest 2011 estimates, the average number of hours worked per week by children aged 5-14 in Ethiopia was 22.2 hours. The average number of hours worked has decreased from 31.8 hours in 2005.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours that children aged 5-14 work in economic activities by sex and region. The sample includes all children of this age group. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2001, 2005 and 2011.

Weekly Work Hours Children Only in Economic Activity, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Children not attending school who are engaged in economic activity can be subjected to longer working hours.

In 2011, the latest year with available data, children in economic activity only, meaning they are not in school, worked an average of 27.8 hours per week. This number has decreased since 2001, when the average number of hours worked by this age group was 38.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours worked by children aged 5-14 who are not in school, by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2001 and 2011.

Weekly Hours Household Chores, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Researchers recognize that children involved in economic activities are not the only children working. The ICLS recommended definition of child labour includes performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week for children aged 5-14.

Children aged 5-14, on average, are found to work on household chores 20.6 hours per week according to the 2011 estimate. This estimate represents an increase in hours worked across all age groups since the last estimate in 2005, which found that children aged 5-14 in Ethiopia worked an average of 18.9 hours per week.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours children aged 5-14 work on household chores by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2005 and 2011.

Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: Total (Source: ILO)

Identifying the sectors in which the most child labour exists can help policy actors and practitioners target efforts toward those industries.

The latest data available on child labour by sector for Ethiopia is from 2005. By the 2005 estimate, the Agriculture sector had the most child labourers, followed by the Commerce, Hotels and Restaurants sector and the Manufacturing sector.

The chart to the right displays child labour prevalence in each sector for all children. The charts below show the differences in child labour by sector with comparisons between groups by sex and region.

Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: Sex (Source: ILO)
Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: Area (Source: ILO)

Measuring the incidence of forced labour is a much more recent endeavour and presents unique methodological challenges compared to the measurement of child labour.

No nationally representative data is available on forced labour prevalence in Ethiopia.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on new guidelines presented by the International Labour Organization and adopted by the International Conference of Labour Statisticians.

The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.

No nationally representative data is available on human trafficking prevalence in Ethiopia.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page to learn about measuring human trafficking prevalence, including information on collecting data through national referral mechanisms and producing prevalence statistics using Multiple Systems Estimation (MSE).

Case Data: International and Non-Governmental Organizations

Civil society organizations (CSOs) focused on human trafficking victim assistance can serve as crucial sources of data given their ability to reach a population that is notoriously difficult to sample.

Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (CTDC): The International Organization for Migration (IOM), Polaris and Liberty Asia have launched a global data repository on human trafficking, with data contributed by counter-trafficking partner organizations around the world. Not only does the CTDC serve as a central repository for this critical information, it also publishes normed and harmonized data from various organizations using a unified schema. This global dataset facilitates an unparalleled level of cross-border, trans-agency analysis and provides the counter-trafficking movement with a deeper understanding of this complex issue. Equipped with this information, decision makers will be empowered to create more targeted and effective intervention strategies.

Prosecution Data

UNODC compiles a global dataset on detected and prosecuted traffickers, which serves as the basis in their Global Report for country profiles. This information is beginning to paint a picture of trends over time, and case-specific information can assist investigators and prosecutors.

Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.

Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.

The chart displays information on human development in Ethiopia between 2000 and 2015. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex.

The most recent year of the HDI, 2015, shows that average human development score in Ethiopia is 0.448. This score indicates that human development is low.

HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)

Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.

As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:

“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”

The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in Ethiopia over time.

Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction toward achieving Target 8.7.

HDI Vulnerable Employment (Source: UNDP)

There are reasons to believe that certain types of labour and labour arrangements are more likely to lead to labour exploitation. According to the ILO:

“Own-account workers and contributing family workers have a lower likelihood of having formal work arrangements, and are therefore more likely to lack elements associated with decent employment, such as adequate social security and a voice at work. The two statuses are summed to create a classification of ‘vulnerable employment’, while wage and salaried workers together with employers constitute ‘non-vulnerable employment’.”

Between 2005 and 2013, Ethiopia showed a decrease in the proportion of workers in vulnerable employment as compared to those in secure employment.

Working Poverty Rate (Source: ILO)

Labour income tells us about a household’s vulnerability. As the ILO explains in Profits and Poverty:

“Poor households find it particularly difficult to deal with income shocks, especially when they push households below the food poverty line. In the presence of such shocks, men and women without social protection nets tend to borrow to smooth consumption, and to accept any job for themselves or their children, even under exploitative conditions.”

ILO indicators that measure poverty with respect to the labour force include working poverty rate, disaggregated by age groupings and sex, with temporal coverage spanning from 2000 to 2016. The chart displays linear trends in working poverty rate over time for all individuals over 15 years of age.

Labour Productivity (Source: ILO)

Labour productivity is an important economic indicator that is closely linked to economic growth, competitiveness, and living standards within an economy.” However, when increased labour output does not produce rising wages, this can point to increasing inequality. As indicated by a recent ILO report (2015), there is a “growing disconnect between wages and productivity growth, in both developed and emerging economies”. The lack of decent work available increases vulnerability to situations of labour exploitation.

Labour productivity represents the total volume of output (measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product, GDP) produced per unit of labour (measured in terms of the number of employed persons) during a given period.

Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.

Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Source: UNHCR)

Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups. Migration can increase vulnerability to exploitation.

According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children.”

As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements.”

The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in Ethiopia.

Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.

Official Definitions
Forced Labour

The Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, 1994
Article 18. Prohibition against Inhuman Treatment
3. No one shall be required to perform forced or compulsory labour.
4. For the purpose of sub-Article 3 of this Article the phrase “forced or compulsory labour” shall not include:

a. Any work or service normally required of a person who is under detention in consequence of a lawful order, or of a person during conditional release from such detention;
b. In the case of conscientious objectors, any service exacted in lieu of compulsory military service;
c. Any service exacted in cases of emergency or calamity threatening the life or well-being of the community;
d. Any economic and social development activity voluntarily performed by a community within its locality.

Child Labour

Labour Proclamation No. 377/2003
89. General
1. For the purpose of this Proclamation, “Young worker” means a person who has attained the age of 14 but is not over the age of 18 years.
2. It is prohibited to employ persons under 14 years of age.

90. Limits of Hours of Work
Normal hours of work for young workers shall not exceed seven hours a day

The Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, 1994
Article 36. Rights of Children
1. Every child has the right:

d. Not to be subject to exploitative practices, neither to be required nor permitted to perform work which may be hazardous or harmful to his or her education, health or well-being;

Worst Forms of Child Labour

Labour Proclamation No. 377/2003
89. General
3. It is prohibited to employ young workers which on account of its nature or due to the condition in which it is carried out, endangers the life or health of the young workers performing it.
4. The Minister may prescribe the list of activities prohibited to young worker which shall include in particular:

a. work in the transport of passengers and goods by road, railway, air and internal waterway, docksides and warehouses involving heavy weight liftings, pulling or pushing or any other related type of labour;
b. work connected with electric power generation plants transformers or transmission, lines;
c. underground work, such as mines, quarries and similar works;
d. work in sewers and digging tunnels

5. The provisions of sub-article (4) of this Article shall not apply to work performed by young workers following courses in vocational schools that are approved and inspected by the competent authority.

91. Night and Overtime Work
It is prohibited to employ young workers on:
1. night work between 10 p.m. and 6 a.m.;
2. overtime work;
3. weekly rest days; or
4. public holidays

Décret relatif à l’interdiction des travaux effectués par des jeunes gens, 1997 (translated from Amharic to French)
“Articles 4 et 5 établissant listes des activités interdites aux jeunes gens.”

Trafficking in Persons

The Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, 1994
Article 18. Prohibition against Inhuman Treatment
2. No one shall be held in slavery or servitude. Trafficking in human beings for whatever purpose is prohibited;

Prevention and Suppression of Trafficking in Persons and Smuggling of Migrants Proclamation No. 909/2015
3. Trafficking in Persons
1. Any person, for the purpose of exploitation, within the territory or outside of Ethiopia:

a. at the pretext of domestic or overseas employment or sending to abroad for work or apprenticeship;
b. by concluding adoption agreement or at the pretext of adoption; or
c. for any other purpose;
using threat or force or other means of coercion, abduction, fraud, deception, promise, abuse of power or by using the vulnerability of a person or recruits, transports, transfer harbors or receives any person by giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person

2. Definitions
In this Proclamation unless the context otherwise requires:

4. “Exploitation” include the following:

a. benefiting from prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation;
b. labor exploitation, forced labor or servitude;
c. slavery or practices similar to slavery;
d. sexual servitude and enslavement;
e. debt bondage or surrender as pledge for another;
f. removal or taking of organs of the human body;
g. forcefully engaging for begging;
h. engaging children for military service.

Slavery

The Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, 1994
Article 18. Prohibition against Inhuman Treatment
2. No one shall be held in slavery or servitude. Trafficking in human beings for whatever purpose is prohibited;

Prevention and Suppression of Trafficking in Persons and Smuggling of Migrants Proclamation No. 909/2015
2. Definitions
In this Proclamation unless the context otherwise requires:

5. “slavery” means the status or condition of a person over whom any or all the powers attaching to the right of ownership are exercised;

Servitude

Prevention and Suppression of Trafficking in Persons and Smuggling of Migrants Proclamation No. 909/2015
2. Definitions
In this Proclamation unless the context otherwise requires:

6. “servitude” means the conditions or the obligations to work or to render services from which the person cannot escape, prevent or alter;

Debt Bondage

Prevention and Suppression of Trafficking in Persons and Smuggling of Migrants Proclamation No. 909/2015
2. Definitions
In this Proclamation unless the context otherwise requires:

7. “debt bondage” means the pledging by the debtor of his personal service or labor or those of a person under his control as security or payment for a debt, when the length and nature of service is not clearly defined or when the value of the services as reasonably assessed is not applied towards the liquidation of the debt and resemble trafficking in human;

International Commitments
National Strategies


National Plan of Action to Combat Trafficking in Persons (2015-2020)
“Examines legal and institutional frameworks and responses related to existing human trafficking. Aims to provide guiding principles based on international best practices for human anti-trafficking action and the institutional structures and inputs needed to effectively combat human trafficking.”

National Youth Policy
“Condemns the worst forms of child labor, including commercial sexual exploitation and illicit work through direction by the Ministry of Youth, Sports, and Culture. Lacks a detailed and specific action plan related to preventing the worst forms of child labor.”

UNDAF (2016-2020)
“Promotes improved access to education and livelihood services for vulnerable children. Seeks to protect children from abuse, violence, and exploitation, and rehabilitate them.”

National Human Rights Action Plan (NHRAP) II (2016-2020)
“Aims to develop a comprehensive and structured mechanism to strengthen human rights in Ethiopia, building upon NHRAP I, which included efforts to eliminate exploitative child labor. Approved in December 2016.”

International Ratifications

ILO Forced Labour Convention, C029, Ratification 2003

ILO Abolition of Forced Labour Convention, C105, Ratification 1999

ILO Minimum Age Convention, C138, Ratification 1999

ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182, Ratification 2003

Slavery Convention 1926 and amended by the Protocol of 1953, Ratification 1969

UN Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, Accession 1969

UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol), Accession 2012

UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, Accession 1991

UN Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Ratification 2014

UN Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, Accession 2014

Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the  perpetration of forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour. These actions should be considered in wider societal efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.

Programs and Agencies for Victim Support (Source: U.S. Department of Labor)

Policies for Assistance
Assistance, General

Protection of Witnesses and Whistleblowers of Criminal Offences Proclamation No.699/2010
2. Definitions
In this Proclamation, unless the context otherwise requires:

1. “whistleblower or witness” means a person who has given or agrees to give information or has acted or agrees to act as a witness in the investigation or trial of an offence;
2. “protected person” means a witness, a whistleblower or a family member of a witness or a whistleblower who has entered into a protection agreement with the Ministry;

3. Scope of Application

1. The protection under this Proclamation shall be applicable with respect to testimony or information given or investigation undertaken on a suspect punishable with rigorous imprisonment for ten or more years or with death without having regard to the minimum period of rigorous imprisonment:

a. where the offence may not be revealed or established by another means otherwise than by the testimony of the witness or the information of the whistleblower; and
b. where it is believed that a threat of serious danger exists to the life, physical security, freedom or property of the witness, the whistleblower or a family member of the witness or the whistleblower.

Assistance, Human Trafficking

Prevention and Suppression of Trafficking in Persons and Smuggling of Migrants Proclamation No. 909/2015
26. Identification and Rescue of Victims

1. The Government shall put in place necessary working procedures to identify, rescue, repatriate and rehabilitate victims in partnership with other foreign diplomatic missions, concerned government and non- government organizations and other supportive mass organization, the details of which shall be specified by law.
2. Without prejudice to the provisions of other laws:

a. victims shall be provided with information on the nature of protection, assistance and support as well as information on any legal proceedings related to them;
b. victims shall be accorded the available health and social services, medical care, counselling and psychological assistance, with care, on a confidential basis and with full respect of privacy.

3. Organs responsible to investigate, prosecute, adjudicate criminal cases stipulated under this Proclamation shall, taking into account the condition, refer the victim to appropriate organizations and institutions for assistance and support.
4. The victims while staying at temporary shelter shall, in no case, be kept in police stations, detention centres or prisons; and unless victims are required for testimony in the judicial process, they shall not stay in temporary shelter for a period exceeding three months.
5. Any person who is not a national shall not stay, either in the temporary shelter or in Ethiopia for more than one month, unless he is required for testimony in the judicial process, or his cases treated in accordance with other relevant laws.

27. Repatriation of Victims
Any Ethiopian, found outside of Ethiopia, who is a victim of trafficking in persons and smuggling of migrants:

1. the Ministry of Foreign Affairs shall, in cooperation with the concerned Ethiopian Embassy, the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs, international organizations and, if necessary, with other appropriate domestic organizations initiate the process to return the person in to Ethiopia;
2. If Ethiopian embassy hosting there or working nearby victim of human trafficking or a smuggled migrant of Ethiopian citizen arrested or detained in a foreign country have knowledge of this occurrence he shall in collaboration with appropriate organs initiate the process to rescue, release and return of the victim to Ethiopian.
3. if any victim of human trafficking or a smuggled migrant is compelled to stay in a foreign country for any case, the Ethiopian diplomatic mission shall take measures to provide him with legal counselling or assistance; and the Embassy hosting there or working nearby shall follow up handling of the victim and status of the case and periodically report to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

28. Repatriation of Foreign Nationals to their Country

1. Any foreign national who is victim and found in Ethiopia shall be fully entitled to the protections mentioned under Article 26 (2), (3) and (4) of this Proclamation, and he shall be provided temporary resident permit, as the case may be.
2. Any foreign national who is victim of trafficking in persons and smuggling of migrants shall not be criminally liable on his illegal entry into Ethiopian territory.
3. When a foreign national has been identified as an important witness and if he is willing to testify, in accordance with a relevant law, he shall be accorded temporary resident permit, until such time as the proceeding of the court is completed, and his human rights shall be respected adequately.
4. Without prejudice to the provisions of other laws regarding visa, travel documents and other conditions, when any victim, who is foreign national, is identified in Ethiopian territory, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in collaboration with relevant authorities and concerned diplomatic mission, shall take appropriate measures to repatriate the victim to the country of origin.

29. Protection of Witness and Victim
Without prejudice to different rights stipulated in other laws with respect to victims, any witness, who is a victim of crime of trafficking in persons and smuggling of migrants, shall be entitled with the protections stipulated under Witness and Whistleblowers Protection Proclamation no. 699/2010.

30. Immunity from Criminal Liability
Any person victim of trafficking in persons or smuggling of migrants shall not be legally prosecuted on the facts of being a victim of the crime.

31. Compensation

1. The court may decide against the convicted person, in addition to imprisonment and fine, to pay compensation for the victim or to persons or organization who incurred cost in the name of the victim.
2. The amount of compensation to be paid under sub-article (1) of this Article shall, enable to set off medical, transport, moral damage, any other costs or losses incurred as a direct result of the crime and other appropriate expenses; provided, however, in any case, the compensation shall not be less than the amount paid, or to be paid to the human trafficker or migrant smuggler, loss incurred by the victim because of the crime or the benefit obtained by the human trafficker or migrant smuggler.
3. When the victim cannot get compensation under sub-articles (1) and (2) of this Article, an Ethiopian national can claim a reimbursement payment and shall be paid from the Fund.

Penalties
Penalties, General

The Criminal Code of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, 2004
Article 596. Enslavement.

1. Whoever:

a. forcibly enslaves another, sells, alienates, pledges or buys him, or trades or traffics in or exploits him in any manner; or
b. keeps or maintains another in a condition of slavery, even in a disguised form, is punishable with rigorous imprisonment from five years to twenty years, and fine not exceeding fifty thousand Birr.

2. Whoever, in order to deliver him at his place of destination, carries off or transports a person found in situations stated above, whether by land, by sea or by air, or conducts or aids such traffic, is liable to the punishment under sub-article (1) above.
3. Where the crime is committed against children, women, feeble- minded or sick persons, the punishment shall be rigorous imprisonment from ten years to twenty years.

Article 598. Unlawful Sending of Ethiopians for Work Abroad.

1. Whoever, without having obtained a license or by any other unlawful means, sends an Ethiopian woman for work abroad, is punishable with rigorous imprisonment from five years to ten years, and fine not exceeding twenty-five thousand Birr.
2. Where the Ethiopian woman sent abroad, owing to the act mentioned above, suffers an injury to her human rights, or to her life, body or psychological make-up, the sender shall be punishable with rigorous imprisonment from five years to twenty years, and fine not exceeding fifty thousand Birr.
3. The provisions of this Article shall apply where similar acts axe committed against Ethiopian men.

Penalties, Child Labour

Labour Proclamation No. 377/2003
184. Offence by an Employer

1. An Employer who:

a. causes workers to work beyond the maximum working hours set forth in this Proclamation or contravenes in any manner the provision relating to working hours;
b. infringes the provision of this Proclamation regulating weekly rest days, public holidays, or leave; or
c. contravenes the provisions of Article 19 of this Proclamation shall be liable to a fine not exceeding Birr 500

Penalties, Human Trafficking

Prevention and Suppression of Trafficking in Persons and Smuggling of Migrants Proclamation No. 909/2015
3. Trafficking in Persons

1. Any person, for the purpose of exploitation, within the territory or outside of Ethiopia:

a. at the pretext of domestic or overseas employment or sending to abroad for work or apprenticeship;
b. by concluding adoption agreement or at the pretext of adoption; or
c. for any other purpose;
using threat or force or other means of coercion, abduction, fraud, deception, promise, abuse of power or by using the vulnerability of a person or recruits, transports, transfer harbors or receives any person by giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person shall be punishable with rigorous imprisonment from 15 years to 25 years and with fine from 150,000 to 300,000 Birr.

2. Where the crime stipulated under sub-article (1) of this Article፡

a. is committed against child, women or anyone with mental or physical impairment;
b. resulted in physical or psychological harm on the victim;
c. is committed by using drugs, medicine or weapons as a means;
d. is committed by public official or civil servant in abusing of power; or
e. is committed by a person who is parents, brother, sister, a guardian or a person having a power on the victim;
the punishment shall be rigorous imprisonment not less than 25 years or life imprisonment and with fine from 200,000 to 500,000 Birr.

3. The recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or receipt of a child for the purpose of exploitation shall be considered trafficking in persons even if this does not involve any of the means stipulated under sub article (1) of this article.

4. Assisting and Facilitating Trafficking in Persons
For the purpose of promoting human trafficking, any person who:

1. permits his house building or other permits in his own name or in his control to be used for human trafficking knowingly or ought to have known;
2. publishes, stores, disseminates, imports or exports any publication;
3. manages, runs or finances by organizing any job recruitment agency;
4. knowingly arrange transportation, transport or facilitate the transportation of victim by land, sea or air;
5. assist, produce, provide, holds and falsifies any fraudulent or false identity card or travel document or assist to get these documents through illegal means for the benefit of other person; or
6. holds as debt bondage, forcefully snatches, conceals, destroys or causes to destroy the victim’s identity card or travel documents to restrain his right to movement or access to public service;
shall be punished with rigorous imprisonment from 15 years to 25 years and with fine from 150,000 to 300,000 Birr.

6. Aggravated Circumstance
Where the offence stipulated under Articles 3 and 5 of this Proclamation results in severe bodily injury or death to the victim, where the offender commits the offence as being a member, a leader or coordinator of an organized criminal group or where the crime is committed in large scale, the punishment shall be a life imprisonment or death penalty, depending on the case.

The Criminal Code of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, 2004
Article 597. Trafficking in Women and Children.

1. Whoever by violence, threat, deceit, fraud, kidnapping or by the giving of money or other advantage to the person having control over a woman or a child, recruits, receives, hides, transports, exports or imports a woman or a minor for the purpose of forced labour, is punishable with rigorous imprisonment from five years to twenty years, and fine not exceeding fifty thousand Birr.
2. Whoever knowingly carries off, or transports, whether by land, by sea or by air, the victim mentioned in sub-article (1), with the purpose stated therein, or conducts, or aids such traffic,
is liable to the penalty prescribed under sub-article (1) above.

Article 634. Habitual Exploitation for Pecuniary Gain.
Whoever, for gain, makes a profession of our lives by procuring or on the prostitution or immorality of another, or maintains, as a landlord or keeper, a brothel, is punishable with simple imprisonment and fine.

Article 635. Traffic in Women and Minors.
Whoever, for gain, or to gratify the passions of another:

a. traffics in women or minors, whether by seducing them, by enticing them, or by procuring them or otherwise inducing them to engage in prostitution, even with their consent; or
b. keeps such a person in a brothel to let him out to prostitution, is punishable with rigorous imprisonment not exceeding five years, and fine not exceeding ten thousand Birr, subject to the application of more severe provisions, especially where there is concurrent illegal restraint.

Article 636. Aggravation to the Crime.
In cases of professional procuring or traffic in persons, rigorous imprisonment shall be from three years to ten years, and the fine shall not exceed twenty thousand Birr where:

a. the victim is a minor; or
b. the victim is the wife or a descendant criminal, his adopted
child or the child of his spouse, his brother or his sister, or his ward, or where the victim has been entrusted, on any ground whatsoever, to his custody or care; or
c. the criminal has taken unfair advantage of the material or mental distress of his victim, or of his position as protector, employer, teacher, landlord or creditor, or of any other like situation; or
d. the criminal has made use of trickery, fraud, violence, intimidation, coercion, or where he has misused his authority over the victim; or
e. the victim is intended for a professional procurer, or has been taken abroad or where the victim’s whereabouts or place of abode cannot be established; or
f. the victim has been driven to suicide by shame, distress or despair.

Article 637. Organization of Traffic in Women and Minors.
Whoever makes arrangements or provisions of any kind for the procurement of or traffic in women or minors, is punishable with simple imprisonment, or according to the circumstances of the case, especially where a professional procurer is involved or where the arrangements are fully made and intended to apply to many victims, with rigorous imprisonment not exceeding three years, and a fine which shall be not less than five hundred Birr in grave cases.

Programs and Agencies for Enforcement (Source: U.S. Department of Labor)

Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk of exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.

Social Protection Coverage: General (at Least One)
Social Protection (Source: ILO)

The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.

If a country does not appear on a chart, this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.

Social Protection Coverage: Pension
Social Protection Coverage: Vulnerable Groups
Social Protection Coverage: Children
Social Protection Coverage: Disabled

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