Data Dashboards

Gambia Dashboard
Measurement
Measuring the Change

using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards.

Child labour data is only available for 2000. There is no change to report.

%
Best Target 8.7 Data: Child Labour Rate


The data visualization displays yearly child labour statistics based on a variety of nationally-representative household surveys. All years of data hold up to standards set by interagency collaboration between ILO, UNICEF and World Bank, though, in some cases are not perfectly comparable between years. Detailed information on each data point is provided in the Measurement tab (above).

Data Availability
  • Child labour: ILO/UNICEF data
  • Forced labour: No nationally representative data
  • Human trafficking: No nationally representative data
Context
Human Development

Human Development Index Score: 0.452 (2015)

Mean School Years: 3.3 years (2015)

Labour Indicators

Vulnerable Employment: 60.5% (2012)

Working Poverty Rate: 41% (2016)

Government Efforts
Key Ratifications
  • ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Not ratified
  • ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2001
  • UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Ratified 2003
Social Protections Coverage

General (at least one): 6.1% (2016)

Unemployed: No data

Pension: 17% (2016)

Vulnerable: 0.5% (2016)

Children: No data

Disabled: No data

Poor: 1.1% (2016)

Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.

Child Labour Rate, Aged 5-17 (Source: ILO)

Based on the international conventions and the International Conference of Labour Statisticians (ICLS) resolution, and consistent with the approach utilized in the ILO global child labour estimates exercise, the statistical definition of child labour used includes:

a) children aged 5-11 years in all forms of economic activity;
b) children aged 12-14 years in all forms of economic activity except permissible “light” work;
c) children and adolescents aged 15-17 years in hazardous work; and
d) children aged 5-14 years performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week.

In the Gambia, data on the percentage of child labourers is provided for 2000. The measure provided for 2000 does not cover the full definition of hazardous work.

The chart displays the percentage of children aged 5-17 in child labour by sex and region.

Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Hazardous child labour is the largest category of the worst forms of child labour with an estimated 73 million children aged 5-17 working in dangerous conditions in a wide range of sectors. Worldwide, the ILO estimates that some 22,000 children are killed at work every year.

In the Gambia, the latest estimates show that 2 percent of children aged 5-14 were engaged in hazardous work in 2008. The number is higher than in 2006, and has increased from 0.4 percent in 2000. All measures provided do not cover the full definition of hazardous work, but use the same reduced definition.

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 5-14 in hazardous labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2000, 2006 and 2008.

Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 15-17 (Source: ILO)

Children aged 15-17 are permitted to engage in economic activities by international conventions in most cases, except when the work is likely to harm the health, safety or morals of children (Article 3 (d) of ILO Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour, 1999 (No. 182)).

In the Gambia, the latest estimates show that 0.5 percent of children aged 15-17 were engaged in hazardous work in 2000. The measure provided for 2000 does not cover the full definition of hazardous work.

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 15-17 in hazardous labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2000.

Weekly Work Hours, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Children aged 5-11 are considered to be subjected to child labour when engaging in any form of economic activity. Children aged 12-14 are permitted to engage in “light” work that is not considered hazardous and falls below 14 hours per week.

According to the latest 2008 estimates, the average number of hours worked per week by children aged 5-14 in the Gambia was 15.4 hours. The average number of hours worked has increased from 6.9 hours in 2006.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours that children aged 5-14 work in economic activities by sex and region. The sample includes all children of this age group. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2000, 2006 and 2008.

Weekly Work Hours, Children Only in Economic Activity, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Children not attending school who are engaged in economic activity can be subjected to longer working hours.

In 2008, the latest year with available data, children in economic activity only, meaning they are not in school, worked an average of 20.9 hours per week. This number has increased since 2006, when the average number of hours worked by this age group was 6.6

The chart displays differences in the number of hours worked by children aged 5-14 who are not in school, by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2000, 2006 and 2008.

Weekly Hours Household Chores, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Researchers recognize that children involved in economic activities are not the only children working. The ICLS recommended definition of child labour includes performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week for children aged 5-14.

Children aged 5-14, on average, are found to work on household chores 9.1 hours per week according to the 2008 estimate. This estimate represents an increase in hours worked across all age groups since the last estimate in 2006, which found that children aged 5-14 in the Gambia worked an average of 7.5 hours per week.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours children aged 5-14 work on household chores by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2000, 2006 and 2008.

Measuring the incidence of forced labour is a much more recent endeavour and presents unique methodological challenges compared to the measurement of child labour.

No nationally representative data is available on forced labour prevalence in the Gambia.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on new guidelines presented by the International Labour Organization and adopted by the International Conference of Labour Statisticians.

The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.

No nationally representative data is available on human trafficking prevalence in the Gambia.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page to learn about measuring human trafficking prevalence, including information on collecting data through national referral mechanisms and producing prevalence statistics using Multiple Systems Estimation (MSE).

Case Data: International and Non-Governmental Organizations

Civil society organizations (CSOs) focused on human trafficking victim assistance can serve as crucial sources of data given their ability to reach a population that is notoriously difficult to sample.

Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (CTDC): The International Organization for Migration (IOM), Polaris and Liberty Asia have launched a global data repository on human trafficking, with data contributed by counter-trafficking partner organizations around the world. Not only does the CTDC serve as a central repository for this critical information, it also publishes normed and harmonized data from various organizations using a unified schema. This global dataset facilitates an unparalleled level of cross-border, trans-agency analysis and provides the counter-trafficking movement with a deeper understanding of this complex issue. Equipped with this information, decision makers will be empowered to create more targeted and effective intervention strategies.

Prosecution Data

UNODC compiles a global dataset on detected and prosecuted traffickers, which serves as the basis in their Global Report for country profiles. This information is beginning to paint a picture of trends over time, and case-specific information can assist investigators and prosecutors.

 

Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.

Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.

The chart displays information on human development in the Gambia between 1990 and 2015. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex.

The most recent year of the HDI, 2015, shows that average human development score in the Gambia is 0.452. This score indicates that human development is low.

HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)

Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.

As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:

“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”

The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in the Gambia over time.

Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in the availability of equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction towards achieving Target 8.7.

Vulnerable Employment (Source: UNDP)

There are reasons to believe that certain types of labour and labour arrangements are more likely to lead to labour exploitation. According to the ILO:

“Own-account workers and contributing family workers have a lower likelihood of having formal work arrangements, and are therefore more likely to lack elements associated with decent employment, such as adequate social security and a voice at work. The two statuses are summed to create a classification of ‘vulnerable employment’, while wage and salaried workers together with employers constitute ‘non-vulnerable employment’.”

In 2012, the only year for which data is provided, the proportion of workers in vulnerable employment as compared to those in secure employment was 60.5 percent.

Working Poverty Rate (Source: ILO)

Labour income tells us about a household’s vulnerability. As the ILO explains in Profits and Poverty:

“Poor households find it particularly difficult to deal with income shocks, especially when they push households below the food poverty line. In the presence of such shocks, men and women without social protection nets tend to borrow to smooth consumption, and to accept any job for themselves or their children, even under exploitative conditions.”

ILO indicators that measure poverty with respect to the labour force include working poverty rate, disaggregated by age groupings and sex, with temporal coverage spanning from 2000 to 2016. The chart displays linear trends in working poverty rate over time for all individuals over 15 years of age.

Labour Productivity (Source: ILO)

Labour productivity is an important economic indicator that is closely linked to economic growth, competitiveness, and living standards within an economy.” However, when increased labour output does not produce rising wages, this can point to increasing inequality. As indicated by a recent ILO report (2015), there is a “growing disconnect between wages and productivity growth, in both developed and emerging economies”. The lack of decent work available increases vulnerability to situations of labour exploitation.

Labour productivity represents the total volume of output (measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product, GDP) produced per unit of labour (measured in terms of the number of employed persons) during a given period.

Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.

Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Source: UNHCR)

Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants.

According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children.”

As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements.”

The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in the Gambia.

Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.

Official Definitions
Forced Labour

Constitution of the Gambia, 1996
20. Protection from slavery and forced labour

1. No person shall be held in slavery or servitude.
2. No person shall be required to perform forced labour.
3. For the purposes of this section, the expression “forced labour” does not include –

a. any labour required in consequence of a sentence or order of a court;
b. labour required of any person while he or she is lawfully detained that, though not required in
consequence of the sentence or order of the court, is reasonably necessary in the interests of hygiene
for the maintenance of the place in which he or she is detained;
c. any labour required of a member of a defence force in pursuance of his or her duties as such or, in the
case of a person who has conscientious objections to service as a member of any naval, military or air
force, any labour which that person is required by law to perform in place of such service;
d. any labour required during a period of public emergency or in the event of any other emergency or calamity which threatens the life or well-being of the community, to the extent that the requiring of such labour is reasonably justifiable in the circumstances of any situation arising or existing during that period or as a result of that other emergency or calamity, for the purposes of dealing with that
situation; or
e. any labour reasonably required as part of reasonable and normal communal or other civic obligations.

Trafficking in Persons Act, 2007
2. In this Act unless the context otherwise requires

“forced labour” means labour or services obtained or maintained through force, threat of force or other means of coercion or physical restraint

Child Labour

Constitution of the Gambia, 1996
29. Rights of children

1. Children shall have the right from birth to a name, the right to acquire a nationality and subject to legislation enacted in the best interests of children, to know and be cared for by their parents.
2. Children under the age of sixteen years shall be entitled to be protected from economic exploitation and shall not be employed in or required to perform work that is likely to be hazardous or to interfere with their education or be harmful to their health or physical, mental, spiritual, moral or social development.
3. A juvenile offender who is kept in lawful custody shall be kept separately from adult offenders.

Children’s Act, 2005
43.1. The minimum age for the engagement of a child in light work is sixteen years.
43.2. Light work means work, which is not likely to be harmful to the health or development of the child and does not affect the child’s attendance at school or the capacity of the child to benefit from school work.

Worst Forms of Child Labour

Children’s Act, 2005
2.1. In this act, unless context otherwise requires,

“trafficking” includes all acts and attempted acts involved in the recruitment and transportation, within or across the borders of the Gambia, purchase, sale, transfer, receipt, dealing in, trading in and harbouring of a child, which involves the use of deception, force, coercion or debt bondage, for the purpose of placing or holding the child, whether for pay or not, in domestic, sexual or reproductive servitude, exploitation or abuse or in exploitative labour or in slave-like conditions.

14.1. Except as provided in this section, no child is capable of entering into any contract.
14.2. All contracts, except contacts for necessaries, entered into by a child for repayment of money lent or for payment of goods supplied to the child, shall be voidable.
14.3. No action shall be brought against a child by a person after that child has attained the age of majority

a. to pay a debt contracted before majority or ratified on majority; or
b. for any promise of contract made before majority, whether or not there was new consideration for the promise or ratification after the child attained majority.

14.4. If a child, having contracted a loan which is void, agrees after majority to pay the loan, the agreement, in whatever form it may be, is void so far as it relates to money which payable in respect of the loan.
41.1. A person shall not engage a child in exploitative labour.
41.2. Labour is exploitative if it deprives the child of his or her health, education or development.
42.1. A person shall not engage a child in night work.
42.2. Night work means work between the hours of eight o’clock in the evening and six o’clock in the morning.
44.1. A person shall not engage a child in hazardous work.
44.2. Work is hazardous when it poses a danger to the health, safety or morals of a child.
44.3. Hazardous work includes

a. going to sea;
b. mining and quarrying;
c. carrying of heavy loads;
d. work in manufacturing industries where chemicals are produced or used;
e. work in places where machines are used; and
f. work in places such as bars, hotels and places of entertainment where a child may be exposed to immoral behaviour.

Trafficking in Persons Act, 2007
2. In this Act unless the context otherwise requires

“child” means a person under the age of eighteen years

Trafficking in Persons

Trafficking in Persons Act, 2007
28.2. Trafficking in persons means

a. the recruitment of, provision of, transportation of, transfer of, harbouring of, receipt of, or trading in, persons;
b. the use of threat, force or other forms of coercion, abduction, kidnapping, fraud, deception, the abuse of power, or a position of vulnerability; or
c. the giving or receipt of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person,
for the purpose of exploitation within or across national borders.

28.3. Trafficking in persons also includes

a. place for sale, bonded placement, temporary placement, placement for service, where exploitation by another person is the motivating factor; and
b. transportation of another person within and across an international border for the purpose of exploiting that person’s prostitution.

Slavery

Constitution of the Gambia, 1996
20. Protection from slavery and forced labour

1. No person shall be held in slavery or servitude.
2. No person shall be required to perform forced labour.
3. For the purposes of this section, the expression “forced labour” does not include –

a. any labour required in consequence of a sentence or order of a court;
b. labour required of any person while he or she is lawfully detained that, though not required in
consequence of the sentence or order of the court, is reasonably necessary in the interests of hygiene
for the maintenance of the place in which he or she is detained;
c. any labour required of a member of a defence force in pursuance of his or her duties as such or, in the
case of a person who has conscientious objections to service as a member of any naval, military or air
force, any labour which that person is required by law to perform in place of such service;
d. any labour required during a period of public emergency or in the event of any other emergency or calamity which threatens the life or well-being of the community, to the extent that the requiring of such labour is reasonably justifiable in the circumstances of any situation arising or existing during that period or as a result of that other emergency or calamity, for the purposes of dealing with that
situation; or
e. any labour reasonably required as part of reasonable and normal communal or other civic obligations.

Trafficking in Persons Act, 2007
2. In this Act unless the context otherwise requires

“practices similar to slavery” includes debt bondage, forced marriage and delivery of children for exploitation
“slavery” means the status or condition of a person over whom any or all the powers attaching to the right of ownership are exercised

Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the  perpetration of forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour. These actions should be considered in wider societal efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.

Programs and Agencies for Victim Support (Source: U.S. Department of Labor)

Policies for Assistance

Trafficking in Persons Act, 2007

45.1. The Agency, police and other authority, involved with the care and protection of victims of trafficking, shall ensure that

a. a victim of trafficking is not subjected to discriminatory treatment in practice on account of race, colour, gender, sexual orientation, age, language, religion, political or other opinion, cultural beliefs or practices, national, ethnic or social origin, property, birth or other status, including his or her status as a victim of trafficking or having worked in the sex industry;
b. a victim of trafficking has access to adequate health, legal, psychological and other social services during the period of temporary residence;
c. a victim of trafficking has access to the embassy or consulate of the country of which he or she is a citizen or, if there is no embassy or consulate, ensure that the person has access to the diplomatic representative of the State that takes charge of the country’s interest or any national or international authority whose task is to protect him or her;
d. a victim of trafficking is able to return home safely, if he or she so wishes and when he or she is able to do so;
e. a victim of trafficking is not denied temporary residence visa during the period the criminal, civil or other legal action is pending;
f. investigation, detection, gathering and interpretation of evidence are conducted in such a manner as to minimize intrusion into the personal history of a victim of trafficking;
g. the name of a victim of trafficking is not disclosed recklessly where the person is trafficked into the sex industry;
h. the use by a person of another person’s history of being trafficked to discriminate or cause harm to a victim of trafficking or his or her friends in any way whatsoever, particularly with regard to the right to freedom of movement, marriage or search for gainful employment, is not encouraged;
i. a victim of trafficking has access to Non-Governmental Organizations and other authorized institutions that provide rehabilitation services or counseling to victims of trafficking;
j. the safety, identity, privacy and integrity of a victim of trafficking and witnesses are protected and subordinated to the interests of the prosecution, including before, during and after all criminal, civil or other legal proceedings; and
k. a victim of trafficking is protected from intimidation, reprisals or threats of reprisals from traffickers and their associates, including reprisals from persons in position of authority.

45.2. The Department of State, the Department of Social Welfare, the Department of Immigration and other relevant Departments and agencies shall cooperate to ensure the smooth and voluntary repatriation of victims of trafficking.
49. Where the circumstances so justify, a victim of trafficking shall not be detained, imprisoned or prosecuted for offences related to being a victim of trafficking, including non-possession of valid travel documents or sue of a false travel or other documents.
51. The Department of Social Welfare shall provide

a. temporary basic material support for the care and protection of a rescued victim of trafficking; and
b. counseling services for the victim of trafficking to assist him or her with the rehabilitation and reintegration.

54.1. A person convicted of the offence of trafficking may be ordered by the court to pay compensation to the victim of the trafficking.
54.2. A person who, in pursuit of trafficking, causes injury to another person may be ordered to pay compensation to the injured person.
54.3. The payment of compensation may be in addition to any other punishment.
58. There is hereby established a fund to be known as the Fund for Victim of Trafficking, the management and control of which is subjected to the provisions of this Act, vested in the Agency.

Penalties
Penalties, Child Labour

Children’s Act, 2005
47. A person who contravenes the provisions of this Heading commits an offence and is liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding fifty thousand dalasis or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding three years or to both the fine and imprisonment.

Penalties, Human Trafficking

Trafficking in Persons Act, 2007
28.1. It is an offence for a person to engage in the trafficking in persons as defined in subsections 2 and 3.
28.4. A person who commits an offense under subsection 1 is liable on conviction to a fine of not less than fifty thousand dalasis and not exceeding five hundred thousand dalasis in addition to imprisonment for a minimum term of fifteen years and maximum term of life imprisonment.
28.5. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection 4, where the trafficking includes rape or death of a victim of trafficking, or the victim of trafficking is a child, the offender is liable to the fine specified in subsection 4 in addition to life imprisonment.
29.1. A person shall not act as an intermediary, for the purpose of trafficking.
29.2. A person who contravenes subsection 1 commits an offence and is liable on conviction to a fine of not less than fifty thousand dalasis and not exceeding five hundred thousand dalasis in addition to imprisonment for a minimum term of fifteen years and maximum term of life imprisonment.
29.3. For the purposes of this section, “an intermediary” is a person who

a. participates in, or is concerned with, any aspect of trafficking under this Act; and
b. may or may not be known to the family of the victim of trafficking.

29.4. A person is concerned with an aspect of trafficking under this Act, if he or she

a. sends to, takes to, consents to the taking to, or receives at, any place any other person for the purposes of trafficking; or
b. enters into an agreement, whether written or oral to subject any party to the agreement, or subject any other person, to trafficking.

30.1. A person who uses a victim of trafficking commits an offence and is liable on conviction to a fine of not less than fifty thousand dalasis and not exceeding five hundred thousand dalasis in addition to imprisonment for a minimum term of fifteen years and maximum term of life imprisonment.
30.2. In subsection 1, “use” includes employ and allow to work for.
38. In a prosecution for trafficking under this Act

a. the consent of a victim of trafficking to the intended or realized exploitation is irrelevant where any of the means specified in section 28.2 and 28.3 has been used;
b. the past sexual behavior of a victim of trafficking is irrelevant and inadmissible for the purpose of proving that he or she was engaged in other sexual behavior or to prove his or her sexual predisposition;
c. the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of a child for purpose of exploitation shall be regarded as trafficking in persons even if it does not involve any of the means specified in section 28.2. or 28.3.
d. the legal age of consent to sex, legal age of marriage or other discretionary age is not a defence to trafficking.

Programs and Agencies for Enforcement (Source: U.S. Department of Labor)

Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk of exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.

Social Protections: General (at Least One)
Social Protections (Source: ILO)

The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.

If a country does not appear on a chart, this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.

 

Social Protections: Pension
Social Protections: Vulnerable Groups
Social Protections: Children
Social Protections: Disabled

Delta 8.7 has received no Official Response to this dashboard from The Gambia. If you are a representative of The Gambia and wish to submit an Official Response, please contact us here.