Papan Pemuka Data

Georgia
Measurement
Measuring the Change

using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards.

Child labour data is only available for 2015. There is no change to report.

%
Best Target 8.7 Data:


The data visualization displays yearly child labour statistics based on nationally-representative household surveys. Detailed information on each data point is provided in the Measurement tab (above).

Data Availability
  • Child labour:ILO/National Statistics Office of Georgia
  • Forced labour: No nationally representative data
  • Human trafficking: No nationally representative data
Context
Human Development

Human Development Index Score: 0.769 (2015)

Mean School Years: 12.2 years (2015)

Labour Indicators

Vulnerable Employment: 59.8% (2013)

Working Poverty Rate: 3.8% (2016)

Government Efforts
Key Ratifications
  • ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Not ratified
  • ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2002
  • UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Ratified 2006
Social Protection Coverage

General (at least one): 28.8% (2016)

Unemployed: No data

Pension: 91.9% (2016)

Vulnerable: 12% (2016)

Children: No data

Disabled: 100% (2016)

Poor: 100% (2016)

Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.

Child Labour Rate, Aged 5-17 (Source: National Statistics Office of Georgia with the ILO)

Based on the international conventions and the International Conference of Labour Statisticians (ICLS) resolution, and consistent with the approach utilized in the ILO global child labour estimates exercise, the statistical definition of child labour used includes:

a) children aged 5-11 years in all forms of economic activity;
b) children aged 12-14 years in all forms of economic activity except permissible “light” work;
c) children and adolescents aged 15-17 years in hazardous work; and
d) children aged 5-14 years performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week.

According to the National Child Labour Survey, in Georgia in 2015, 4.2% of the total number of 5-17 year-old children living in Georgia are in child labour. This includes 15.6 thousand children occupied with hazardous work and 8.8 thousand children engaged in child labour other than hazardous work.

In Georgia, complete disaggregated data to compare groups on the percentage of child labourers is provided for 2015.

Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Hazardous child labour is the largest category of the worst forms of child labour with an estimated 73 million children aged 5-17 working in dangerous conditions in a wide range of sectors. Worldwide, the ILO estimates that some 22,000 children are killed at work every year.

In Georgia, the latest estimates show that 0.1 percent of children aged 5-14 were engaged in hazardous work in 2005. The measure provided for 2005 does not cover the full definition of hazardous work.

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 5-14 in hazardous labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups by sex is not provided for 2005.

Weekly Work Hours, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Children aged 5-11 are considered to be subjected to child labour when engaging in any form of economic activity. Children aged 12-14 are permitted to engage in “light” work that is not considered hazardous and falls below 14 hours per week.

According to the latest 2005 estimates, the average number of hours worked per week by children aged 5-14 in Georgia was 4.9 hours.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours that children aged 5-14 work in economic activities by sex and region. The sample includes all children of this age group. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2005.

Children Only in Economic Activity, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Children not attending school who are engaged in economic activity can be subjected to longer working hours.

In 2005, the latest year with available data, children in economic activity only, meaning they are not in school, worked an average of 5.3 hours per week.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours worked by children aged 5-14 who are not in school, by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2005.

Weekly Hours Household Chores, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Researchers recognize that children involved in economic activities are not the only children working. The ICLS recommended definition of child labour includes children aged 5-14 performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week.

Children aged 5-14, on average, are found to work on household chores  4.6 hours per week according to the 2005 estimate.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours children aged 5-14 work on household chores by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2005.

Categories of Hazardous Work (Source: National Statistics Office of Georgia with the ILO)

According to the ILO, hazardous work for children is work which—by its nature or the circumstances in which it is carried out—is likely to harm the health, safety or morals of children, or impact their school attendance. Criteria for classifying hazardous work are: work in designated hazardous occupations or industries, unhealthy environment and conditions, long hours of work, night work, manual handling of heavy loads, work with dangerous machinery, equipment and tools. The list of hazardous industries and occupations for children used in Georgia’s National Child Labour Survey 2015 was based on international standards.

In the visual, the main categories of hazardous work are displayed: unhealthy environment, operation of machinery, night work, and heavy loads. Shares are disaggregated by sex (categories not mutually exclusive). Night work was the most common category for children in hazardous work affecting 54.3% of boys and 74.8% of girls.

Measuring the incidence of forced labour is a much more recent endeavour and presents unique methodological challenges compared to the measurement of child labour.

No nationally representative data is available on forced labour prevalence in Georgia.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on new guidelines presented by the International Labour Organization and adopted by the International Conference of Labour Statisticians.

The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.

No nationally representative data is available on human trafficking prevalence in Georgia.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page to learn about measuring human trafficking prevalence, including information on collecting data through national referral mechanisms and producing prevalence statistics using Multiple Systems Estimation (MSE).

Case Data: International and Non-Governmental Organizations

Civil society organizations (CSOs) focused on human trafficking victim assistance can serve as crucial sources of data given their ability to reach a population that is notoriously difficult to sample.

Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (CTDC): The International Organization for Migration (IOM), Polaris and Liberty Asia have launched a global data repository on human trafficking, with data contributed by counter-trafficking partner organizations around the world. Not only does the CTDC serve as a central repository for this critical information, it also publishes normed and harmonized data from various organizations using a unified schema. This global dataset facilitates an unparalleled level of cross-border, trans-agency analysis and provides the counter-trafficking movement with a deeper understanding of this complex issue. Equipped with this information, decision makers will be empowered to create more targeted and effective intervention strategies.

Prosecution Data

UNODC compiles a global dataset on detected and prosecuted traffickers, which serves as the basis in their Global Report for country profiles. This information is beginning to paint a picture of trends over time, and case-specific information can assist investigators and prosecutors.

Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.

Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.

The chart displays information on human development in Georgia between 2000 and 2015. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex.

The most recent year of the HDI, 2015, shows that the average human development score in Georgia is 0.769. This score indicates that human development is high.

HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)

Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.

As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:

“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”

The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in Georgia over time.

Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction toward achieving Target 8.7.

HDI Vulnerable Employment (Source: UNDP)

There are reasons to believe that certain types of labour and labour arrangements are more likely to lead to labour exploitation. According to the ILO:

“Own-account workers and contributing family workers have a lower likelihood of having formal work arrangements, and are therefore more likely to lack elements associated with decent employment, such as adequate social security and a voice at work. The two statuses are summed to create a classification of ‘vulnerable employment’, while wage and salaried workers together with employers constitute ‘non-vulnerable employment’.”

Between 2000 and 2013, Georgia showed a decrease in the proportion of workers in vulnerable employment as compared to those in secure employment.

Working Poverty Rate (Source: ILO)

Labour income tells us about a household’s vulnerability. As the ILO explains in Profits and Poverty:

“Poor households find it particularly difficult to deal with income shocks, especially when they push households below the food poverty line. In the presence of such shocks, men and women without social protection nets tend to borrow to smooth consumption, and to accept any job for themselves or their children, even under exploitative conditions.”

ILO indicators that measure poverty with respect to the labour force include working poverty rate, disaggregated by sex, with temporal coverage spanning from 2000 to 2016. The chart displays linear trends in working poverty rate over time for all individuals over 15 years of age.

Labour Productivity (Source: ILO)

Labour productivity is an important economic indicator that is closely linked to economic growth, competitiveness, and living standards within an economy.” However, when increased labour output does not produce rising wages, this can point to increasing inequality. As indicated by a recent ILO report (2015), there is a “growing disconnect between wages and productivity growth, in both developed and emerging economies”. The lack of decent work available increases vulnerability to situations of labour exploitation.

Labour productivity represents the total volume of output (measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product, GDP) produced per unit of labour (measured in terms of the number of employed persons) during a given period.

Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.

Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Source: ILO)

Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants.

According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children.”

As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements.”

The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in Georgia.

Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.

Official Definitions
Forced Labour

Constitution of Georgia, 1995
Article 30.1. Labour shall be free.
Article 30.2. The state shall be bound to promote the development of free entrepreneurial activity and
competition. Monopolistic activity shall be prohibited except for the cases permitted by law. The rights of consumers shall be protected by law.
Article 30.3. On the basis of international agreements governing labour relations, the state shall protect the labour rights of the citizens of Georgia abroad.
Article 30.4. The protection of labour rights, fair remuneration of labour and safe, healthy working conditions and the working conditions of minors and women shall be determined by law.

Child Labour

Labour Code, 2010
Article 4. Minimum Employment Age and Origin of Capability

1. The legal ability for a natural person to work originates at the age of 16.
2. The legal ability to work for a minor under 16 begins with the consent of his/her legal representative or custody/guardianship authority, provided that the labour relations does not prejudice the minor’s interests, their moral, physical and mental development, and does not limit their right and opportunity to acquire mandatory primary and basic education. The consent of the legal representative or custody/guardianship authority shall remain in full force in connection with any further similar labour relations as well.
3. A labour agreement with a minor under 14 may be concluded solely in connection with any activity in sports, art, and cultural spheres, and for any advertising work.
4. It is prohibited to make a labour agreement with a minor relating to any performance of work in the business of gambling, nightclubs, preparation, transportation and sale of erotic and pornographic products and/or pharmaceutical and toxic substances.
5. It is prohibited to make a labour agreement with a minor or a pregnant or nursing mother for the performance of hard, harmful, or hazardous work.

Article 18. Limitation on Night Jobs
It is prohibited to employ a minor, a pregnant woman, or a woman who has recently given birth, a breastfeeding woman, a babysitter of a child under the age of three, or a handicapped person for a night job (from 22:00 p.m. to 6:00 a.m.) without their consent.

Human Trafficking

Law of Georgia on Combating Human Trafficking, 2006
Article 3. Definition of terms
For the purpose of this Law, the terms shall have the following meanings:

a. human trafficking- crime sunder Article 143.1 and 143.2 of the Criminal Code of Georgia. The consent of a victim of human trafficking to his/her deliberate exploitation shall be of no importance;
j. victim of human trafficking-a person who has suffered moral, physical, or property damage as a result of the crime of human trafficking, and who, as determined by the legislation of Georgia, has been recognized as a victim of human trafficking by the Standing Task Group established under the auspices of the Interagency Coordination Council for implementing measure against human trafficking;

Slavery

Law of Georgia on Combating Human Trafficking, 2006
Article 3. Definition of terms
For the purpose of this Law, the terms shall have the following meanings:

g. condition similar to slavery-a status or state of a person which is defined under the United NAtions Supplementary Convention of 7 September 1956 on the Abolishment of slavery, Slave Trade and the Institutions and Customs that are Similar to Slavery
h. exposure of a person to contemporary conditions of slavery-creating the conditions for a person when he/she works or provides services for a payment, inadequate payment or free of charge for the benefit of another person, and when this person has no ability to change these conditions due to his/her dependence on that person. Dependence on a person may be caused inter alia by:

h.a. depriving a person of his/her identification documents, controlling or intentional trespassing on the person;
h.b. restricting the right to free movement or controlling free movement;
h.c. restriction or controlling communication, including correspondence and phone contact with family members or other persons;
h.d. creating a coercive or intimidating environment;

International Commitments
National Strategies

National Human Rights Strategy (2014–2020)

“Identifies human rights priorities, including the protection of child rights. Led to the adoption of a National Action Plan on the Protection of Human Rights 2014–2016, which includes objectives to strengthen the provision of services to vulnerable children, such as those living and working on the streets, and requires implementation of ILO C. 138 and C. 182.”

Human Rights Action Plan (2018-2020)

National Action Plan on Trafficking in Persons (2017-2018)

“Supports development of policy and implementation of activities to address human trafficking. Includes plans to conduct research on commercial sexual exploitation and forced labor with a particular focus on the exploitation of minors.”

EU Association Agreement and Association Agenda (2014–2016)

“Outlines a framework for cooperation between Georgia and the EU. Requires Georgia to institute a number of initiatives to protect children’s rights, including addressing child poverty, providing adequate resources to the Public Defender to undertake work for children, and focusing on measures to protect children against all forms of violence.”

International Ratifications

ILO Forced Labour Convention, C029, Ratification 1993

ILO Abolition of Forced Labour Convention, C105, Ratification 1996

ILO Minimum Age Convention, C138, Ratification 1996

ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182, Ratification 2002

UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol), Ratification 2006

UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, Accession 1994

UN Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Accession 2010

UN Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, Accession 2005

Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the perpetration of modern slavery, forced labour, child labour and human trafficking. These actions should be considered in wider societal efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.

Programs and Agencies for Victim Support (Source: U.S. Department of Labor)

Policies for Assistance

Law of Georgia on Combating Human Trafficking, 2006
Article 9. The State Fund for Protection and Support of Victims and Persons Affected by Human Trafficking

Article 11. Status of victims of human trafficking

Article 12. Time for reflection

Article 14. Legal protection of victims and persons affected by human trafficking

Article 15. Discharging victims and persons affected by human trafficking from liability

Article 16. Right of victims and persons affected by human trafficking to reimbursement for damages caused by the crime of human trafficking

Article 19. Establishment of service agencies (asylums) for victims of human trafficking

Article 20. Status and repatriation of alien victims and persons affected by human trafficking

Article 21. Safe repatriation of citizens of Georgia and persons permanently residing in Georgia who are victims or persons affected by human trafficking

Chapter IV: Social and Legal Protection, Support and Rehabilitation of Minor Victims and Minors Affected by Human Trafficking

Penalties
Penalties, Human Trafficking

Criminal Code of Georgia, 2000
Article 172. Minor Trafficking
1. Buying of a minor or carrying out any other illegal deal in respect thereof for the purpose of adopting,
Shall be punishable by corrective labour for up to one year in length or by restriction of freedom for up to two years in length.
2. Purchase and sale of a minor or carrying out any illegal deal in respect thereof,
Shall be punishable by prison sentences ranging from two to five years in length.
3. The action referred to in Paragraph 2 of this Article which is perpetrated:

a. repeatedly;
b. against two or more minors;
c. by a group;
d. by using one’s official position;
e. in order to illegally take minor abroad;
f. in order to involve one in criminal or other anti-public activities;
g. in order to transplant or otherwise use a member, part of member or tissue of the victim,

Shall be punishable by imprisonment ranging from five to ten years in length.
4. The action referred to in Paragraph 2 or 3 of this Article that through negligence has claimed the life of a minor or has produced any other grave consequence,
shall be punishable by prison sentences ranging from eight to fifteen years in length.

Penalties, General

Criminal Code of Georgia, 2000
Article 143. Illegal Imprisonment
1. Illegal imprisonment,
shall be punishable by prison sentences ranging from four to eight years in length.
3. The same action:

a. by a group’s prior consent;
b. repeatedly;
c. against two or more persons;
d. by taking a victim abroad;
e. against a pregnant woman, a minor or the one being in a helpless condition;
f. against an official foreign representative or the one subject to international legal protection;
g. in order to cover up other crime or facilitate its perpetration;
h. under violence or threat of violence dangerous for life or health,
shall be punishable by imprisonment ranging from five to twelve years in length.

4. The action stipulated in Paragraphs 1 or 2 of this Article:

a. by an organized group;
b. that through negligence has claimed the life of the victim or has given rise to any other grave consequence,

shall be punishable by prison sentences ranging from eight to fifteen years in prison.
Note: If, within 72 hours upon the illegal imprisonment of a person, the offender voluntarily sets him/her free, the offender shall be released from criminal liability if his/her action does not bear signs of any other crime and there is no complaint on the part of the victim.

Article 253. Engaging Someone in Prostitution
1. Engaging someone in prostitution under violence, by threatening to use violence or destroy property, by blackmail or deception, shall be punishable by fine or by imprisonment for up to two years in length.
2. The same action committed by an organized group,
shall carry legal consequences of imprisonment for up to five years in length.

Article 168. Encroachment upon Freedom of Work
Encroachment upon freedom of work, i.e. interference under violence or threat of violence into any legitimate labour activity,
shall be punishable by fine or by corrective labour for up to one year in length or by imprisonment for the term not in excess of two years.

Article 169. Violation of Labour Legislation
Illegal dismissal from work, non-fulfillment of the court decision on the reinstatement to one’s work or other substantial violation of the labour legislation,
shall be punishable by fine or by imprisonment for up to two years in length or by deprivation of the right to pursue a particular activity for up to three years in length or without it.

Article 170. Breach of Labour Protection Rule
1. Breach of safety standards or other norms of labour protection by the person responsible for the observance of this norm that through negligence has caused less grave or grave health injury,
shall be punishable by fine or by corrective labour for up to one year in length or by imprisonment for the term not in excess of two years.
2. The same action that through negligence has caused the death of a person,
shall be punishable by prison sentences up to five years in length, by deprivation of the right to occupy a position or pursue a particular activity for the term up to three years or without it.
3. The action referred to in Paragraph 1 of this Article that through negligence has caused the death of two or more persons, shall be punishable by prison sentences for up to seven years in length, by deprivation of the right to occupy a position or pursue a particular activity for the term up to three years.

Article 150. Coercion
Illegal restriction of a person’s freedom of action, i.e. his/her physical or mental coercion to perform or not to perform a particular action the performance or abstinence therefrom is his/her right, or coercion to experience pressure upon oneself against one’s own will,
shall be punishable by fine or corrective labour for up to one year in length or by imprisonment similar in length.

Programs and Agencies for Enforcement (Source: U.S. Department of Labor)

Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk for exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.

Social Protection Coverage: General (at Least One)
Social Protection (Source: ILO)

The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.

If a country does not appear on a chart, this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.

Social Protection Coverage: Unemployed
Social Protection Coverage: Pension
Social Protection Coverage: Vulnerable Groups
Social Protection Coverage: Poor
Social Protection Coverage: Children
Social Protection Coverage: Disabled

Official Response Letter from the National Statistics Office of Georgia (GeoStat)

Official Response from GeoStat and the Ministry of Internally Displaced Persons from the Occupied Territories, Labour, Health and Social Affairs of Georgia

Based on the Official Response from GeoStat and the Ministry of Internally Displaced Persons from the Occupied Territories, Labour, Health and Social Affairs of Georgia, the Dashboard for Georgia has been revised as follows:

  • Suggested qualitative policy information has been added to the dashboard.
  • The child labour estimates from 2015 have been added to the data visualizations on the ‘Overview’ and ‘Measurement’ sections of the dashboard along with a link to the following methodology report: Georgia Child Labour Methods 2015 (GeoStat)