Data Dashboards

Ghana Dashboard
Measurement
Measuring the Change

using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards.

Child labour between 2005 and 2012 increased by 84%.

84%

2005- 2012

Best Target 8.7 Data: Child Labour Rate


The data visualization displays yearly child labour statistics based on a variety of nationally-representative household surveys. All years of data hold up to standards set by interagency collaboration between ILO, UNICEF and World Bank, though, in some cases are not perfectly comparable between years. Detailed information on each data point is provided in the Measurement tab (above).

Data Availability
  • Child labour: ILO/UNICEF Data
  • Forced labour: No Nationally Representative Data
  • Human trafficking: No Nationally Representative Data
Context
Human Development

Human Development Index: 0.579 (2015)

Mean School Years: 6.9 years (2015)

Labour Indicators

Vulnerable Employment: 76.8% (2010)

Working Poverty Rate: 8.8% (2016)

Government Efforts
Key Ratifications
  • ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Not ratified
  • ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2000
  • UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Accession 2012
Social Protection Coverage

General (at least one): 18.3% (2016)

Unemployed: 0% (2016)

Pension: 33.3% (2016)

Vulnerable: 3.3% (2016)

Children: 5.6% (2016)

Disabled: No data

Poor: No data

Child Labour Rate, Aged 5-17 (Source: ILO)

Based on the international conventions and the International Conference of Labour Statisticians (ICLS) resolution, and consistent with the approach utilized in the ILO global child labour estimates exercise, the statistical definition of child labour used includes:

a) children aged 5-11 years in all forms of economic activity
b) children aged 12-14 years in all forms of economic activity except permissible “light” work
c) children and adolescents aged 15-17 years in hazardous work
d) children aged 5-14 years performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week.

In Ghana, the percentage of child labourers has increased overall from 2005 to 2012. The measure provided for 2000 does not cover the full definition of hazardous work and cannot be compared directly with data from other sample years.

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 5-17 in child labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2000, 2005 and 2012.

Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Hazardous child labour is the largest category of the worst forms of child labour with an estimated 73 million children aged 5-17 working in dangerous conditions in a wide range of sectors. Worldwide, the ILO estimates that some 22,000 children are killed at work every year.

In Ghana, the latest estimates show that 2.4 percent of children aged 5-14 were engaged in hazardous work in 2012. The percentage is higher than the estimate of 1.8 percent of children aged 5-14 engaged in hazardous work in 2005. The measures provided for 2000, 2003 and 2006 do not cover the full definition of hazardous work and cannot be compared directly with data from other sample years.

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 5-14 in hazardous labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is not provided for 2003.

Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 15-17 (Source: ILO)

Children aged 15-17 are permitted to engage in economic activities by international conventions in most cases, except when the work is likely to harm the health, safety or morals of children (Article 3 (d) of ILO Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour, 1999 (No. 182)).

In Ghana, the latest estimates show that 8.2 percent of children aged 15-17 were engaged in hazardous work in 2012. The percentage is higher than the estimate of 4.4 percent of children aged 15-17 engaged in hazardous work in 2005. The measures provided for 2000 and 2003 do not cover the full definition of hazardous work and cannot be compared directly with data from other sample years.

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 15-17 in hazardous labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2000, 2003, 2005 and 2012.

Weekly Work Hours, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Children aged 5-11 are considered to be subjected to child labour when engaging in any form of economic activity. Children aged 12-14 are permitted to engage in “light” work that is not considered hazardous and falls below 14 hours per week.

According to the latest 2012 estimates, the average number of hours worked per week by children aged 5-14 in Ghana was 17.7 hours. The average number of hours worked has increased from 14.7 hours in 2006.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours children aged 5-14 worked by sex and region. The sample includes all children of this age group. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2005, 2006 and 2012.

Weekly Work Hours, Children Only in Economic Activity, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Children not attending school who are engaged in economic activity can be subjected to longer working hours.

In 2012, the latest year with available data, children in economic activity only, meaning they are not in school, worked an average of 34.4 hours per week. This number has increased since 2006, when the average number of hours worked by this age group was 19.6.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours worked by children aged 5-14 who are not in school, by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2005, 2006 and 2012.

Weekly Hours Household Chores, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Researchers recognize that children involved in economic activities are not the only children working. The ICLS recommended definition of child labour includes performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week for children aged 5-14.

Children aged 5-14, on average, are found to work on household chores 7.7 hours per week according to the 2012 estimate. This estimate represents no change in hours worked across all age groups since the last estimate in 2006.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours children aged 5-14 work on household chores by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2005, 2006 and 2012.

Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: Total (Source: ILO)

Identifying the sectors within which the most child labour exists can help policy actors and practitioners target efforts toward those industries.

The latest data available on child labour by sector for Ghana is from 2012. By the 2012 estimate, the Agriculture sector had the most child labourers, followed by the Other Services sector and the Construction, Mining and Other Industrial sector.

The chart to the right displays child labour prevalence in each sector for all children. The charts below show the differences in child labour by sector with comparisons between groups by sex and region.

Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: Sex (Source: ILO)
Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: Area (Source: ILO)

Measuring the incidence of forced labour is a much more recent endeavour and presents unique methodological challenges compared to the measurement of child labour.

No nationally representative data is available on forced labour prevalence in Ghana.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on new guidelines presented by the International Labour Organization and adopted by the International Conference of Labour Statisticians.

The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.

No nationally representative data is available on human trafficking prevalence in Ghana.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page to learn about measuring human trafficking prevalence, including information on collecting data through national referral mechanisms and producing prevalence statistics using Multiple Systems Estimation (MSE).

Case Data: International and Non-Governmental Organizations

Civil society organizations (CSOs) focused on human trafficking victim assistance can serve as crucial sources of data through their ability to reach a population that is notoriously difficult to sample.

Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (CTDC): The International Organization for Migration (IOM), Polaris and Liberty Asia have launched a global data repository on human trafficking, with data contributed by counter-trafficking partner organizations around the world. Not only does the CTDC serve as a central repository for this critical information, it also publishes normed and harmonized data from various organizations using a unified schema. This global dataset facilitates an unparalleled level of cross-border, trans-agency analysis and provides the counter-trafficking movement with a deeper understanding of this complex issue. Equipped with this information, decision makers will be empowered to create more targeted and effective intervention strategies.

Prosecution Data

UNODC compiles a global dataset on detected and prosecuted traffickers, which serves as the basis in their Global Report for country profiles. This information is beginning to paint a picture of trends over time, and case-specific information can assist investigators and prosecutors.

Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.

Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life, (2) access to knowledge and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.

The chart displays information on human development in Ghana between 1990 and 2015. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex.

The most recent year of the HDI, 2015, shows that the average human development score in Ghana is 0.579. This score indicates medium human development.

 

HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)

Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors involved with the propensity of both children and adults toward exploitive labour conditions.

As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:

“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”

The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in Ghana over time.

Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction toward achieving Target 8.7.

HDI Vulnerable Employment (Source: UNDP)

There are reasons to believe that certain types of labour and labour arrangements are more likely to lead to labour exploitation. According to the ILO:

“Own-account workers and contributing family workers have a lower likelihood of having formal work arrangements, and are therefore more likely to lack elements associated with decent employment, such as adequate social security and a voice at work. The two statuses are summed to create a classification of ‘vulnerable employment’, while wage and salaried workers together with employers constitute ‘non-vulnerable employment’.”

In 2010, the only year for which data is provided, the proportion of workers in vulnerable employment as compared to those in secure employment was 76.8 percent.

Working Poverty Rate (Source: ILO)

Labour income tells us about a household’s vulnerability. As the ILO explains in Profits and Poverty:

“Poor households find it particularly difficult to deal with income shocks, especially when they push households below the food poverty line. In the presence of such shocks, men and women without social protection nets tend to borrow to smooth consumption, and to accept any job for themselves or their children, even under exploitative conditions.”

ILO indicators that measure poverty with respect to the labour force include working poverty rate, disaggregated by sex, with temporal coverage spanning from 2000 to 2016. The chart displays linear trends in working poverty rate over time for all individuals over 15 years of age.

Labour Productivity (Source: ILO)

Labour productivity is an important economic indicator that is closely linked to economic growth, competitiveness, and living standards within an economy.”  However, when increased labour output does not produce rising wages this can point to increasing inequality. As indicated by a recent ILO report (2015), there is a “growing disconnect between wages and productivity growth, in both developed and emerging economies”. The lack of decent work available increases the vulnerability of individuals to situations of labour exploitation.

Labour productivity represents the total volume of output (measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product, GDP) produced per unit of labour (measured in terms of the number of employed persons) during a given time reference period.

Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.

Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Source: UNHCR)

Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from modern slavery, human trafficking, forced labour and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants.

According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children. “

As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements.”

The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in Ghana.

Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.

Official Definitions
Forced Labour

Labour Act, 2003 (Act No. 651) Part XIV 

117. In this Part “forced labour” means work or service that is exacted from a person under threat of a penalty and for which that person has not offered himself or herself voluntarily, but does not include

a. labour required as a result of a sentence or order of a court;
b. labour required of a member of a disciplined force or service as his or her duties;
c. labour required during a period when the country is at war or in the event of an emergency or calamity that threatens life and wellbeing of the community, to the extent that the requirement of the labour is reasonably justifiable in circumstances of a situation arising or existing during that period for the purpose of dealing with the situation; or
d. labour reasonably required as part of normal communal or other civic obligations.

Child Labour

Children’s Act, 1998 (No. 560) Part V- Employment of Children Sub-Part I – Child Labour

89. The minimum age for admission of a child to employment shall be fifteen years.

90.1. The minimum age for the engagement of a child in light work shall be
thirteen years.

90.2. Light work constitutes work which is not likely to be harmful to the health or development of the child and does not affect the child’s attendance at school or the capacity of the child to benefit from school work.

Worst Forms of Child Labour

Children’s Act, 1998 (No. 560) Part V- Employment of Children Sub-Part I – Child Labour

91.1.The minimum age for the engagement of a person in hazardous work is eighteen years.

91.2. Work is hazardous when it poses a danger to the health, safety or morals of a person.

91.3. Hazardous work includes –

a. going to sea;
b. mining and quarrying;
c. porterage of heavy loads;
d. manufacturing industries where chemicals are produced or used;
e. work in places where machines are used; and
f. work in places such as bars, hotels and places of entertainment where a person may be exposed to immoral behavior.

87.1. No person shall engage a child in exploitative labour.

87.2. Labour is exploitative of a child if it deprives the child of its health, education or development.

Labour Act, 2003 (Act No. 651) Part XIV 

58.1. A young person shall not be engaged in any type of employment or work likely to expose the person to physical or moral hazard.

58.2. the Minister may, by legislative instrument, determine the type of employment that is likely to expose a young person to physical or moral hazard.

58.3. An employer shall not employ a young person in an underground mine work.

Labour Regulations (L.I. 1833), 2007 

7.1. An employer shall not engage a young person in work which involves

a. manual lifting of loads the weight of which exceeds twenty-five kilograms
b. work on scaffold and other structures at a height exceeding two and a half metres,
c. the use of substances and materials that emit

i. radiation, or
ii. poisonous gases or fumes,

d. the use of dangerous chemicals,
e. excessive noise,
f. the felling of timber,
g. night work exceeding eight continuous hours, or
h. other institutions considered by the Chief Labour Officer as hazardous.

2. An employer shall not engage a young person

a. for the production and screening of pornographic materials, or
n. to work at areas in a hotel which are likely to corrupt the moral development of that young person.

Constitution of the Republic of Ghana, 1992 

28. Children’s Rights

1. Parliament shall enact such laws as are necessary to ensure that—

d. children and young persons receive special protection against exposure to physical and moral hazards; and

2. Every child has the right to be protected from engaging in work that constitutes a threat to his health, education or development.

5. For the purposes of this article, “child” means a person below the age of eighteen years.

Human Trafficking

Human Trafficking Act, 2005 (Act 694) amend. Human Trafficking Amendment Act, 2009

1.1. Human trafficking means the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring, trading or receipt of persons within and across national borders by

a. the use of threats, force or other forms of coercion, abduction, fraud, deception, the abuse of power or exploitation of vulnerability, or
b. giving or receiving payments and benefits to achieve consent.

1.2. Exploitation shall include at the minimum, induced prostitution and other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, salary or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs.

1.3. Placement for sale, bonded placement, temporary placement, placement as service where exploitation by someone else is the motivating factor shall also constitute trafficking.

1.4. Where children are trafficked, the consent of the child, parents or guardian of the child cannot be used as a defence in prosecution under this Act, regardless of whether or not there is evidence of abuse of power, fraud or deception on the part of the trafficker or whether the vulnerability of the child was taken advantage of.

Labour Regulations (L.I. 1833), 2007 

21.1. An employer shall not employ a person under the age of eighteen years as a worker for work to be performed wholly or in part outside the country where the performance of the work is likely to cause the withdrawal of the person from the community or area in which that person normally lives.

21.2. An employer shall not employ a trafficked person or a victim of trafficking as defined by the Human Trafficking Act, 2005 (Act 694).

22.1. Human trafficking mean the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring, trading or receipt of persons within and across national borders by

a. the use of threats, force or other forms of coercion, abduction, fraud, deception, the abuse of power or exploitation of vulnerability,
b. giving or receiving payments and benefits to achieve consent.

22.2. Exploitation includes at the minimum, induced prostitution and other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs.

22.3. Placement of sale, bonded placement, temporary placement, placement as service where exploitation by someone else is the motivating factor constitutes trafficking.

23. Where children are trafficked, the consent of the child, parent or guardian of the child cannot be used as a defence in prosecution under Act 694 regardless of whether or not there is evidence of abuse of power, fraud or deception on the part of the trafficker or whether the vulnerability of the child was taken advantage of.

Slavery

Constitution of the Republic of Ghana, 1992

16. Protection from Slavery and forced Labour

1. No person shall be held in slavery or servitude.
2. No person shall be required to perform forced labour.
3. For the purposes of this article, “forced labour” does not include—

a. any labour required as a result of a sentence or order of a court; or
b. any labour required of a member of a disciplined force or service as his duties or, in the case of a person who has conscientious objections to a service as a member of the Armed Forces of Ghana, any labour which that person is required by law to perform in place of such service; or
c. any labour required during any period when Ghana is at war or in the event of an emergency or calamity that threatens the life and well-being of the community, to the extent that the requirement of such labour is reasonably justifiable in the circumstances of any situation arising or existing during that period for the purposes of dealing with the situation; or
d. any labour reasonably, required as part of normal communal or other civic obligations.

Bonded placement

Human Trafficking Act, 2005 (Act 694) amend. Human Trafficking Amendment Act, 2009

42. “bonded placement” includes placement by a trafficker of a person for exploitative purposes with a promise of subsequent payment to the trafficker for the placement of the trafficked person by the user of the trafficked person and the placement of a trafficked person to offset a debt already owed by the trafficker or another person;

Servitude

Human Trafficking Act, 2005 (Act 694) amend. Human Trafficking Amendment Act, 2009 

42. “servitude” means involuntary bondage;

Customary Servitude

Criminal Code, 1960 amend. Criminal Code (Amendment) Act, 1998

Section 314A Prohibition of Customary Servitude

  1. Whoever-

a. sends to or receives at any place any person; or
b. participates in or is concerned in any ritual or customary activity in respect of any person with the purpose of subjecting that person to any form of ritual or customary servitude or any form of labour related to a customary ritual commits an offence and shall be liable on conviction to imprisonment for a term not less than three years.

2. In this section “to be concerned in” means—

a. to send to, take to, consent to the taking to or receive at any place any person for the performance of the customary ritual; or
b. to enter into any agreement whether written or oral to subject any of the parties to the agreement or any other person to the performance of the customary ritual; or
c. to be present at any activity connected with or related to the performance of the customary ritual.

Governments take action that assists victims and prevents or ends perpetration of modern slavery, forced labour, child labour and human trafficking. These actions should be considered in efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.

Programs and Agencies for Victim Support (Source: U.S. Department of Labor)

Policies for Assistance

Human Trafficking Act, 2005 (Act 694)

15.1. The Ministry shall provide temporary basic material support for the care and protection of a rescued victim of trafficking.

15.2. Despite subsection (1), a District Assembly shall be resourced from the Fund to protect the welfare of a trafficked person within its area of authority in consultation with the relevant government agencies and Organisations in the District.

16. The Ministry shall ensure the provision of counseling services for the victim of trafficking to assist with the rehabilitation and reintegration of a trafficked
person.

18.1. The Ministry shall assist to provide a rescued victim of trafficking with employable skills and employment opportunities.

18.2. The Ministry shall assist the victim with start up capital to ensure the survival of the trafficked person.

18.3. Trafficked victims may receive financial assistance from the Fund

18.4. The best interest of the child shall be paramount in assistance given to the rescue, rehabilitation and re-integration of a trafficked child.

19.1. A person convicted of the offence of trafficking shall be ordered by the court to pay compensation to the victim of the trafficking.

19.2. A person who causes injury to a person in pursuit of trafficking shall be ordered by the court to pay compensation to the injured person.

19.3. The payment of compensation shall be in addition to any other punishment.

20. There is established by this Act a Human Trafficking Fund.

21. The moneys for the Fund include

a. voluntary contributions to the Fund from individuals, Organisations and the private sector,
b. the amount of money that Parliament may approve for payment into the Fund,
c. grants from bilateral and multilateral sources,
d. proceeds from the confiscation of property connected with trafficking, and
e. money from any other source approved by the Minister responsible for Finance.

22. The moneys of the Fund shall be applied as follows:

a. towards the basic material support of victims of trafficking;
b. for the skills training of victims of trafficking;
c. for tracing the families of victims of trafficking;
d. for any matter connected with the rescue, rehabilitation and reintegration of victims of trafficking in their best interest;
e. towards the construction of reception shelters for trafficked persons in the districts; and
f. for training and capacity building to persons connected with rescue, rehabilitation and reintegration.

34.1. Despite the provisions in section 21 of the Immigration Act, 2000 (Act 573), on the removal of an illegal immigrant, a trafficked person who is in this country unlawfully, may remain in this country throughout the period of a legal investigation and prosecution of a trafficker and the Management Board shall make arrangements for the repatriation of the trafficked person upon completion of the legal process.

34.2. If it is in the best interest of the trafficked person, the trafficked person may be allowed to remain in this country after the legal process with the approval of the Minister of Interior and the person shall stay in a shelter provided by the Ministry where the person shall receive basic material support until resettled in this country.

34.3. A trafficked person may be repatriated to the country of origin of the trafficked person upon the conviction of a trafficker and shall stay in a reception centre provided by the Ministry where basic material support shall be provided until the repatriation.

Penalties
Penalties, Child Labour

Children’s Act, 1998 (No. 560) Part V- Employment of Children Sub-Part I – Child Labour

94.1. Any person who contravenes the provisions of this Subpart commits an offence and is liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding ¢10 million or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years or to both.

94.2. Notwithstanding subsection 94.1. of this section, any person who contravenes section 93.1. commits an offence and is liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding ¢500,000.00.

Penalties, Human Trafficking

Human Trafficking Act, 2005 (Act 694)

2.1. A person shall not traffic another person within the meaning of section 1 or act as an intermediary for the trafficking of a person.

2.2. A person who contravenes subsection (1) commits an offence and is liable on summary conviction to imprisonment for a term of not less than five years.

2.3. For purposes of this section, an intermediary is someone who participates in or is concerned with any aspect of trafficking under this Act who may or may not be known to the family of the trafficked person.

2.4 To be concerned with an aspect of trafficking in this Act means

a. to send to, take to, consent to the taking to or to receive at any place any person for the purposes of trafficking, or
b. to enter into an agreement whether written or oral, to subject any party to the agreement or subject any other person to trafficking.

3.1. A person who provides another person for purposes of trafficking commits an offence even where the person is a parent.

3.2. A person who contravenes subsection (1) commits an offence and is liable on summary conviction to a term of imprisonment of not less than five years.

4. A person who uses a trafficked person commits an offence and is liable on summary conviction to a term of imprisonment of not less than five years.

40.1. Where there is evidence that movable or immovable property has been acquired by a trafficker as a result of gains from human trafficking activity, the court shall order the confiscation of the property.

40.2. The court may make an order that it considers appropriate in connection with the confiscated property and may direct that the proceeds of the confiscated property be paid into the Fund.

Labour Regulations (L.I. 1833), 2007

24.1. A person shall not traffic another person within the meaning of section 1 of Act 694 as an intermediary for the trafficking of a person.

24.2. A person who contravenes subregulation (1) commits an offence and is liable on summary conviction to a term of imprisonment of not less than five years.

24.3. For purposes of this regulation, an intermediary is someone who participates in or is concerned with any aspect of trafficking under Act 649 who may or may not be known to the family of the trafficked person.

24.4 To be concerned with an aspect of trafficking in this Act means

a. to send to, take to, consent to the taking to or to receive at any place any person for the purposes of trafficking, or
b. to enter into an agreement whether written or oral, to subject any party to the agreement or subject any other person to trafficking.

25.1. A person who gives out or receives another person for purposes of trafficking commits an offence even where the person is a parent

25.2. A person who contravenes sub-regulation (1) commits an offence and is liable on summary conviction to a term of imprisonment of not more than five years.

26. A person who uses the services of a victim of trafficking commits an offence and is liable on summary conviction to a term of imprisonment of not more than five years.

Penalties, General

Criminal Code, 1960 amend. Criminal Code (Amendment) Act, 1998

Section 314A Prohibition of Customary Servitude

  1. Whoever-

a. sends to or receives at any place any person; or
b. participates in or is concerned in any ritual or customary activity in respect of any person with the purpose of subjecting that person to any form of ritual or customary servitude or any form of labour related to a customary ritual commits an offence and shall be liable on conviction to imprisonment for a term not less than three years.

2. In this section “to be concerned in” means—

a. to send to, take to, consent to the taking to or receive at any place any person for the performance of the customary ritual; or
b. to enter into any agreement whether written or oral to subject any of the parties to the agreement or any other person to the performance of the customary ritual; or
c. to be present at any activity connected with or related to the performance of the customary ritual.

Criminal Code, 1960

Section 314—Slave-Dealing.1. Whoever—

a. deals or trades in, buys, sells, barters, transfers, or takes any slave; or
b. deals or trades in, buys, sells, barters, transfers, or takes any person in order that that person may be held or treated as a slave; or
c. places or receives any person in servitude as a pledge or security for debt, whether then due and owing or to be incurred or contingent, whether under the name of a pawn or by whatever other name that person may be called; or
d. conveys any person, or induces any person to come, to Ghana in order that such person may be dealt or traded in, bought, sold, bartered, or become a slave, or be placed in servitude as a pledge or security for debt; or
e. conveys or sends any person, or induces any person to go out of Ghana in order that that person may be dealt or traded in, bought, sold, bartered, transferred, or become a slave, or be placed in servitude as a pledge or security for debt; or
f. enters into any contract or agreement with or without consideration for doing any of the acts or accomplishing any of the aforementioned purposes; or
g. by any species of coercion or restraint otherwise than in accordance with the Labour Decree, compels or attempts to compel the service of any person, shall be guilty of second degree felony.

314.2. This section does not apply to any such coercion as may lawfully be exercised by virtue of contracts of service between free persons, or by virtue of the rights of parents and other rights, not being contrary to law, arising out of the family relations customarily used and observed in Ghana.

Programs and Agencies for Enforcement (Source: U.S. Department of Labor)

Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk for exploitation, especially when coverage extends to the most vulnerable groups.

Social Protections: General (at Least One)
Social Protections

The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. And measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.

If a country does not appear on a chart this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.

Social Protections: Pension
Social Protections: Vulnerable Groups
Social Protections: Children
Social Protections: Disabled

Delta 8.7 has received no Official Response to this dashboard from Ghana. If you are a representative of Ghana and wish to submit an Official Response, please contact us here.