Measuring the Change
using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards.
Due to lack of nationally representative child labour data, there is no change to report.
Best Target 8.7 Data: Human Trafficking
The data visualization displays the number of identified victims of human trafficking per year in Greece. Detailed information is provided in the Measurement tab (above).
- Child labour: No ILO/UNICEF data
- Human trafficking: Case data available
Human Development Index Score: 0.872 (2018)
Mean School Years: 10.5 years (2018)
Vulnerable Employment: 26.7% (2018)
Working Poverty Rate: No data available
International Aid Commitments
Total Development Assistance to Anti-Slavery (2000-2013):
- ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Not Ratified
- ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2001
- UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Ratified 2011
Social Protection Coverage
General (at least one): No data
Unemployed: 21.0% (2014)
Pension: 77.4% (2010)
Vulnerable: No data
Children: No data
Disabled: No data
Poor: No data
Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.
The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.
Identified Victims of Human Trafficking (Source: GRETA)
According to the European Commission, Greece is a transit and destination country for victims, mainly trafficked for sexual exploitation, forced labor and forced begging. As Greece is one of the entry points for migration flows into Europe, potential victims of trafficking may be identified amongst the undocumented migrants entering the country. However, Greek citizens have also been identified as victims of trafficking.
On a national level there have been intensive efforts to combat trafficking through utilizing a comprehensive approach that includes legislative reforms, inter-agency coordination, protection of victims, public awareness campaigns, cooperation with stakeholders from civil society and international organizations and front-line professionals training programs.
The graph on the right shows the number of identified victims of human trafficking per year in Greece, as reported by Greek authorities to the Group of Experts on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings (GRETA).
Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.
Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.
The chart displays information on human development in Greece between 1990 and 2018. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex.
The most recent year of the HDI, 2018, shows that the average human development score in Greece is 0.872. This score indicates that human development is very high.
HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)
Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.
As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:
“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”
The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in Greece over time.
Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in the availability of equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction towards achieving Target 8.7.
HDI Vulnerable Employment (Source: UNDP)
There are reasons to believe that certain types of labour and labour arrangements are more likely to lead to labour exploitation. According to the ILO:
“Own-account workers and contributing family workers have a lower likelihood of having formal work arrangements, and are therefore more likely to lack elements associated with decent employment, such as adequate social security and a voice at work. The two statuses are summed to create a classification of ‘vulnerable employment’, while wage and salaried workers together with employers constitute ‘non-vulnerable employment’.”
Between 1991 and 2018, Greece showed a decrease in the proportion of workers in vulnerable employment as compared to those in secure employment.
Labour Productivity (Source: ILO)
“Labour productivity is an important economic indicator that is closely linked to economic growth, competitiveness, and living standards within an economy.” However, when increased labour output does not produce rising wages, this can point to increasing inequality. As indicated by a recent ILO report (2015), there is a “growing disconnect between wages and productivity growth, in both developed and emerging economies”. The lack of decent work available increases vulnerability to situations of labour exploitation.
Labour productivity represents the total volume of output (measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product, GDP) produced per unit of labour (measured in terms of the number of employed persons) during a given period.
Rates of Non-fatal Occupational Injuries (Source: ILO)
Occupational injury and fatality data can also be crucial in prevention and response efforts.
“Data on occupational injuries are essential for planning preventive measures. For instance, workers in occupations and activities of highest risk can be targeted more effectively for inspection visits, development of regulations and procedures, and also for safety campaigns.”
There are serious gaps in existing data coverage, particularly among groups that may be highly vulnerable to labour exploitation. For example, few countries provide information on injuries disaggregated between migrant and non-migrant workers.
Rates of Fatal Occupational Injuries (Source: ILO)
Data on occupational health and safety may reveal conditions of exploitation, even if exploitation may lead to under-reporting of workplace injuries and safety breaches. At present, the ILO collects data on occupational injuries, both fatal and non-fatal, disaggregating by sex and migrant status.
Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.
Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Source: UNHCR)
Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants.
According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children. “
As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements, as recognized by Member States in the New York declaration for refugees and migrants of September 2016.”
The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in Greece.
Underdevelopment influences and is influenced by Target 8.7 forms of exploitation. This suggests an important role for development assistance and programming in addressing these issues.
Yearly ODA Commitments to Anti-Slavery (Data Source: UNU-CPR)
A recent report released by UNU-CPR attempts to size ODA contributions that focus on tackling SDG 8.7 forms of exploitation. Greece committed 13,542,769 USD between 2000 and 2013 on anti-slavery programming. Annual commitments fluctuate, though it is important to note that commitments at any point in time may be dispersed over the course of several years. The chart also depicts the percentage of Greece’s GNI contributed to ODA. It should also be noted that this count does not include non-ODA assistance, domestic expenditure, or the growing flows of charitable giving directed at these concerns. The data source provides information up to 2013.
More current data may show a significant increase in spending on this programming, especially after the adoption of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development in 2015 and the Call to Action in 2017.
Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.
“Article 22.4. Any form of compulsory work is prohibited.
Special laws shall determine the requisition of personal services in case of war or mobilization or to face defence needs of the country or urgent social emergencies resulting from disasters or liable to endanger public health, as well as the contribution of personal work to local government agencies to satisfy local needs.”
Worst Forms of Child Labour
“Abstract: Pursuant to article 1, the provisions of the present Law aim to harmonize Hellenic legislation with the European Parliament and Council Directive 2011/36/EU of 5 April 2011 on preventing and combating trafficking in human beings and protecting its victims, and replacing Council Framework Decision 2002/629/JHA.
Article 2 brings about amendments to the Penal Code. In particular:
– Paragraph 1 replaces 8th phrase of article 8 of the Penal Code as follows: “”the offence of slave trade, trafficking in human beings, procuration to prostitution, sexual abuse to minors against payment, executing voyages for the purposes of sexual intercourse or other sexual abuses against minors or child pornography””.
– Paragraph 3 amends paragraph 1 of article 323A of the Penal Code on the exploitation of persons for the purposes of organs removal, forced labor or services and begging.
– Paragraph 4 replaces paragraph 4 of previous article regarding the penalties.
– Paragraph 5 amends paragraph 1 of article 351 of the Penal Code concerning the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or reception of persons, including the exchange or transfer of control over those persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of sexual exploitation.
– Paragraph 6 replaces paragraph 4 of previous article regarding the penalties.
Article 3 defines the liability of legal entities.
Article 4 introduces amendments to the Criminal Procedure Code and to Law N° 2225/1994 on the protection of freedom of response and communication.
Article 5 brings about amendments to Law N° 3811/2009 on issues concerning the indemnity to victims.”
National Action Plans, National Strategies
Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the perpetration of forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour. These actions should be considered in wider societal efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.
Programs and Agencies for Victims Support
Policies for Assistance
Policies for assistance, general
Policies for Assistance, Human Trafficking
“””ART II: RESIDENCE PERMITS GRANTED WITHIN THE FRAMEWORK OF THE EUROPEAN UNION LAW AND OTHER IMPLEMENTING PROVISIONS
SECTION 1: ADMISSION OF THIRD-COUNTRY NATIONALS FOR THE PURPOSES OF STUDIES OR VOLUNTARY SERVICE AND OTHER PROVISIONS PURSUANT TO THE DIRECTIVE 2004/114/EC
CHAPTER A: General Provisions
CHAPTER B: Other Provisions
SECTION 2: ADMISSION OF THIRD-COUNTRY NATIONALS WHO ARE VICTIMS OF TRAFFICKING IN HUMAN BEINGS OR WHO HAVE BEEN THE SUBJECT OF AN ACTION TO FACILITATE ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION, PURSUANT TO THE DIRECTIVE 2004/81/EC”””
Penalites, Child Labour
Penalties, Human Trafficking
1.ii. Take steps to measure, monitor and share data on prevalence and response to all such forms of exploitation, as appropriate to national circumstances;
Programs and Agencies for Enforcement
Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk of exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.
Social Protection Coverage: General (at Least One)
Social Protection (Source: ILO)
The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.
If a country does not appear on a chart, this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.