Measuring the Change
using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards.
Due to lack of nationally representative data, there is no change to report.
Best Target 8.7 Data: Child Labour Rate
No data available
- Child labour: No ILO/UNICEF data
- Forced labour: No nationally representative data
- Human trafficking: No nationally representative data
Human Development Index Score: 0.763 (2018)
Mean School Years: 8.8 years (2018)
Vulnerable Employment: No data available
Working Poverty Rate: No data available
- ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Not Ratified
- ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2003
- UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Accession 2004
Social Protection Coverage
General (at least one): No data
Unemployed: No data
Pension: 34.0% (2010)
Vulnerable: No data
Children: No data
Disabled: No data
Poor: No data
Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.
Measuring the incidence of forced labour is a much more recent endeavour and presents unique methodological challenges compared to the measurement of child labour.
No nationally representative data is available on forced labour prevalence in Grenada.
Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on new guidelines presented by the International Labour Organization and adopted by the International Conference of Labour Statisticians.
The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.
No nationally representative data is available on human trafficking prevalence in Grenada.
Visit the How to Measure the Change page to learn about measuring human trafficking prevalence, including information on collecting data through national referral mechanisms and producing prevalence statistics using Multiple Systems Estimation (MSE).
Case Data: International and Non-Governmental Organizations
Civil society organizations (CSOs) focused on human trafficking victim assistance can serve as crucial sources of data given their ability to reach a population that is notoriously difficult to sample.
Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (CTDC): The International Organization for Migration (IOM), Polaris and Liberty Asia have launched a global data repository on human trafficking, with data contributed by counter-trafficking partner organizations around the world. Not only does the CTDC serve as a central repository for this critical information, it also publishes normed and harmonized data from various organizations using a unified schema. This global dataset facilitates an unparalleled level of cross-border, trans-agency analysis and provides the counter-trafficking movement with a deeper understanding of this complex issue. Equipped with this information, decision makers will be empowered to create more targeted and effective intervention strategies.
UNODC compiles a global dataset on detected and prosecuted traffickers, which serves as the basis in their Global Report for country profiles. This information is beginning to paint a picture of trends over time, and case-specific information can assist investigators and prosecutors.
Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.
Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.
The chart displays information on human development in Grenada between 2002 and 2018. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex.
The most recent year of the HDI, 2018, shows that the average human development score in Grenada is 0.763. This score indicates that human development is high.
HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)
Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.
As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:
“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”
The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in Grenada over time.
Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in the availability of equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction towards achieving Target 8.7.
Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.
Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Source: UNHCR)
Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants.
According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children. “
As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements, as recognized by Member States in the New York declaration for refugees and migrants of September 2016.”
The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in Grenada.
Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.
“2. In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires–
“forced labour” means labour or services obtained or maintained through threats, the use of force, physical restraint, intimidation or other forms of coercion;”
“4.2. No person shall be required to perform forced labor.
4.3. For the purpose of this section, the expression “”forced labour”” does not include-
a. any labour required in consequence of the sentence or order of a court ;
b. labour required of any person while he is lawfully detained that, though not required in consequence of the sentence or order of a court, is reasonably necessary in the
interests of hygiene or for the maintenance of the place at which he is detained ;
c. any labour required of a member of a disciplined force in pursuance of his duties as such or, in the case of a person who has conscientious objections to service as a member of a naval, military, or air force, any labour that that person is required by
law to perform in place of such service ;
d. any labour required during any period of public emergency or in the event of any
other emergency or calamity that threatens the life and well-being of the community, to the extent that the requiring of such labour is reasonably justifiable in the circumstances of any situation arising or existing during that period or as a result of that other emergency or calamity, for the purpose of dealing with that situation.”
“25. Prohibition of forced labour
1. No person shall be required to perform forced labour.
2. Any person who exacts or imposes forced labour or causes or permits forced labour commits an offence and shall be liable, on summary conviction, to a fine not exceeding ten thousand dollars or to a term of imprisonment not exceeding three years, or to both such fine and imprisonment.”
“child” means any person under the age of sixteen years;”
“32. Prohibition on child labour
1. Subject to subsection 3, no person under the age of sixteen years shall be employed or allowed to work in any public or private agricultural, industrial or non- industrial undertaking or any branch thereof, save and except for holiday job employment.
2. Subject to subsection 3, no person under the age of sixteen years shall be employed or allowed to work on vessels.
3. The provisions of this section do not apply to the following—
a. work done by children in technical schools, work done by children on job training or work experience exercises provided that such work is approved and supervised by public authority;
b. work done by children on school-ships or training ships, provided that such work is approved and supervised by public authority.
33. Register of young persons
Every employer shall keep a register of all persons under the age of eighteen years employed by him or her and of the dates of their births.”
“4. Recruitment of persons under the age of eighteen years
Persons under the age of eighteen years shall not be recruited:
Provided that the Minister may, by regulation, permit persons under that age but of or above the age of sixteen years to be recruited with the consent of their parents or guardians for employment upon light work subject to such conditions as he or she may prescribe.”
“5. Employment of juveniles
No juvenile between the ages of sixteen and eighteen shall be recruited except with the consent of his or her parents or guardian and provided the conditions of employment are stated in writing and approved by the Magistrate of the district in which he or she is recruited or to be employed and the Magistrate must satisfy himself or herself that the work is suitable and that the welfare of the juvenile is sufficiently safeguarded.”
Worst Forms of Child Labour
“2. In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires–
a. a person under the age of eighteen;
b. a person eighteen years or older whose special circumstances are such that he or she is unable to reasonably provide for his or her daily requirements.
Special circumstances means the person has–
i. a serious illness; or
ii. a physical or mental disability.”
“135. Employment of children and young persons
1. No person under the age of sixteen years shall be employed in any Grenadian ship, except—
a. upon work approved by the Director on board a school-ship or training ship; or
b. where the Director certifies that he or she is satisfied, having due regard to the health and physical condition of the person and to the prospective and immediate benefit to him or her of the employment, that the employment will be beneficial to him or her.
2. No person under the age of eighteen years shall be employed in any capacity in any Grenadian ship unless there has been delivered to the master of the ship a certificate granted by a duly qualified medical practitioner certifying that such person is fit to be employed in that capacity.
3. Every medical certificate under subsection 2. of this section—
a. shall be valid for one year from the date of issue, unless earlier revoked; and
b. may at any time be revoked by a duly qualified medical practitioner if he or she is satisfied that the young person is no longer fit for work.
4. No young person under the age of eighteen years shall be employed on work in the engine-room of any vessel, unless that young person is an apprentice working under supervision.
5. This section shall not apply to a vessel in which only members of one family are employed.”
Trafficking in Persons
“2. In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires–
“trafficked person” means a person who is the victim or object of trafficking in persons;
“trafficking in persons” means the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring, or receiving of a person by means of the threat or use of force or other means of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability, or of giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation; and”
“2. In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires–
“slavery” means intimidating a person by any means to a state of submission to the control of another person as if that other person is the owner of the first-mentioned person;”
4.1. No person shall be held in slavery or servitude.
National Action Plans, National Strategies
Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the perpetration of forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour. These actions should be considered in wider societal efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.
Programs and Agencies for Victim Support
Policies for Assistance
Policies for Assistance, Human Trafficking
15. The past sexual behavior of a trafficked person is irrelevant and inadmissible for the purpose of proving that the trafficked person was engaged in other sexual behavior or to prove the trafficked person’s sexual predisposition.
“21. A trafficked person shall not be liable to criminal prosecution in respect of–
a. his or her illegal entry into Grenada;
b. his or her period of unlawful residence in Grenada; or
c. his or her procurement or possession of any fraudulent travel or identity document which he or she obtained, or with which he or she was supplied, for the purpose of entering Grenada,
where such acts are the direct consequence of the offence of trafficking in persons committed against him or her.”
“22. The Minister may, by notification in the Gazette, declare any house, building or place, or any part thereof, to be a place of refuge for the care and protection of trafficked persons.
23.1. A police officer may, on reasonable suspicion that a person who is found or rescued is a trafficked person, take that person into temporary custody and produce him or her before a magistrate within twenty-four hours, for the purpose of obtaining an interim protection order.
23.2. The magistrate may make an interim protection order for the person to be placed at a place of refuge for a period of fourteen days for the purpose of carrying out an investigation and enquiry under section
23.3. The police officer shall, upon obtaining the order issued under sub-section 2., surrender the person to the place of refuge specified in the order.”
“29. The Government shall, where practicable, take all reasonable steps to assist trafficked persons, in–
a. understanding the relevant laws of Grenada and their rights as trafficked persons;
b. obtaining any relevant documentation and information to assist with legal proceedings;
c. language interpretation and translation; and
d. replacing or providing travel documents for the trafficked person to return to his or her country of citizenship or permanent residence.”
“30.1. The summary deportation of a trafficked person is prohibited.
30.2. The Minister responsible for Immigration shall establish a system to effect the return of a trafficked person to his or her country of citizenship or permanent residence.
30.3. In establishing the system under sub-section 2., the Minister shall take in account–
a. the safety of the trafficked person while in Grenada;
b. the safe return of the trafficked person without undue delay; and
c. the wishes of the trafficked person as to the country to which he or she should be sent, in cases where there is a choice.”
“31.1. The Minister responsible for Immigration shall not return a trafficked person to his or her country of citizenship or permanent residence or the country from where he or she has been trafficked without giving due consideration to–
a. the safety of that person during the repatriation process;
b.the availability and suitability of care arrangements in the country to which the person is to be returned;
c. the safety of the person in the country to which he or she is to be returned; and
d. the possibility that the person might be harmed, killed or trafficked again.
31.2. This section does not prohibit the return of a trafficked person who is an adult to his or her country of citizenship or permanent residence or the country from where he or she has been trafficked if that person freely elects to do so.”
“43.1. Notwithstanding any other law, the court may, on its own accord or at the request of a trafficked person or the Director of Public Prosecutions, in addition to any sentence which it may impose in respect of an offence under this Act, order a person convicted of that offence to pay compensation to the trafficked person for–
a. damage to or the loss or destruction of property, including money;
b. physical, psychological or other injury;
c. being infected with a life-threatening disease;
d. loss of income or support;
e. cost of medical, psychological or physical treatment;
f. legal costs including attorney’s fees; and
g. any other loss suffered that the court considers applicable, resulting from the commission of the offence.
43.2. For the purposes of sub-section 1., compensation shall be paid to a trafficked person under this Act, as far as possible from property or proceeds forfeited from a person convicted under this Act or any other relevant enactments.”
12. A person who knowingly engages in conduct that causes another person to enter into debt bondage commits an offence and is liable on summary conviction to a fine of two hundred and fifty thousand dollars or to a term of imprisonment for seven years or to both.
Penalties, Child Labour
Any person who contravenes section 32 commits an offence and shall be liable, on summary conviction, to a fine not exceeding ten thousand dollars or to a term of imprisonment not exceeding three years, or to both such fine and imprisonment.”
A person who contravenes any of the provisions of this Act or the regulations made thereunder, shall be guilty of an offence and liable to a fine of three thousand dollars and to imprisonment for six months.”
Penalties, Human Trafficking
“Jurisdiction 3. Where a person is alleged to have committed an offence under this Act, proceedings in respect of that offence may be commenced in Grenada where the alleged offence–
a. is committed by a national of Grenada;
b. was directed towards or resulted in the carrying out of an offence under this Act in Grenada or against a national of Grenada;
c. was directed towards or resulted in the carrying out of an offence under this Act against a government facility of Grenada outside of Grenada;
d. was committed by a stateless person who is ordinarily resident in Grenada;
e. was committed on board an aircraft that–
i. is partly or wholly operated by the Government of Grenada or a national of Grenada;
ii. is registered in Grenada;
f. was committed on board a vessel that is flying the flag of Grenada or is registered in Grenada; or
g. threatens the national security of Grenada.”
“TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS
9.1. Any person who, for the purpose of exploitation Offences of another person organises or facilitates–
a. the entry or proposed entry of the other person into Grenada;
b. the exit or proposed exit of the other person from Grenada; or
c. the receipt of the other person into Grenada, by any of the means specified in sub-section 6. and thereby obtains the compliance of the other person in respect of the entry or proposed entry or the exit or proposed exit or in respect of that receipt, is guilty of the offence of trafficking of persons.
9.2. Any person who–
a. organizes or facilitates–
i. the entry or proposed entry;
ii. the exit or proposed exit; or
iii. the receipt of another person, in accordance with sub-section 1.; and
b. in organising or facilitating that action, is reckless as to whether the other person will be exploited after that entry or proposed entry or after that exit or proposed exit or after the receipt of that person,
is guilty of the offence of trafficking of persons.
9.3. Any person referred to in paragraph a., b. or c. of sub-section 1., who deceives the other person about the fact that the entry or proposed entry or receipt of the other person or any arrangements for the stay of the other person in Grenada will involve–
a. the provision by the other person of sexual services;
b. the exploitation or debt bondage of the other person;
c. the removal of human organs or body parts; or
d. the confiscation of the travel or identity documents of the other person, is guilty of the offence of trafficking of persons.”
“9.4. Any person referred to in paragraph a., b., or c. of sub-section 1., who–
a. arranges or knows of an arrangement for the other person to–
i. provide sexual services;
ii. provide forced labour, slavery, servitude or a similar practice; or
iii. have any human organs or body parts removed; and
b. deceives the other person about any of the following–
i. the nature of the sexual services to be provided;
ii. the extent to which the other person will be free to leave the place or area where the other person provides sexual services;
iii. the extent to which the other person will be free to cease providing sexual services;
iv. the extent to which the other person will be free to leave his or her place of residence;
v. where there is a debt owed or claimed to be owed by the other person in connection with the arrangement for the other person to provide sexual services, the quantum or the existence of the debt owed or claimed to be owed; and
vi. the removal of any human organs or body parts,
is guilty of the offence of trafficking of persons.
9.5. A person who for the purpose of exploitation, recruits, transports, transfers, harbours or receives a person referred to in sub-section 1. by any of the means specified in sub-section 6. is guilty of the offence of trafficking in persons.
9.6. The means referred to in sub-sections 1. and 5. are–
a. threats or use of force or other forms of coercion;
c. deception or fraud;
d. the abuse of–
i. power; or
ii. a position of vulnerability;
e. the giving or receiving of payments or of a benefit in order to obtain the consent of a person who has control over another person.
9.7. A person who contravenes this section commits an offence and, subject to sections 10 and 11, is liable on summary conviction to a fine of two hundred and fifty thousand dollars or to a term of imprisonment for seven years or to both.”
“10.1.Where an offence under section 9 is committed in relation to a child, subject to subsections 2. and 3. and section 11, the person commits an offence and is liable on conviction on indictment to a fine of one million dollars or to a term of imprisonment for twenty-five years or to both.
10.2. Where an offence under section 9 is committed for the sexual exploitation of a child, subject to section 11, the person convicted for that offence is liable on conviction on indictment to a fine of one million dollars or to a term of imprisonment for twenty-five years or to both.
10.3. A person who–
a. sexually exploits a child which he or she knows or ought reasonably to know is a trafficked child;
b. takes, detains or restricts the personal liberty of a child for the purpose of sexual exploitation,
commits an offence and is liable on conviction on indictment to a fine of one million dollars or to imprisonment for twenty-five years or to both.
11. A person convicted of an offence under section 9 is liable on conviction on indictment to a fine of one million dollars or to a term of imprisonment for thirty years or to both if any of the following circumstances is present–
a. the offence involves serious injury or death of the trafficked person or another person, including death as a result of suicide;
b. the offence involves a victim who is particularly vulnerable, including a pregnant woman;
c. the offence exposed the trafficked person to a life-threatening illness;
d. the trafficked person is physically or mentally handicapped;
e. the offence involves more than one trafficked person;
f. the offence was committed as part of the activity of an organised criminal group;
g. drugs, medications or weapons were used in the commission of the offence;
h. the trafficked person is a child who was adopted for the purpose of trafficking;
i. the offender has been previously convicted for the same or similar offences;
j. the convicted person is a public officer and the offence was committed when the officer was purporting to act officially;
k. the offender is a spouse or the conjugal partner of the trafficked person;
l. the offender is in a position of responsibility or trust in relation to the trafficked person;
m. the offender is in a position of authority concerning the trafficked person who is a child; or
n. the offence was committed by means of abusing the vulnerability of the trafficked person.”
“13.1. A person commits an offence if he or she–
a. benefits, financially or otherwise, from the services of a trafficked person or of a person he or she knows or ought reasonably to have known to be a trafficked person; or
b. uses or enables another person to use the services of a trafficked person or of a person he or she knows or ought reasonably to have known to be a trafficked person.
13.2. A person who commits an offence under sub-section 1. is liable on summary conviction to a fine of twenty thousand dollars or to a term of imprisonment for two years or to both.”
“14. In a prosecution for an offence under this Part, once any of the means of circumstances set out in the definition of “trafficking in persons” is established, it shall be irrelevant that–
a. a child who is a trafficked person, or a person having control or authority over a child who is a trafficked person, consented to the intended exploitation of that child or that the intended exploitation did not occur;
b. an adult person who is a trafficked person has consented to the intended exploitation of that child or that the intended exploitation did not occur.”
1.ii. Take steps to measure, monitor and share data on prevalence and response to all such forms of exploitation, as appropriate to national circumstances;
Programs and Agencies for Enforcement
Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk of exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.
Social Protection Coverage: General (at Least One)
Social Protection (Source: ILO)
The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.
If a country does not appear on a chart, this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.