Data Dashboards

Guatemala
Measurement
Measuring the Change

using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards.

Child labour between 2000 and 2015 decreased by 56%

-56%

2000- 2015

Best Target 8.7 Data: Child Labour Rate

The data visualization displays yearly child labour statistics based on a variety of nationally-representative household surveys. All years of data hold up to standards set by interagency collaboration between ILO, UNICEF and World Bank, though, in some cases are not perfectly comparable between years. Detailed information on each data point is provided in the Measurement tab (above).

Data Availability
  • Child labour: ILO/UNICEF data
  • Forced labour: No nationally representative data
  • Human trafficking: No nationally representative data
Context
Human Development

Human Development Index Score: 0.651 (2018)

Mean School Years: 6.5 years (2018)

 

Labour Indicators

Vulnerable Employment: 34.5% (2018)

Working Poverty Rate: 3.3% (2020)

Government Efforts
Key Ratifications
  • ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Not Ratified
  • ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2001
  • UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Accession 2004
Social Protection Coverage

General (at least one): 10.3% (2017)

Unemployed: No data

Pension: 26.2% (2017)

Vulnerable: 2.0% (2017)

Children: 3.1% (2017)

Disabled: 3.3% (2017)

Poor: 3.7% (2017)

Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.

Child Labour Rate, Aged 5-17 (Source: ILO)

Based on the international conventions and the International Conference of Labour Statisticians (ICLS)  resolution, and consistent with the approach utilized in the ILO global child labour estimates exercise, the statistical definition of child labour used includes:

a) children aged 5-11 years in all forms of economic activity;
b) children aged 12-14 years in all forms of economic activity except permissible “light” work;
c) children and adolescents aged 15-17 years in hazardous work; and
d) children aged 5-14 years performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week.

All measures provided do not cover the full definition of hazardous work, but use the same, reduced definition.

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 5-17 in child labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2000, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2006, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, and 2015. 

Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Hazardous child labour is the largest category of the worst forms of child labour with an estimated 73 million children aged 5-17 working in dangerous conditions in a wide range of sectors. Worldwide, the ILO estimates that some 22,000 children are killed at work every year.

In Guatemala, the latest estimates show that 1.2 percent of children aged 5-14 were engaged in hazardous work in 2015. All measures provided do not cover the full definition of hazardous work, but use the same, reduced definition.

Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2000, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2006, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, and 2015. 

Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 15-17 (Source: ILO)

Children aged 15-17 are permitted to engage in economic activities by international conventions in most cases, except when the work is likely to harm the health, safety or morals of children (Article 3 (d) of ILO Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour, 1999 (No. 182)). 

In Guatemala, the latest estimates show that 13.3 percent of children aged 15-17 were engaged in hazardous work in 2015. All measures provided do not cover the full definition of hazardous work, but use the same, reduced definition.

Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2000, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2006, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, and 2015. 

 

Weekly Work Hours, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Children aged 5-11 are considered to be subjected to child labour when engaging in any form of economic activity. Children aged 12-14 are permitted to engage in “light” work that is not considered hazardous and falls below 14 hours per week.

According to the latest 2015 estimates, the average number of hours worked per week by children aged 5-14 in Guatemala was 24.7 hours. The average number of hours worked has decreased from 31.0 hours in 2014.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours that children aged 5-14 work in economic activities by sex and region. The sample includes all children of this age group. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2000, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2006, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, and 2015. 

Weekly Work Hours Children Only in Economic Activity, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Children not attending school who are engaged in economic activity can be subjected to longer working hours. 

In 2015, the latest year with available data, children in economic activity only, meaning they are not in school, worked an average of 34.4 hours per week. This number has decreased since 2014, when the average number of hours worked by this age group was 41.3. 

The chart displays differences in the number of hours worked by children aged 5-14 who are not in school, by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2000, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2006, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, and 2015. 

Weekly Hours Household Chores, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Researchers recognize that children involved in economic activities are not the only children working. The ICLS recommended definition of child labour includes children aged 5-14 performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week. 

Children aged 5-14, on average, are found to work on household chores 13.0 hours per week according to the 2015 estimate. 

The chart displays differences in the number of hours children aged 5-14 work on household chores by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2015. 

 

Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: total (Source: ILO)

Identifying the sectors in which the most child labour exists can help policy actors and practitioners target efforts toward those industries. 

The latest data available on child labour by sector for Guatemala is from 2015. By the 2015 estimate, the Agriculture sector had the most child labourers, followed by the Commerce, Hotels and Restaurants sector, the Manufacturing sector, the Other Services sector and the Construction, Mining and Other Industrial Sectors.

The chart to the right displays child labour prevalence in each sector for all children. The charts below show the differences in child labour by sector with comparisons between groups by sex and region.

Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: sex (Source: ILO)
Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: area (Source: ILO)

Measuring the incidence of forced labour is a much more recent endeavour and presents unique methodological challenges compared to the measurement of child labour.

No nationally representative data is available on forced labour prevalence in Guatemala.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on new guidelines presented by the International Labour Organization and adopted by the International Conference of Labour Statisticians.

The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.

No nationally representative data is available on human trafficking prevalence in Guatemala.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page to learn about measuring human trafficking prevalence, including information on collecting data through national referral mechanisms and producing prevalence statistics using Multiple Systems Estimation (MSE).

Case Data: International and Non-Governmental Organizations

Civil society organizations (CSOs) focused on human trafficking victim assistance can serve as crucial sources of data given their ability to reach a population that is notoriously difficult to sample.

Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (CTDC): The International Organization for Migration (IOM), Polaris and Liberty Asia have launched a global data repository on human trafficking, with data contributed by counter-trafficking partner organizations around the world. Not only does the CTDC serve as a central repository for this critical information, it also publishes normed and harmonized data from various organizations using a unified schema. This global dataset facilitates an unparalleled level of cross-border, trans-agency analysis and provides the counter-trafficking movement with a deeper understanding of this complex issue. Equipped with this information, decision makers will be empowered to create more targeted and effective intervention strategies.

Prosecution Data

UNODC compiles a global dataset on detected and prosecuted traffickers, which serves as the basis in their Global Report for country profiles. This information is beginning to paint a picture of trends over time, and case-specific information can assist investigators and prosecutors.

Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.

Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.

The chart displays information on human development in Guatemala between 1990 and 2018. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex. 

The most recent year of the HDI, 2018, shows that the average human development score in Guatemala is 0.651. This score indicates that human development is medium. 

 

HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)

Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.

As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:

“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”

The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in Guatemala over time.

 

Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in the availability of equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction towards achieving Target 8.7.

HDI Vulnerable Employment (Source: UNDP)

There are reasons to believe that certain types of labour and labour arrangements are more likely to lead to labour exploitation. According to the ILO:

“Own-account workers and contributing family workers have a lower likelihood of having formal work arrangements, and are therefore more likely to lack elements associated with decent employment, such as adequate social security and a voice at work. The two statuses are summed to create a classification of ‘vulnerable employment’, while wage and salaried workers together with employers constitute ‘non-vulnerable employment’.”

Between 1991 and 2018, Guatemala showed a decrease in the proportion of workers in vulnerable employment as compared to those in secure employment.

Working Poverty Rate (Source: ILO)

Labour income tells us about a household’s vulnerability. As the ILO explains in Profits and Poverty

“Poor households find it particularly difficult to deal with income shocks, especially when they push households below the food poverty line. In the presence of such shocks, men and women without social protection nets tend to borrow to smooth consumption, and to accept any job for themselves or their children, even under exploitative conditions.”

ILO indicators that measure poverty with respect to the labour force include working poverty rate, disaggregated by sex, with temporal coverage spanning from 2000 to 2020. The chart displays linear trends in working poverty rate over time for all individuals over 15 years of age.

Labour Productivity (Source: ILO)

Labour productivity is an important economic indicator that is closely linked to economic growth, competitiveness, and living standards within an economy.” However, when increased labour output does not produce rising wages, this can point to increasing inequality. As indicated by a recent ILO report (2015), there is a “growing disconnect between wages and productivity growth, in both developed and emerging economies”. The lack of decent work available increases vulnerability to situations of labour exploitation. 

Labour productivity represents the total volume of output (measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product, GDP) produced per unit of labour (measured in terms of the number of employed persons) during a given period.

Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.

Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Source: UNHCR)

Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants.

According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children. “

As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements, as recognized by Member States in the New York declaration for refugees and migrants of September 2016.”

The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in Guatemala.

Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.

Official Definitions
Forced Labour

Constitution, 1985

“ARTÍCULO 102.- Derechos sociales mínimos de la legislación del trabajo. Son derechos sociales mínimos que fundamentan la legislación del trabajo y la actividad de los tribunales y autoridades:
d. Obligación de pagar al trabajador en moneda de curso legal. Sin embargo, el trabajador del campo
puede recibir, a su voluntad, productos alimenticios hasta en un treinta por ciento de su salario. En
este caso el empleador suministrará esos productos a un precio no mayor de su costo;
e. Inembargabilidad del salario en los casos determinados por la ley. Los implementos personales de trabajo no podrán ser embargados por ningún motivo. No obstante, para protección de la familia del trabajador y por orden judicial, sí podrá retenerse y entregarse parte del salario a quien
corresponda;”

Código de Trabajo, 1961

“Anexo
10. Prohibición del trabajo forzoso
2) Convenio No.29, 1930, Trabajo Forzoso. Raficado el 13 de junio de 1989.
3) Convenio No.105, 1957, Abolición del Trabajo forzoso. Raficado el 9 de diciembre de 1959. Publicado de 19- 12-59.”

Child Labour

Constitution, 1985

“ARTÍCULO 102.- Derechos sociales mínimos de la legislación del trabajo. Son derechos sociales mínimos que fundamentan la legislación del trabajo y la actividad de los tribunales y autoridades:
l. Los menores de catorce años no podrán ser ocupados en ninguna clase de trabajo, salvo las excepciones establecidas en la ley. Es prohibido ocupar a menores en trabajos incompatibles con su capacidad física o que pongan en peligro su formación moral.”

Decreto núm. 27-2003 por el que se dicta la Ley de Protección Integral de la Niñez y Adolescencia.

“ARTÍCULO 2. Denfinición de niñez y Adolescencia. Para los efectos de esta
Ley se consldera Niños y niñas a toda persona desde su concepción hasta que cumple
trece años de edad y adolescente a toda aquello desde los trece hasta que cumple
dieciocho años de edad.”

ARTÍCULO 66. Prohibición. Es prohibido cualquier trabajo a adolescentes menores de catorce años de edad, salvo las excepciones establecidas en el Código de Trabajo, debidamente reglamentadas

Código de Trabajo, 1961

“Capacidad para contratar
Artículo 31. Tienen también capacidad para contratar su trabajo, para percibir y disponer de la retribución convenida y, en general, para ejercer los derechos y acciones que se deriven del presente Código, de sus reglamentos y de las leyes de previsión social, los menores de edad, de uno u otro sexo, que tengan catorce años o más y los insolventes y fallidos.
Las capacidades específicas que alude el párrafo anterior, lo son sólo para los efectos de trabajo, y en consecuencia, no afectan en lo demás el estado de minoridad o, en su caso, el de incapacidad por insolvencia o quiebra.
La interdicción judicial declarada del patrono no invalida los actos o contratos que haya celebrado el ejecutado con sus trabajadores anteriormente a dicha declaratoria.
Protección especial
Artículo 147. El trabajo de las mujeres y menores de edad debe ser adecuado especialmente a su edad, condiciones o estado físico y desarrollo intelectual y moral.”

Worst Forms of Child Labour

Decreto núm. 27-2003 por el que se dicta la Ley de Protección Integral de la Niñez y Adolescencia.

“ARTÍCULO 50. Seguridad e Integridad. Los niños, niñas y adolescentes tlenen
derecho a la protección contra el secuestro, el tranco la venta y trata para cualquier
nn 0 en cualquler norma. EI Estado debera desarrollar actividades y estrategias de
carácter nocional, bilateral y multilateral adecuadas Impedir estas acciones.”

“ARTÍCULO 51. Explotación económica. Los niños, niñas y adolescentes tlenen
derecho a ser protegidos contra la explotación económica, el desempeño de cualquier
trabajo que pueda ser peligroso para su salud físlca y mental o que Impida su acceso a :””
la educación.
Los niños, niñas y adolescentes tienen derecho a ser protegidos por el Estado, la
familia y la sodedad a fin de que tengan acceso a la educación, el deporte, la cultura y
la recreación propia a su edad, en beneficio de su salud físlca ymental.”

Código de Trabajo, 1961

“Contrato de jóvenes menores de 14 años
Artículo 32. Los contratos relativos al trabajo de los jóvenes que tengan menos de catorce años, deben celebrarse con los representantes legales de éstos y, en su defecto, se necesita la autorización de la Inspección General de Trabajo.
El producto del trabajo de los menores a que se refiere el párrafo anterior lo deben percibir sus representantes legales o la persona que tenga a su cargo el cuidado de ellos, según la determinación que debe hacer la Inspección General de Trabajo en las autorizaciones a que alude este artículo.

Prohibiciones
Artículo 148. Se prohíbe:

a) El trabajo en lugares insalubres y peligrosos para a) varones, mujeres y menores de edad, según la determinación que de unos y otros debe hacer el reglamento, o en su defecto la Inspección General de Trabajo;
b) Se suprime.
c) El trabajo nocturno y la jornada extraordinaria de los menores de edad.
d) El trabajo diurno de los menores de edad en cantinas u otros establecimientos análogos en que se expendan bebidas alcohólicas destinadas al consumo inmediato; y
e) El trabajo de los menores de catorce años.”

“Autorización de la IGT: casos excepcionales
Artículo 150. La Inspección General de Trabajo puede extender, en casos de excepción calificada,autorizaciones escritas para permitir el trabajo ordinario diurno de los menores de catorce años, o, en su caso, para reducir, total o parcialmente, las rebajas de la jornada ordinaria diurna que impone el artículo anterior. Con este objeto, los interesados en que se extiendan las respectivas autorizaciones deben probar:

a) Que el menor de edad va a trabajar en vía de aprendizaje o que tiene necesidad de cooperar en la economía familiar, por extrema pobreza de sus padres o de los que tienen a su cargo el cuidado de él.
b) Que se trata de trabajos livianos por su duración e intensidad, comparables o compatibles? con la salud física, mental y moral del menor; y
c) Que en alguna forma se cumple con el requisito de la obligatoriedad de su educación.
En cada una de las expresadas autorizaciones se deben consignar con claridad las condiciones de protección mínima en que deben trabajar los menores de edad.”

Acuerdo gubernativo núm. 250-2006 de 18 de mayo del 2006 por el que se dicta el Reglamento para la aplicación del Convenio núm. 182 de la Organización Internacional del Trabajo, sobre las peores formas del trabajo infantil y la acción inmediata para su eliminación.

Acuerdo núm. COM-006-2005 del Concejo Municipal de Ciudad de Guatemala.

Human Trafficking

Decreto núm. 9-2009 que dicta la Ley contra la violencia sexual, explotación y trata de personas.

International Commitments
International Ratifications

ILO Forced Labour Convention, C029, Ratification 1989

ILO Abolition of Forced Labour Convention, C105, Ratification 1958

ILO Minimum Age Convention, C138, Ratification 1990 (minimum age specified: 14 years)

ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182, Ratification 2001

Slavery Convention 1926 and amended by the Protocol of 1953, Ratification 1983

UN Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, Ratification 1983

UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol), Accession 2004

UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, RAtification 1990

UN Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Ratification 2002

UN Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, Ratification 2002

National Action Plans, National Strategies

“Hoja de Ruta para hacer de Guatemala un país libre de trabajo infantil y sus peores formas Programación 2016 – 2020″

Roadmap for the Prevention and Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor (2016–2020)

Aims to prevent and eradicate child labor by addressing poverty; guaranteeing rights to health for children and adolescents; guaranteeing access to education, especially for children in or at risk of child labor; coordinating and enforcing child labor laws; raising awareness regarding risks and consequences of child labor; and implementing a system to monitor and evaluate child labor. Led by CONAPETI and CODEPETI. Launched in January 2017.

Protocol for Providing Comprehensive Health Care to Children and Adolescents in the Worst Forms of Child Labor

Requires public health workers to enter information into a database about any child whose injuries may have been labor related. Implemented by the Ministry of Public Health and Social Assistance. Research did not reveal whether any actions were taken under this policy in 2017.

Protocol for Identifying and Assisting Child and Adolescent Victims of Commercial Sexual Exploitation

Establishes procedural guidelines for government agencies and NGOs responsible for the protection and care of child and adolescent victims of commercial sexual exploitation. Overseen by the Secretariat of Social Welfare and Departmental Social Welfare Offices and implemented by SVET. Research did not reveal whether any actions were undertaken under this policy in 2017.

Inter-institutional Protocol for the Protection and Attention of Victims of Human Trafficking

Provides instruction on how to process sex crimes, including commercial sexual exploitation of children, and assist prospective victims of trafficking in persons. In 2017, the government ran the campaign, “I don’t permit the exploitation of children and adolescents.”

Public Policy on Human Trafficking and the Comprehensive Protection of Victims (2014–2024)

Aims to guarantee protection for and comprehensive attention to trafficking victims, and promote prevention, detection, prosecution, and sanction of this crime. Includes a National Plan of Strategic Action that directs the government’s actions on preventing and combating human trafficking. In 2017, the government provided SVET with a budget for the operation of its three temporary and specialized shelters for children and teenagers victims of human trafficking.

Urban Social Protection Strategy

Seeks to prevent children from engaging in street work and to increase training and employment opportunities for youth. Research did not reveal whether any actions were undertaken under this policy in 2017.

 

 

Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the perpetration of forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour. These actions should be considered in wider societal efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.

Programs and Agencies for Victim Support

Policies for Assistance
Policies for assistance, Human Trafficking

Decreto núm. 9-2009 que dicta la Ley contra la violencia sexual, explotación y trata de personas.

“Titulo III:
Prevención, Protección y Atención de las Víctimas
Proceso de Repatriación para Personas Víctimas de Trata”

Policies for assistance, Child Labour

Acuerdo Gubernativo núm. 347-2002 por el que se crea la Comisión Nacional para la Erradicación del Trabajo Infantil.

Penalties
Penalites, Child Labour

Decreto núm. 27-2003 por el que se dicta la Ley de Protección Integral de la Niñez y Adolescencia.

“ARTÍCULO 75. Causa.. Para 105 efectos de la presente Ley, 105 derechos de 105
niños, niñas y adolescentes se amenazan o se violan por:
La Acción u omisión de cualquier miembro de la sociedad; del Estado.
b) Falta, omisión o abuso de los padres, tutores o responsables.
c) Acciones u omislones contra si mismos.”

Código de Trabajo, 1961

“Tipos de sanciones
Artículo 272. Sin perjuicio de que por la naturaleza del hecho comedo o de la omisión en que se haya incurrido, los tribunales comunes pueden imponer penas distintas, las faltas de trabajo o previsión social se deben sancionar así:
g) Toda violación a cualquier disposición preceptiva de este Código, no prevista por los incisos anteriores, u otra ley o disposición de trabajo y previsión social, da lugar a la imposición de una multa entre dos y nueve salarios mínimos mensuales, si se trata de patronos, y de diez a veinte salarios mínimos diarios, si se trata de trabajadores, vigentes en ambos casos para las actividades no agrícolas, pero en todo caso, es necesario que la Inspección General de Trabajo aperciba previamente y por escrito a quien ha cometido por primera vez la respectiva infracción y luego, si hay desobediencia de parte del culpable o si por otro motivo se constata que no ha surgido efecto el apercibimiento dentro del plazo que para el efecto ha de fijarse,dicha Inspección debe iniciar la acción administrativa para la aplicación de la sanción que corresponda.”

Acuerdo gubernativo núm. 250-2006 de 18 de mayo del 2006 por el que se dicta el Reglamento para la aplicación del Convenio núm. 182 de la Organización Internacional del Trabajo, sobre las peores formas del trabajo infantil y la acción inmediata para su eliminación.

Penalties, human trafficking

Código Penal amend. Decreto núm. 9-2009 que dicta la Ley contra la violencia sexual, explotación y trata de personas.

Título IV De Las Penas Relativas a los delitos de violencia sexual, explotación y trata de personas

Penalties, General

Ley de Migración as amend. Decreto 10-2015

Código Penal, 1973

“SOMETIMIENTO A SERVIDUMBRE
ARTÍCULO 202. Será reprimido con prisión de dos a diez años, quien redujere a una persona a servidumbre o a otra condición análoga y a quienes la mantuvieren en ella.”

Data Commitments

A Call to Action to End Forced Labour, Modern Slavery and Human Trafficking, Signed 2017

1.ii. Take steps to measure, monitor and share data on prevalence and response to all such forms of exploitation, as appropriate to national circumstances;

Programs and Agencies for Enforcement

Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk of exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.

Social Protection Coverage: General (at Least One)
Social Protection (Source: ILO)

The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.

If a country does not appear on a chart, this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.

Social Protection Coverage: Unemployed
Social Protection Coverage: Pension
Social Protection Coverage: Vulnerable Groups
Social Protection Coverage: Poor
Social Protection Coverage: Children
Social Protection Coverage: Disabled