Papan Pemuka Data

Guyana
Measurement
Measuring the Change

using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards.

Child labour data is only available for 2014. There is no change to report.

%
Best Target 8.7 Data: Child Labour Rate


The data visualization displays yearly child labour statistics based on a variety of nationally-representative household surveys. All years of data hold up to standards set by interagency collaboration between ILO, UNICEF and World Bank, though, in some cases are not perfectly comparable between years. Detailed information on each data point is provided in the Measurement tab (above).

Data Availability
  • Child labour: ILO/UNICEF data
  • Forced labour: No nationally representative data
  • Human trafficking: No nationally representative data
Context
Human Development

Human Development Index Score: 0.638 (2015)

Mean School Years: 8.4 years (2015)

Labour Indicators

Vulnerable Employment: No data

Working Poverty Rate: 2% (2016)

Government Efforts
Key Ratifications
  • ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Not ratified
  • ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2001
  • UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Ratified 2004
Social Protection Coverage

General (at least one): No data

Unemployed: No data

Pension: 100% (2016)

Vulnerable: No data

Children: No data

Disabled: No data

Poor: No data

Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.

Child Labour Rate, Aged 5-17 (Source: ILO)

Based on the international conventions and the International Conference of Labour Statisticians (ICLS) resolution, and consistent with the approach utilized in the ILO global child labour estimates exercise, the statistical definition of child labour used includes: 

a) children aged 5-11 years in all forms of economic activity;
b) children aged 12-14 years in all forms of economic activity except permissible “light” work;
c) children and adolescents aged 15-17 years in hazardous work; and
d) children aged 5-14 years performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week.

In Guyana, data on the percentage of child labourers is provided for 2014. The measure provided for 2014 does not cover the full definition of hazardous child labour.

The chart displays the percentage of children aged 5-17 in child labour by sex and region.

Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Hazardous child labour is the largest category of the worst forms of child labour with an estimated 73 million children aged 5-17 working in dangerous conditions in a wide range of sectors. Worldwide, the ILO estimates that some 22,000 children are killed at work every year.

In Guyana, the latest estimates show that 0.1 percent of children aged 5-14 were engaged in hazardous work in 2014. The number has not changed since the previous estimates in 2000 and 2006. All measures provided do not cover the full definition of hazardous child labour, but use the same reduced definition.

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 5-14 in hazardous labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data is not provided for 2000, 2006 and 2014, specifically for urban children.

Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 15-17 (Source: ILO)

Children aged 15-17 are permitted to engage in economic activities by international conventions in most cases, except when the work is likely to harm the health, safety or morals of children (Article 3 (d) of ILO Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour, 1999 (No. 182)).

In Guyana, the latest estimates show that 2.4 percent of children aged 15-17 were engaged in hazardous work in 2014. The measure provided for 2014 does not cover the full definition of hazardous child labour.

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 15-17 in hazardous labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data is provided for 2014.

Weekly Work Hours, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Children aged 5-11 are considered to be subjected to child labour when engaging in any form of economic activity. Children aged 12-14 are permitted to engage in “light” work that is not considered hazardous and falls below 14 hours per week.

According to the latest 2014 estimates, the average number of hours worked per week by children aged 5-14 in guyana was 4.8 hours. The average number of hours worked has decreased from 6.8 hours in 2006.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours that children aged 5-14 work in economic activities by sex and region. The sample includes all children of this age group. Complete disaggregated data is provided for 2000, 2006 and 2014.

Weekly Work Hours, Children Only in Economic Activity, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Children not attending school who are engaged in economic activity can be subjected to longer working hours.

In 2014, the latest year with available data, children in economic activity only, meaning they are not in school, worked an average of 11.5 hours per week. This number has decreased since 2006, when the average number of hours worked by this age group was 13.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours worked by children aged 5-14 who are not in school, by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is not provided for 2014.

Weekly Hours Household Chores, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Researchers recognize that children involved in economic activities are not the only children working. The ICLS recommended definition of child labour includes performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week for children aged 5-14.

Children aged 5-14, on average, are found to work on household chores 4.9 hours per week according to the 2014 estimate. This estimate represents a decrease in hours worked across all age groups since the last estimate in 2006, which found that children aged 5-14 in Guyana worked an average of 5.1 hours per week.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours children aged 5-14 work on household chores by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2000, 2006 and 2014.

Measuring the incidence of forced labour is a much more recent endeavour and presents unique methodological challenges compared to the measurement of child labour.

No nationally representative data is available on forced labour prevalence in Guyana.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on new guidelines presented by the International Labour Organization and adopted by the International Conference of Labour Statisticians.

The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.

No nationally representative data is available on human trafficking prevalence in Guyana.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page to learn about measuring human trafficking prevalence, including information on collecting data through national referral mechanisms and producing prevalence statistics using Multiple Systems Estimation (MSE).

Case Data: International and Non-Governmental Organizations

Civil society organizations (CSOs) focused on human trafficking victim assistance can serve as crucial sources of data given their ability to reach a population that is notoriously difficult to sample.

Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (CTDC): The International Organization for Migration (IOM), Polaris and Liberty Asia have launched a global data repository on human trafficking, with data contributed by counter-trafficking partner organizations around the world. Not only does the CTDC serve as a central repository for this critical information, it also publishes normed and harmonized data from various organizations using a unified schema. This global dataset facilitates an unparalleled level of cross-border, trans-agency analysis and provides the counter-trafficking movement with a deeper understanding of this complex issue. Equipped with this information, decision makers will be empowered to create more targeted and effective intervention strategies.

Prosecution Data

UNODC compiles a global dataset on detected and prosecuted traffickers, which serves as the basis in their Global Report for country profiles. This information is beginning to paint a picture of trends over time, and case-specific information can assist investigators and prosecutors.

Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.

Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.

The chart displays information on human development in Guyana between 1990 and 2015. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex.

The most recent year of the HDI, 2015, shows that average human development score in Guyana is 0.638. This score indicates medium human development.

HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)

Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.

As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:

“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”

The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in Guyana over time.

Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in the availability of equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction towards achieving Target 8.7.

Working Poverty Rate (Source: ILO)

Labour income tells us about a household’s vulnerability. As the ILO explains in Profits and Poverty:

“Poor households find it particularly difficult to deal with income shocks, especially when they push households below the food poverty line. In the presence of such shocks, men and women without social protection nets tend to borrow to smooth consumption, and to accept any job for themselves or their children, even under exploitative conditions.”

ILO indicators that measure poverty with respect to the labour force include working poverty rate, disaggregated by age groupings and sex, with temporal coverage spanning from 2000 to 2016. The chart displays linear trends in working poverty rate over time for all individuals over 15 years of age.

Labour Productivity (Source: ILO)

Labour productivity is an important economic indicator that is closely linked to economic growth, competitiveness, and living standards within an economy.” However, when increased labour output does not produce rising wages, this can point to increasing inequality. As indicated by a recent ILO report (2015), there is a “growing disconnect between wages and productivity growth, in both developed and emerging economies”. The lack of decent work available increases vulnerability to situations of labour exploitation.

Labour productivity represents the total volume of output (measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product, GDP) produced per unit of labour (measured in terms of the number of employed persons) during a given period.

Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.

Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants.

According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children.”

As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements.”

There is no visualization for Guyana as there is not a sufficient amount of data available.  

Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.

Official Definitions
Forced Labour

Constitution of the Cooperative Republic of Guyana, 1980
140.1. No person shall be held in slavery or servitude.
140.2. No person shall be required to perform forced labour.
140.3. For the purposes of this article, the expression “forced labour” does not include-

a. any labour required in consequence of the sentence or order of a court;
b. any labour required of any person while he or she is lawfully detained that, though not required in consequence of the sentence or order of a court, is reasonably necessary in the interests of hygiene or for the maintenance of the place at which he or she is detained;
c. any labour required of a member of a disciplined force in pursuance of his or her duties as such or, in the case of a person who has conscientious objections to service as a member of a naval, military or air force, any labour that person is required by law to perform in place of such service; or
d. any labour required during any period when Guyana is at war or in the event of any hurricane, earthquake, flood, fire or other like calamity that threatens the life or well-being of the community to the extent that the requiring of such labour is reasonably justifiable, in the circumstances of any situation arising or existing during that period or as a result of that calamity, for the purpose of dealing with the situation.

Combating of Trafficking in Persons Act, No. 2, 2005
2. In this Act-

“forced labour” means labour or services obtained or maintained through force, threat of force, or other means of coercion or physical restraint;

Child Labour

Employment Young Persons and Children Act, 1983
2. In this Act and in the provisions of the Conventions contained in the Schedule-

“child” means a person under the age of fifteen years;
“young person” means a person who has ceased to be a child and who is under the age of sixteen years.

3.1. No child shall be admitted to employment or work in any occupation.
3.2. No young person shall be employed at night in any industrial undertaking, except to the extent to which and in the circumstances in which such employment is permitted under the Convention set out in Part I of the Schedule.
3.3. Where young persons are employed in any industrial undertaking, a register of the young person’s so employed, and of the dates of their birth, and of the dates on which they enter and leave the service of their employer, shall be kept and shall at all times be open to inspection.

Education Act, 1876 amend. no. 12, 1999
17. No person shall take into his employment or employ any child who is under the age of fifteen years: Provided that the service rendered by a child to its parents, being such service as is usually given by children to their parents shall not constitute a breach of this section unless such service is rendered on a school day during school hours.

22. Sections 13 to 16 (inclusive) shall apply to children between the ages of six and fifteen.

Education Act, 1876
18. The manager of a plantation on which a child performs any work for the proprietors thereof shall, subject to the other provisions of this Act, be deemed to have taken the child into his employment.
19.1. Where the offence of taking a child into employment in contravention of this Act is in fact committed by an agent or workman of the employer, the agent or workman shall be liable to a penalty as if he were the employer.
19.2. Where an employer charged with taking a child into his employment in contravention of this Act proves that he has used due diligence to enforce the observance hereof, and either that some agent or workman of his employed the child without his knowledge or consent, or hate the child was employed on the production by the parent of a forged or false certificate and under the belief in good faith in the genuineness and truth of that certificate, the employer shall be exempt from any penalty.
19.3. Where the employer satisfies the person inquiring into the matter that the is exempt under this section by reason of the guilt of some agent, workman, or parent and gives all facilities in his power for proceeding against and convicting the agent, workman, or parent, the person inquiring into the matter shall institute proceedings against the agent, workman, or parent, and nota against the employer.

Worst Forms of Child Labour

Occupation Health and Safety Act, 1997
41.1. No child shall be employed in any factory or in the business of a factory outside the factory, or in any business trade or process ancillary to the business of the factory.
41.2. Where it appears to the Authority that the presence in any factory or part of the factory, of children who cannot lawfully be employed therein may be dangerous to them or injurious to their health, the Authority may serve on the occupier of the factory a notice in writing requiring him to prohibit and to prevent the admission of such children to the factory, or part of the factory , as the case may be.
41.3. Nothing in this section affects or limits section 3.1. of the Employment of Young Persons and Children Act.
75.3. No young person shall be employed in a factory otherwise than in accordance with regulations made under this section.

Combating of Trafficking in Persons Act, No. 2, 2005
2. In this Act-

“child”; means any person under eighteen years of age;

Trafficking in Persons

Combating of Trafficking in Persons Act, No. 2, 2005
2. In this Act-

“exploitation” means-

i. keeping a person in a state of slavery;
ii. subjecting a person to practices similar to slavery;
iii. compelling or causing a person to provide forced labour or services;
iv. keeping a person in a state of servitude, including sexual servitude;
v. exploitation of prostitution of another;
vi. engaging in any form of commercial sexual exploitation, including but not limited to pimping, pandering, procuring, profiting from prostitution, maintaining a brother, child pornography;
vii. illicit removal of human organs

“trafficking in persons” means the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of a person by means of the threat or use of force or other means of coercion, or by abduction, fraud, deception, abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability, or by the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purposes of exploitation.

Debt Bondage

Combating of Trafficking in Persons Act, No. 2, 2005
2. In this Act-

“debt bondage” means the status or condition of a debtor arising from a pledge by the debtor of his personal services or those of a person under his control as a security for debt, if the value of those services as reasonably assessed is not applied toward the liquidation of the debt or the length and nature of those services are not respectively limited and defined;

Servitude

Combating of Trafficking in Persons Act, No. 2, 2005
2. In this Act-

“servitude” means a condition of dependency in which the labour or services of a person are provided or obtained by threats of serious harm to that person or another person, or through any scheme, plan, or pattern intended to cause the person to believe that, if the person did not perform such labour or services, that person or another person would suffer serious harm.;

Slavery

Combating of Trafficking in Persons Act, No. 2, 2005
2. In this Act-

“practices similar to slavery” includes, in general, debt bondage, serfdom, forced or servile marriages and delivery of children for exploitation;
“slavery” means the status or condition of a person over whom any or all the powers attaching to the right of ownership are exercised;

Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the  perpetration of forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour. These actions should be considered in wider societal efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.

Programs and Agencies for Victim Support (Source: U.S. Department of Labor)

Policies for Assistance

Combating of Trafficking in Persons Act, No. 2, 2005
6.1. Where a defendant is convicted of trafficking in persons under this Act, the court shall order the defendant to pay restitution to the victim.
6.2. Restitution shall compensate the victim for-

a. of medical and psychological treatment;
b. costs of physical and occupational therapy and rehabilitation;
c. costs of necessary transportation, temporary housing and child care;
d. lost income;
e., attorney’s fees and other cost such as victim advocate fees;
f. compensation for emotional distress, pain and suffering; and
g. any other losses suffered by the victim

6.3. Restitution shall be paid to the victim promptly upon the conviction of the defendant, with the proceeds from the property forfeiture under section 7 applied first to payment of restitution. The return of the victim to the victim’s home country, normal place of residence in Guyana, or other absence of victim from the jurisdiction shall not prejudice the victims’ right to receive restitution.
11. A victim of trafficking is not criminally liable for any migration-related offence, prostitution or any other criminal offence that was a direct result of being trafficked.
13. Investigative, prosecutorial, and other appropriate authorities shall take all steps necessary to identify victim of trafficking. Once victims are identified, these authorities shall provide reasonable protection to victims of trafficking to prevent recapture by the traffickers and their associates, secure the victim and the victim’s family if they reside in Guyana from threats, reprisals or intimidation by the traffickers and their associates, and ensure the victim has an opportunity to consult with a victim’s advocate or other appropriate person to develop a safety plan.
14. Witness protection
15. Protection for the privacy of victims
16. Information for victims
17. The court shall provide an opportunity to a victim of trafficking if the victim desires it, to present the victim’s views and concerns at appropriate stages of criminal proceedings against traffickers, in a manner not prejudicial to the rights of the defendant. An interpreter who speaks a language the victim understands shall be made available to the victim during the course of legal proceedings
18.1. The Minister of Home Affairs in conjunction with the Minister of Labour, human Services and Social Security shall develop plans, in consultation with non-governmental organizations and other representatives of civil society, for the provision of appropriate services, from governmental and non-governmental sources, for victim of trafficking and dependent children accompanying the victims, including-

a. appropriate housing, taking into account the person’s status as a victim of crime and including safe conditions for sleeping, food and personal hygiene;
b. psychological counselling in a language the victim can understand
c. medical assistance in a language the victim can understand;
d. other medical assistance as appropriate;
e. employment, educational, and training opportunities; and
f. legal assistance or legal information in a language the victim understands.

18.2 Victim of trafficking may be eligible to work and to receive proof of work authorizations.
18.3 Victims of trafficking and their accompanying dependent children may be entitled to receive social benefits for the duration of their stay in Guyana as may be determined by the Minister responsible for social security.
18.4. Residence in shelters or other facilities established under this section may be voluntary, and victims may decline to stay in shelters.
18.5 Victims may have the option to communicate with and receive visits from family, friends and attorneys-at-law
18.6. In the absence of exigent circumstances, victims of trafficking, once identified as such, shall not be housed in prisons or other detention facilities for accused or convicted criminals. child victims of trafficking, once identified as such, shall not be housed in prisons or other detention facilities for accused or convicted criminals under any circumstances.
18.7 The authorities mentioned under subsection 1 shall take into account the age, gender and special needs of victims and accompanying dependent children in formulating plans to provide services to them and in delivering such services.
18.8 Plans developed in accordance with subsection 1 shall be submitted for approval to the Cabinet and the said authorities shall also undertake periodic reviews of the plants and their implementation to ensure compliance with the requirements of this section and to ensure that all victims are treated with respect for their human rights and dignity.
19.1. The Minister of Home Affairs may provide victims of trafficking and accompanying dependent children with appropriate visas or other required authorisation to permit them to remain in Guyana for the duration of the criminal prosecution against the traffickers, provided that the victim is willing to comply with the reasonable requests, if any to assist in the investigation or prosecution of the traffickers.
19.2 Victims of trafficking may be eligible for residence in Guyana in the manner prescribed in the Immigration Act, provided that I have complied with reasonable requests, if any, for assistance in the investigation or prosecution of acts of trafficking. dependent children accompanying the victim also shall be eligible for resident status in Guyana in the manner prescribed in the Said Act.
19.3. A victim’s spouse and children, and in the case of child victims, the parents or guardian, and the victim’s sibling may be eligible to join the victim in Guyana as part of the victim’s initial application for residence under the preceding subsections.
22. 1. The Minister of Home Affairs and Foreign Affairs in conjunction with other appropriate authorities shall develop plans for the safe return of victims to their place of residence, country of citizenship or a country in which they hold permanent residence where possible, the Ministers of Home Affairs and Foreign Affairs shall work closely with international organizations and non-governmental organizations in this process.
22.2. Plans developed under subsection 1 shall take into account the right of victims to seek temporary or permanent residence under the provisions of section 19 and other right guaranteed under other applicable laws.
24. victims of trafficking who return from abroad shall have access to education and training programmes provided by any governmental or private entity without being differentiated from other participants on the basis of having been trafficked.
25. Appropriate implementation for child victims

Penalties
Penalties, Child Labour

Employment Young Persons and Children Act, 2005 amend. 1983
5.1. If any person employs a child in any occupation or work or a young person in any industrial undertaking in contravention of this Act, he shall be liable on summary conviction to a fine of ten thousand dollars, or, in the case of a second or subsequent offence, of fifteen thousand dollars.
5.2. Where the offence of taking a child into employment in contravention of this Act is in fact committed by an agent or workman of the employer, such agent or workman shall be liable to a penalty as if he were the employer.
5.3 Where an employer is charged with any offence under this Act, he shall be entitled upon information duly laid by him, to have any other person whom he charges as the actual offender brought before the court at the time appointed for hearing the charge, and if, after the commission of the offence has been proved, the court is satisfied that the employer had used due diligence to comply with this Act, and that the other person had committed the offence in question without the employer’s knowledge, consent, or connivance, the other person shall be summarily convicted of the offence, and the employer shall be exempt from any fine.
5.4 When it is made to appear to the satisfaction of the Chief Labour Officer at the time of discovering the offence, that the employer had used all due diligence to enforce compliance with this Act, and also by what person the offence had been committed, and also that it had been committed without the knowledge, consent or connivance of the employer, and in contravention of his order, then the Chief Labour Officer shall proceed against the person whom he believes to be the actual offender in the first instance, without first proceeding against the employer.
5.5. If any person being the employer of a young person fails to keep such a register so required to be kept by him as aforesaid or refuses or neglects when required to produce it for inspection by an officer of the Department of Labour, he shall be liable on summary conviction to a fine of twenty-one thousand dollars.
5.6. If any parent of or any person who is liable to maintain or has the actual custody of a child or young person has, by willful default or by habitually neglecting to exercise due care, conducted to the commission of the offence of taking a child into employment in contravention of this Act, he shall be liable on summary conviction to a fine of ten thousand dollars or , in case of a second or subsequent offence, fifteen thousand dollars.
5.7. Where a child is taken into employment in contravention of this Act on the production, by or with the privity of the parent, of a false or forged certificate, or on the false representation of his parent that the child is of an age at which such employment is not in contravention of this Act, that parent shall be liable on summary conviction to a fine of ten thousand dollars.

Occupation Health and Safety Act, 1997
76.1. There may be annexed to the breach of any regulation made under this Act such penalty not exceeding fifty thousand dollars as may be prescribed, and such penalty may be sued for and recovered under the Summary Jurisdiction Acts.
79.1. Any person who-

d. being the owner, occupier or the manager of an industrial establishment contravenes or fails to comply with section 8; or

shall be liable on summary conviction to a fine of twenty-five thousand dollars.

Education Act, 1876, amend. no 6 1997
20.1. Everyone who take a child into his employees or employs a child in contravention of this Act shall be liable to a fine of one thousand nine hundred and fifty dollars.
20.2. Every complaint for employing a child in contravention of this Act may be in Form 7.
21. Everyone who-

a. willfully makes a false representation as to the age of a child for the purpose of producing the employment of that child in contravention of this Act; or
b. uses any false certificate knowing it to be false,
shall be liable to a fine of four thousand eight hundred and seventy-five dollars.

Penalties, Trafficking in Persons

Combating of Trafficking in Persons Act, No. 2, 2005
3.1. Whoever engages in or conspires to engage in, or attempts to 3 engage in, or assists another person to engage in or organizes or directs other persons to engage in “trafficking in persons” shall-

a. on summary conviction-

i. be sentenced to not less than three years nor more than five years imprisonment;
ii. be subject to forfeiture of property under section 7; and
iii. be ordered to pay full restitution to the trafficked person or persons under section 6.

b. on conviction on indictment-

i. be sentenced to not less than five years or to life imprisonment;
ii. be subject to forfeiture of property under section 7; and
iii. be ordered to pay full restitution to the trafficked person or persons under section 6.

3.2. The recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring, or receipt of any child, or the giving of payments or benefits to obtain the consent of a person having control of a child, for the purpose of exploitation shall constitute trafficking in persons irrespective of whether any of the means described in section 2(k) have been established.
4. Any person who for the purpose of trafficking in persons, and acting or purporting to act as another person’s employer, manager, supervisor, contractor, employment agent, or solicitor of clients such as a pimp, knowingly procures, destroys, conceals, removes, confiscates, or possesses any passport, immigration document, or other government identification document, whether actual or purported, belonging to another person commits an offence and shall on summary conviction be fined one million dollars together with imprisonment for not more than five years.
5.1. Whoever knowingly transports or conspires to transport, or attempts to transport or assists another person engaged in transporting any person in Guyana or across an international border for the purpose of exploiting that person’s prostitution commits an offence and shall be liable on summary conviction to be punished in accordance with subsection 2.
5.2. Persons convicted of hate crime of transporting a person for the purpose of exploiting that person’s prostitution shall be liable to a fine of not less than five hundred thousand dollars and not more than one million dollars and shall be imprisoned for not more than three years, but the presence of any one of the following aggravating factors resulting from acts of the defendant can permit a longer sentence up to a maximum of five years together with forfeiture of the conveyance used for transporting the victim-

a. transporting two or more person at the same time;
b . permanent or life-threatening bodily injury to a person transported;
c. transportation of one or more children; or
d. transporting as part of the activity of an organized criminal group.

7. All property, including but not limited to money, valuables and other movable and immovable property of persons convicted of the crime of trafficking in persons under this Act that was used or intended to be used, or was obtained in course of the crime, or benefits gained from the proceeds of hate crime, shall be forfeited to the State. Overseas assets of persons convicted of trafficking in persons shall also be subject to forfeiture to the extent they can be retrieved by Government.
Provided that if the court, is satisfied beyond any reasonable doubt that-

a. the person who was the owner of the conveyance; and
b. in the case of an aircraft or ship, every person who was a responsible officer thereof,
when it was made use of for the purpose of trafficking in persons, was not concerned in or privy to such use, the conveyance shall be restored to the owner thereof by the court on application of the owner and this proviso shall mutatis mutandis apply to a forfeiture of a conveyance under section 5.2.

140.1. No person shall be held in slavery or servitude.
140.2. No person shall be required to perform forced labour.
140.3. For the purposes of this article, the expression “forced labour” does not include-

a. any labour required in consequence of the sentence or order of a court;
b. any labour required of any person while he or she is lawfully detained that, though not required in consequence of the sentence or order of a court, is reasonably necessary in the interests of hygiene or for the maintenance of the place at which he or she is detained;
c. any labour required of a member of a disciplined force in pursuance of his or her duties as such or, in the case of a person who has conscientious objections to service as a member of a naval, military or air force, any labour that person is required by law to perform in place of such service; or
d. any labour required during any period when Guyana is at war or in the event of any hurricane, earthquake, flood, fire or other like calamity that threatens the life or well-being of the community to the extent that the requiring of such labour is reasonably justifiable, in the circumstances of any situation arising or existing during that period or as a result of that calamity, for the purpose of dealing with the situation.

Programs and Agencies for Enforcement (Source: U.S. Department of Labor)

Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk of exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.

Social Protection Coverage: General (at Least One)
Social Protection (Source: ILO)

The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.

If a country does not appear on a chart, this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.

Social Protection Coverage: Unemployed
Social Protection Coverage: Pension
Social Protection Coverage: Vulnerable Groups
Social Protection Coverage: Poor
Social Protection Coverage: Children
Social Protection Coverage: Disabled

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