Tableaux de bord des données

Holy See
Measurement
Measuring the Change

using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards.

Due to lack of nationally representative data, there is no change to report.

%
Best Target 8.7 Data: Child Labour Rate

No data available

Data Availability
  • Child labour: No ILO/UNICEF data
  • Forced labour: No nationally representative data
  • Human trafficking: No nationally representative data
Context
Human Development

Human Development Index Score: No data available

Mean School Years: No data available

Labour Indicators

Vulnerable Employment: No data available

Working Poverty Rate: No data available

Government Efforts
Key Ratifications
  • ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Not Ratified
  • ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Not Ratified
  • UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Not Ratified
Social Protection Coverage

General (at least one): No data

Unemployed: No data

Pension: No data

Vulnerable: No data

Children: No data

Disabled: No data

Poor: No data

Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.

No nationally representative data is available on child labour prevalence in Holy See.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on ILO-SIMPOC methods and guidelines for defining, measuring and collecting data on child labour.

Measuring the incidence of forced labour is a much more recent endeavour and presents unique methodological challenges compared to the measurement of child labour.

No nationally representative data is available on forced labour prevalence in Holy See.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on new guidelines presented by the International Labour Organization and adopted by the International Conference of Labour Statisticians.

The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.

No nationally representative data is available on human trafficking prevalence in Holy See.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page to learn about measuring human trafficking prevalence, including information on collecting data through national referral mechanisms and producing prevalence statistics using Multiple Systems Estimation (MSE).

Case Data: International and Non-Governmental Organizations

Civil society organizations (CSOs) focused on human trafficking victim assistance can serve as crucial sources of data given their ability to reach a population that is notoriously difficult to sample.

Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (CTDC): The International Organization for Migration (IOM), Polaris and Liberty Asia have launched a global data repository on human trafficking, with data contributed by counter-trafficking partner organizations around the world. Not only does the CTDC serve as a central repository for this critical information, it also publishes normed and harmonized data from various organizations using a unified schema. This global dataset facilitates an unparalleled level of cross-border, trans-agency analysis and provides the counter-trafficking movement with a deeper understanding of this complex issue. Equipped with this information, decision makers will be empowered to create more targeted and effective intervention strategies.

Prosecution Data

UNODC compiles a global dataset on detected and prosecuted traffickers, which serves as the basis in their Global Report for country profiles. This information is beginning to paint a picture of trends over time, and case-specific information can assist investigators and prosecutors.

Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.

Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in the availability of equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction towards achieving Target 8.7.

Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.

Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants./span>

According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children.”

As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements.”

There is no visualization for the Holy See as there is not a sufficient amount of data available.

Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.

Official Definitions
Worst Forms of Child Labour

Supplementary Norms on Criminal Law Matters, 2013

« Article 4 (Definitions)
For the purposes of the criminal law:

a) “minor” means every human being below the age of eighteen years;
b) «  »sale of children” means any act or transaction whereby a minor is transferred by any person or group of persons to another person or group of persons for remuneration or any other compensation;
c) «  »child prostitution” means the use of a minor in sexual activities for remuneration or for any other form of compensation, either given or promised to the minor or to other person;
d) “child pornography“ means any representation, by whatever means, of a minor engaged in real or simulated explicit sexual activities as well as any representation of the sexual parts of a minor for primarily sexual purposes; »

« Article 5 (Sale of children)
1. Unless it constitutes a more serious offence, whoever sells, offers, procures, delivers or accepts, a minor for the purposes of:

a) exploiting the minor for sexual purposes; b) engaging the minor in child prostitution; c) transferring the minor’s organs for profit; d) employing the minor in forced labour;
is punished with six to twelve years imprisonment and a fine from 15,000 to 150,000 euro.

2. Whoever, as an intermediary in the sale of a minor, improperly obtains consent for the adoption of a minor in violation of applicable international legal instruments on adoption is punished with three to six years imprisonment and a fine from 5,000 to 50,000 euro. »

Trafficking in Human Beings

Supplementary Norms on Criminal Law Matters, 2013

« Article 2
(Trafficking in human beings)
1. Whoever traffics with a person in the conditions referred to in article 145 of the Criminal Code, and whoever, in order to commit the offence set forth in that article, induces him through deception or coerces, through violence, threat, abuse of power, or abuse of a situation of physical or mental vulnerability or need, or through the offer or conferral of money or other benefits to the person who has control over him, to enter, sojourn, or exit the territory of the State or to transfer within its territory, is punished with eight to twenty years imprisonment.
2. The penalty is increased by one-third to one-half if the acts referred to in paragraph 1 are committed against a minor, or if they are directed to the exploitation through prostitution or to inflict upon the victim the removal of organs. »

Enslavement

Criminal Code amend. Amendments to the Criminal Code and the Code of Criminal Procedure, 2013

« 145. Whoever exercises the powers attaching to the right of ownership over a person, or
who subjects or keeps a person in a state of continuous submission, forcing that person to
work, to provide sexual services, to beg or to provide any other compensation that
constitutes exploitation, is punished with eight to twenty years imprisonment.
For the purposes of this article, the subjection or retention of a person in a state of
submission is deemed to occur when it is committed through violence, threat, deception,
abuse of power, or by abusing a situation of physical or mental vulnerability or need, or
through the offer or conferral of money or other benefits to whoever has control over the
person.  »

 

Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the perpetration of forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour. These actions should be considered in wider societal efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.

Programs and Agencies for Victim Support

Policies for Assistance
Policies for Assistance, General

Criminal Procedure Code amend. Amendments to the Criminal Code and the Code of Criminal Procedure, 2013

« Article 256 bis. Whenever during the course of criminal proceedings concerning the offences set forth
in this law there is a concrete and present danger for the personal integrity of a potential
witness or for the victim of the crime, or for their close relatives, the tribunal, upon request
of the person concerned or of his legal representative, and having heard the Promoter of
Justice, adopts the necessary measures to ensure his protection. »

Supplementary Norms on Criminal Law Matters, 2013

« Article 53 (Assistance to the victims)
The goods confiscated following a conviction for any of the offences set forth in this law may be devoted, in whole or in part, to compensate the victims or to repair the damages incurred. »

 

Penalties
Penalties, General

Criminal Code amend. Amendments to the Criminal Code and the Code of Criminal Procedure, 2013

« 145. Whoever exercises the powers attaching to the right of ownership over a person, or
who subjects or keeps a person in a state of continuous submission, forcing that person to
work, to provide sexual services, to beg or to provide any other compensation that
constitutes exploitation, is punished with eight to twenty years imprisonment.
For the purposes of this article, the subjection or retention of a person in a state of
submission is deemed to occur when it is committed through violence, threat, deception,
abuse of power, or by abusing a situation of physical or mental vulnerability or need, or
through the offer or conferral of money or other benefits to whoever has control over the
person.  »

415. Whoever, in order to obtain an undue advantage for himself or for another, induces a person to perform an act whose legal effects are harmful to himself or to another, either by taking advantage of a minor’s emotions or inexperience or by taking advantage of that person’s illness or psychological weakness, even if that person has not been declared legally incapable or unable, is punished with two to six years imprisonment and with a fine ranging from 1,000 to 10,000 euro

Worst Forms of Child Labour

Supplementary Norms on Criminal Law Matters, 2013

« Article 4 (Definitions)
For the purposes of the criminal law:

a) “minor” means every human being below the age of eighteen years;
b) «  »sale of children” means any act or transaction whereby a minor is transferred by any person or group of persons to another person or group of persons for remuneration or any other compensation;
c) «  »child prostitution” means the use of a minor in sexual activities for remuneration or for any other form of compensation, either given or promised to the minor or to other person;
d) “child pornography“ means any representation, by whatever means, of a minor engaged in real or simulated explicit sexual activities as well as any representation of the sexual parts of a minor for primarily sexual purposes; »

« Article 5 (Sale of children)
1. Unless it constitutes a more serious offence, whoever sells, offers, procures, delivers or accepts, a minor for the purposes of:

a) exploiting the minor for sexual purposes; b) engaging the minor in child prostitution; c) transferring the minor’s organs for profit; d) employing the minor in forced labour;
is punished with six to twelve years imprisonment and a fine from 15,000 to 150,000 euro.

2. Whoever, as an intermediary in the sale of a minor, improperly obtains consent for the adoption of a minor in violation of applicable international legal instruments on adoption is punished with three to six years imprisonment and a fine from 5,000 to 50,000 euro. »

« Article 9
(Ignorance of the age of the victim)
When the offences set forth in articles 5, 6, 7, 8 and 10, paragraph 1, are committed against a minor is under fourteen years of age, the guilty person may not invoke his ignorance of the age of the victim as a justifying factor. »

Penalties, Human Trafficking

Supplementary Norms on Criminal Law Matters, 2013

« Article 2
(Trafficking in human beings)
1. Whoever traffics with a person in the conditions referred to in article 145 of the Criminal Code, and whoever, in order to commit the offence set forth in that article, induces him through deception or coerces, through violence, threat, abuse of power, or abuse of a situation of physical or mental vulnerability or need, or through the offer or conferral of money or other benefits to the person who has control over him, to enter, sojourn, or exit the territory of the State or to transfer within its territory, is punished with eight to twenty years imprisonment.
2. The penalty is increased by one-third to one-half if the acts referred to in paragraph 1 are committed against a minor, or if they are directed to the exploitation through prostitution or to inflict upon the victim the removal of organs. »

Data Commitments

A Call to Action to End Forced Labour, Modern Slavery and Human Trafficking, Signed 2017

1.ii. Take steps to measure, monitor and share data on prevalence and response to all such forms of exploitation, as appropriate to national circumstances;

Programs and Agencies for Enforcement

Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk of exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.