Data Dashboards

Hungary
Measurement
Measuring the Change

using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards.

Due to lack of nationally representative data, there is no change to report.

%
Best Target 8.7 Data: Human Trafficking

The data visualization displays the number of identified victims of human trafficking per year in Hungary. Detailed information is provided in the Measurement tab (above).

Data Availability
  • Child labour: No ILO/UNICEF data
  • Human trafficking: Case data available
Context
Human Development

Human Development Index Score: 0.845 (2018)

Mean School Years: 11.9 years (2018)

 

Labour Indicators

Vulnerable Employment: 5.7% (2018)

Working Poverty Rate: No data available

Government Efforts
Key Ratifications
  • ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Not Ratified
  • ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2000
  • UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Ratified 2006
Social Protection Coverage

General (at least one): 86.2% (2016)

Unemployed: 12.4% (2014)

Pension: 100% (2014)

Vulnerable: 56.0% (2016)

Children: 100% (2016)

Disabled: 100% (2016)

Poor: 100% (2016)

Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.

Youth employment in Hungary is permitted only to those ages 16 and up, and is regulated by the Labour Code. There is no data available on child labour in Hungary, most likely due to relatively low incidence.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on ILO-SIMPOC methods and guidelines for defining, measuring and collecting data on child labour.

The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.

Identified Victims of Human Trafficking (Source: GRETA)

According to the European Commission, Hungary is primarily a country of origin and transit for women and girls trafficked for sexual exploitation, and a source country for men and women trafficked for labour exploitation. Given its geographical location, Hungary is a transit country for illegal migration, and thus serves as a conduit for sex trafficking to the Netherlands, Switzerland, Belgium, Austria, and Germany. In addition to migrants, high-risk groups for trafficking include under-educated young adults residing in poor conditions or who have previously lived in state-provided welfare homes or juvenile correctional facilities. Most of the victims are single younger women.

The graph on the right shows the number of identified victims of human trafficking per year in Hungary, as reported by Hungarian authorities to the Group of Experts on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings (GRETA).

Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.

Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.

The chart displays information on human development in Hungary between 1990 and 2018. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex. 

The most recent year of the HDI, 2018, shows that the average human development score in Hungary is 0.845. This score indicates that human development is very high. 

 

HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)

Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.

As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:

“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”

The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in Hungary over time.

 

Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in the availability of equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction towards achieving Target 8.7.

HDI Vulnerable Employment (Source: UNDP)

There are reasons to believe that certain types of labour and labour arrangements are more likely to lead to labour exploitation. According to the ILO:

“Own-account workers and contributing family workers have a lower likelihood of having formal work arrangements, and are therefore more likely to lack elements associated with decent employment, such as adequate social security and a voice at work. The two statuses are summed to create a classification of ‘vulnerable employment’, while wage and salaried workers together with employers constitute ‘non-vulnerable employment’.”

Between 1991 and 2018, Hungary showed a decrease in the proportion of workers in vulnerable employment as compared to those in secure employment.

Labour Productivity (Source: ILO)

Labour productivity is an important economic indicator that is closely linked to economic growth, competitiveness, and living standards within an economy.” However, when increased labour output does not produce rising wages, this can point to increasing inequality. As indicated by a recent ILO report (2015), there is a “growing disconnect between wages and productivity growth, in both developed and emerging economies”. The lack of decent work available increases vulnerability to situations of labour exploitation. 

Labour productivity represents the total volume of output (measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product, GDP) produced per unit of labour (measured in terms of the number of employed persons) during a given period.

 

Rates of Non-fatal Occupational Injuries (Source: ILO)

Occupational injury and fatality data can also be crucial in prevention and response efforts. 

As the ILO explains:

“Data on occupational injuries are essential for planning preventive measures. For instance, workers in occupations and activities of highest risk can be targeted more effectively for inspection visits, development of regulations and procedures, and also for safety campaigns.”

There are serious gaps in existing data coverage, particularly among groups that may be highly vulnerable to labour exploitation. For example, few countries provide information on injuries disaggregated between migrant and non-migrant workers.

Rates of Fatal Occupational Injuries (Source: ILO)

Data on occupational health and safety may reveal conditions of exploitation, even if exploitation may lead to under-reporting of workplace injuries and safety breaches. At present, the ILO collects data on occupational injuries, both fatal and non-fatal, disaggregating by sex and migrant status.

Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.

Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Source: UNHCR)

Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants.

According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children. “

As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements, as recognized by Member States in the New York declaration for refugees and migrants of September 2016.”

The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in Hungary.

Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.

Official Definitions
Forced Labour

2012 évi C. törvény a Büntetõ Törvénykönyvrõl (Act C/2012 the Criminal Code)

“Forced Labor
Section 193
(1) Any person who forces another person by taking advantage of his vulnerable situation, or by force or by threat of force, to perform work against his will, is guilty of a felony punishable by imprisonment between one to five years.”

Child Labour

Magyarország Alaptörvénye (Fundamental Law) 2011

“Article XVIII
(1) The employment of children shall be prohibited, except in those cases specified in an Act where there is no risk to their physical, mental or moral development.
(2) By means of separate measures, Hungary shall ensure the protection of young people and parents at work.”

Törvény I/2012 a munka törvénykönyvérõl (Act 1/2012 promulgating the Labour Code)

“Section 4
The provisions of this Act pertaining to young workers shall also apply mutatis mutandis to the employment of persons under the age of eighteen within a non-employment relationship.”

“Section 34
(1) ‘Employee’ means any natural person who works under an employment contract.
(2) Employees must be at least sixteen years of age. By way of derogation from the above, any person of at least fifteen years of age receiving full-time school education may enter into an employment relationship during school holidays.
(3) By authorization of the guardian authority, young persons under sixteen years of age may be employed for the purposes of performance in cultural, artistic, sports or advertising activities.”

“Section 35
No deviation from the provision of Sections 32-34 shall be permitted.”

“Section 294
(1) For the purposes of this Act:
a) ‘young worker’ shall mean any employee under the age of eighteen;”

Worst Forms of Child Labour

Törvény I/2012 a munka törvénykönyvérõl (Act 1/2012 promulgating the Labour Code)

“Section 114
(1) Young workers may not be ordered to work at night and may not be ordered to work overtime.
(2) The daily working time of young workers is limited at eight hours, and the number of working hours performed under different employment relationships shall be added up.
(3) As regards young workers:

a) the maximum duration of working time banking is one week;
b) if the scheduled daily working time is over four and a half hours or six hours, the break-time
provided shall be at least thirty minutes or forty-five minutes, respectively;
c) the daily rest period allocated shall be at least twelve hours.

(4) In the case of young workers Subsection (2) of Section 105 and Subsection (3) of Section
106 shall not apply.”

Human Trafficking

2012 évi C. törvény a Büntetõ Törvénykönyvrõl (Act C/2012 the Criminal Code)

“Trafficking in Human Beings
Section 192
(1) Any person who:

a) sells, purchases, exchanges, or transfers or receives another person as consideration; or
b) transports, harbors, shelters or recruits another person for the purposes referred to in Paragraph a), including transfer of control over such person;
is guilty of a felony punishable by imprisonment not exceeding three years.

(2) Any person who – for the purpose of exploitation – sells, purchases, exchanges, supplies, receives, recruits, transports, harbors or shelters another person, including transfer of control over such person, is punishable by imprisonment between one to five years.
(3) The penalty shall be imprisonment between two to eight years if trafficking in human beings is committed:

a) against a person held in captivity;
b) by force or by threat of force;
c) by deception;
d) by tormenting the aggrieved party;
e) against a person who is in the care, custody or supervision of or receives medical treatment from, the perpetrator, or if abuse is made of a recognized position of trust, authority or influence over the victim;
f) for the unlawful use of the human body;
g) by a public official, acting in an official capacity;
h) in criminal association with accomplices; or
i) on a commercial scale.

(4) The penalty shall be imprisonment between five to ten years, if:

a) the criminal offense provided for in Subsection (2) is committed against a person under the age of eighteen years;
b) the criminal offense provided for in Subsection (2) is committed against a person held in captivity, and either of the aggravating circumstances under Paragraphs b)-i) of Subsection (3) apply; or
c) the criminal offense provided for in Subsection (2) results in particularly great damage or danger to life.

(5) The penalty shall be imprisonment between five to fifteen years if:

a) the criminal offense provided for in Subsection (2) is committed against a person under the age of fourteen years;
b) the criminal offense provided for in Subsection (2) is committed against a person under the age of eighteen years, and either of the aggravating circumstances under Subsection (3) apply;
c) the criminal offense provided for in Subsection (2) is committed against a person under the age of eighteen years, and results in particularly great damage or danger to life; or
d) the criminal offense provided for in Subsection (2) is committed against a person under the age of eighteen years for the purpose of child pornography.

(6) The penalty shall be imprisonment between five to twenty years or life imprisonment if:

a) the criminal offense provided for in Subsection (2) is committed against a person under the age of fourteen years, and either of the aggravating circumstances under Subsection (3) apply;
b) the criminal offense provided for in Subsection (2) is committed against a person under the age of fourteen years, and results in particularly great damage or danger to life; or
c) the criminal offense provided for in Subsection (2) is committed against a person under the age of fourteen years for the purpose of child pornography.

(7) Any person who engages in preparations for trafficking in human beings is guilty of misdemeanor punishable by imprisonment not exceeding two years.
(8) In the application of this Section, ‘exploitation’ shall mean the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability for the purpose of taking advantage of the victim forced into or kept in such situation.”

Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the perpetration of forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour. These actions should be considered in wider societal efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.

Programs and Agencies for Victim Support

Policies for Assistance
Policies for Assistance, General

Criminal Procedure Code, 1998

“The victim
Section 51 (1) The victim is the party who’s right or lawful interest has been violated or jeopardised by the criminal offence.
(2) The victim shall be entitled to

a) be present at the procedural actions (unless provided otherwise by this Act) and to inspect the documents affecting him or her in the course of the procedure,
b) make motions and objections at any stage of the procedure,
c) receive information from the court, the prosecutor and the investigating authority concerning his or her rights and obligations during the criminal proceedings,
d) file for legal remedy in the cases specified in this Act.

(3) Victims who died, either prior to, or following the institution of criminal proceedings, may be replaced by a relative who lies in direct line of descent, a spouse, life partner or legal representative who may exercise the rights specified in subsection (2) above. Upon the death of a victim who was a member of a church and was prevented from entering into marriage due to the order of the church which he belonged to or due to an oath made by him, in the absence of a relative (heir), his principal at the relevant church shall have the rights of a relative in direct line. ”

Act CXXXV of 2005 on Crime Victim Support and State Compensation

“Section 1.1. This Act shall apply to victims of crime committed in the territory of the Republic of Hungary and any natural persons who have suffered injuries as a direct consequence of criminal acts, in particular bodily or emotional harm, mental shock or economic loss (hereinafter referred to collectively as ‘victims’), on condition that they are

a) Hungarian citizens,
b) citizens of any EU Member State,
c) citizens of any non-EU country lawfully residing in the territory of the European Union,
d) stateless persons lawfully residing in the territory of the Republic of Hungary,
e) victims of trafficking in human beings, and
f) any other persons deemed eligible by virtue of international treaties concluded between their respective states of nationality and the Republic of Hungary or on the basis of reciprocity.

Section 1.2. Declaration of the minister in charge of the judicial system shall prevail as to the existence of reciprocity.
Section 1.3. A victim of crime shall be entitled to crime victim support and state compensation (hereinafter referred to collectively as ‘victim support’) provided hereunder even if

a) charges are rejected, investigation is terminated, the proceeding is dismissed or the defendant is cleared of charges for reasons such as underage, mental incapacity, coercion or duress, mistake, lawful self-defense, extreme necessity or superior’s command,
b) charges are rejected or the proceeding is dismissed on any grounds for the termination of punishability as defined in Section 32 of the Act IV of 1978 on the Criminal Code (hereinafter referred to as ‘Criminal Code’).”

“Section 2 .1. A Hungarian citizen, habitually residing in Hungary, who has been victimized in a violent deliberate crime during his/her lawful stay in a foreign country shall also be entitled to victim support services provided under this Act (hereinafter referred to as ‘services’) if able to provide credible proof thereof.
Section 2.2. A crime victim shall be entitled to state compensation afforded under this Act (hereinafter referred to as ‘compensation’) under Paragraph c) of Section 1 (1) if he/she has a permanent residence or a habitual and lawful place of abode in any EU Member State. A crime victim may also be granted compensation if he/she holds a residence or immigration permit in Hungary.
Section 2.3. An individual with a habitual place of abode in Hungary shall be entitled to having recourse to the support scheme set forth in Chapter VI of this Act upon having been victimized in a violent intentional crime committed in another EU Member State.
Section 3. This Act shall not apply to persons prosecuted in criminal proceedings.”

“Crime Victims Ineligible for Services Section 5 The State shall not provide services for a crime victim who

a) has already been granted the support applied for in an earlier phase of his/her case,
b) had provided false information in a previous application for victim support services, for a period of two years following the operative date of the relevant resolution ,
c) obstructs the examination aimed at verifying the data furnished in his/her application for support,
d) had obstructed the examination aimed at verifying data furnished in a former application for support, for a period of two years following the operative date of the relevant resolution ,
e) has failed, although he/she would have been obliged, to repay to the State the amount of monetary aid or the fee of legal assistance granted hereunder.”

Policies for Assistance, Human Trafficking

Act II of 2007 on the Entry and Stay of Third-Country Nationals

“Section 29.1. In the absence of the requirements for a residence permit specified in this Act the following persons shall be granted a residence permit on humanitarian grounds:

a) the person recognized by the Republic of Hungary as a stateless person;
b) the person who has been granted the status of exile by the Republic of Hungary;
c) any third-country national who applied to the refugee authority for asylum, or who applied to the refugee authority for any subsidiary form of protection or temporary protection;
d) any third-country national who was born in the territory of the Republic of Hungary who has been removed from the custody of his guardian having custody according to Hungarian law, and also unaccompanied minors;
e) for substantial national security or law enforcement reasons – by initiative of the national security or law enforcement agency – to any third-country national, or other affiliated third-country nationals on his/her account, who has cooperated with the authorities in a crime investigation and has provided significant assistance to gather evidence.

Section 29.2. The validity period of a residence permit granted on humanitarian grounds:

a) shall be one year in the cases referred to in Paragraphs a)-d) of Subsection (1), that may be extended by maximum one year at a time;
b) shall be six months in the case referred to in Paragraph e) of Subsection (1), that may be extended by maximum six months at a time.

Section 29.3. By way of derogation from Subsection (1) of Section 18, a residence permit granted on humanitarian grounds may not be extended, or it shall be withdrawn if:

a) any requirement for issue is no longer satisfied;
b) the third-country national in question has disclosed false information or untrue facts to the competent authority in the interest of obtaining the right of residence;
c) withdrawal is requested by the authority or body on whose initiative it was issued on the grounds specified in Paragraph a) or for some other reason.

Section 29.4. Where a residence permit was granted on humanitarian grounds by the initiative of a duly authorized authority or body, the withdrawal, extension or refusal of extension of such residence permit shall be subject to the initiative or consent of the aforesaid duly authorized authority or body.
Section 29.5. The residence permit of a third-country national referred to in Paragraph d) of Subsection (1) may be withdrawn, or extension of the duration specified in his/her residence permit may be refused only if family reunification in the country of origin or in any other country liable to accept him/her is ensured, or if state or other institutional support is ensured.
Section 29.6. Exiles shall be entitled to the rights afforded to persons with residence permits and to the rights granted to exiles in specific other legislation. The exile shall provide assistance for having his identity established, however, failure to establish his identity shall not justify refusal of a residence permit.
Section 29.7. Exiles, and the third-country nationals to whom a residence permit had been issued under Paragraph e) of Subsection (1), who are victims of trafficking in human beings shall be provided aid and support specified under specific other legislation.”

“Certificate of Temporary Residence
Section 30.1. A certificate of temporary residence shall be issued to any third-country national:

a) who has filed an application for a residence permit, and whose long-term visa, national visa or previous residence permit has already expired before the permit is issued, or shall be granted residence permit in accordance with this Act, furthermore, if the applicant has submitted an application for a residence permit under Subsection (5) of Section 1;
b) who has submitted an application for a long-term visa or interim permanent residence permit in the territory of the Republic of Hungary;
c) who remained in the territory of the Republic of Hungary beyond the duration of lawful residence due to humanitarian reasons or reasons in connection with his/her gainful employment, or for personal or some other unavoidable reasons beyond his/her control;
d) who was born in the territory of the Republic of Hungary and whose parent is a third-country national lawfully residing in the territory of the Republic of Hungary, and whose lawful residence cannot be ensured by any other permit that may be granted under this Act; e) who is a victim of trafficking in human beings, if initiated by the victim support authority, for the duration of support;
f) whose entry is authorized under Subsection (2) of Section 13, if he/she does not have any form of authorization to reside in the territory of the Republic of Hungary;
g) whose travel document had been confiscated, and he/she does not have any form of authorization to reside in the territory of the Republic of Hungary;
h) who is subject to any immigration related proceeding for unlawful entry and residence pending;
i) who has applied for stateless status, for the duration of such proceedings, if he/she does not have any form of authorization to reside in the territory of the Republic of Hungary;
j) who is subject to an order of compulsory confinement under Paragraph a), b), c), d) or f) of Subsection (1) of Section 62.

Section 30.2. The validity period of a certificate of temporary residence:

a) shall be three months in the cases specified in Paragraphs a)-c) and f)-h) of Subsection (1), and it may be extended by three additional months at a time;
b) shall correspond to the duration of residence of the parent in the case specified in Paragraph d) of Subsection (1);
c) shall be one month in the case specified in Paragraph e) of Subsection (1), and it may not be extended;
d) shall be six months in the cases specified in Paragraphs i) and j) of Subsection (1), and it may be extended by six additional months at a time.

Section 30.3. The third-country nationals to whom a certificate of temporary residence had been granted under Paragraph a) of Subsection (1) may engage in gainful employment if having submitted an application for a residence permit for the purpose of gainful employment in possession of a long-term visa or residence permit that was issued for the purpose of gainful employment.
Section 30.4. A certificate of temporary residence may not be extended, or it shall be withdrawn if any requirement for issue is no longer satisfied.
Section 30.5. A certificate of temporary residence constitutes the right of residence in the territory of the Republic of Hungary, it may not be used for exit or reentry, it shall become void upon the third-country national’s departure, when it shall be surrendered. The certificates surrendered shall be returned to the issuing authority. Provisions relating to the Entry and Residence of the Civilian Personnel, and their Relatives, under the Convention between the Parties to the North Atlantic Treaty on the Status of their Forces, signed in London on 19 June 1951″

“Section 45.1. The immigration authority shall have regard for the following factors before adopting an expulsion order under immigration laws:

a) any threat to national security, public security, public policy or public health, in view of the gravity and nature of the actionable conduct;
b) the duration of stay;
c) the age and family status of the third-country national affected, possible consequences of his/her expulsion on his/her family members;
d) links of the third-country national to the Republic of Hungary, or the absence of links with the country of origin.

Section 45.2. Any third-country national who:

a) resides in the territory of the Republic of Hungary under immigrant or permanent resident status;
b) is bound to a third-country national residing in the territory of the Republic of Hungary under immigrant or permanent resident status by marriage or is a family member of such person, and has a residence permit, may be expelled only if his/her continued residence represents a serious threat to national security, public security or public policy.

Section 45.3. The provisions of Subsection (2) shall also apply to the immediate family members – defined in specific other legislation – of a third-country national who has applied to the refugee authority for refugee status for the duration of the application pending, and those with refugee status or to whom any subsidiary form of protection or temporary protection was granted.
Section 45.4. Third-country nationals who are victims of trafficking in human beings may only be expelled during the time of deliberation they are afforded only if their residence in the territory of the Republic of Hungary constitutes any threat to national security, public security or public policy.
Section 45.5. An unaccompanied minor may only be expelled if adequate protection is ensured in his country of origin or in a third country by means of reuniting him with other members of his family or by state or other institutional care.
Section 45.6. The immigration authority may abstain from ordering expulsion under immigration laws on the grounds specified in Paragraphs a), b) and d) of Subsection (2) of Section 43, if the third-country national affected agrees to leave the territory of the Republic of Hungary on his/her own accord. The immigration authority – having regard to Subsection (2) of Section 42 – shall prescribe the time limit for voluntary exit, and this decision may not be appealed.
Section 45.7. Expulsion may not be ordered under immigration laws, and entry ban may not be ordered independently against a third-country national who was convicted for a crime in the court of the law, yet the sentence did not include expulsion in any form, neither as a principal punishment nor as an ancillary punishment.”

“Section 111.1. The Government is hereby authorized to decree:

a) the authorities vested with competence in connection with immigration proceedings, with the registration of accommodations and home addresses, and the data of third-country nationals that may be processed on the strength of this Act, their scope of jurisdiction and the detailed regulations for their proceedings;
b) the immigration related tasks and duties and the powers and authorizations of visa authorities, the
detailed regulations for the issue of visas, the type of documents evidencing the right of entry and residence without a visa, and the prescribed form of visas;
c) the conditions for issuing residence permits, certificates of temporary residence, interim permanent residence permits, national residence permits and EC residence permits, and the formal requirements for these documents;
d) the travel documents recognized;
e) the detailed regulations concerning the issue, renewal and withdrawal of residence permits granted on humanitarian grounds, and the detailed regulations for cooperation between the immigration, national security and law enforcement agencies;
f) the conditions for providing official certificates for letters of invitation, and the detailed regulations for such proceedings;
g) the regulations concerning detention prior to expulsion or ordered under immigration laws, and for setting up and the designation of a compulsory place of confinement, and the detailed regulations for the provision of healthcare services and other assistance to third-country nationals in detention;
h) the detailed public health regulations pertaining to the entry and residence of third-country nationals in Hungary, and the financial requirements for health care services and the means of certification;
i) the amount limits of the financial penalties to be imposed on carriers and employers under this Act, and the procedure for levying them;
j) the rules of conduct for persons placed under compulsory confinement;
k) the regulations for the provisions to third-country nationals ordered to stay in the airport transit zone;
l) the regulations for the provisions and support granted to exiles and persons residing in community hostels and refugee centers, and to third-country nationals who are victims of trafficking in human beings;
m) the requirements set out for community hostels and the house rules of community hostels;
n) the detailed regulations for the entry and stay in Hungary of civilian personnel under the NATO-SOFA Agreement and of the relatives of such personnel;
o) the detailed regulations for recognition and enforcement of expulsion orders adopted by Member States;
p) the detailed regulations concerning the proceedings for the recognition of stateless status;
q) the detailed regulations for the issue of travel documents to third-country nationals.

Section 111.2. The minister in charge of immigration is hereby authorized to decree, in agreement with the ministers concerned: a) the content specifications and enclosures of the forms and documents prescribed by this Act; b) the fees for the procedures relating to the entry, exit and residence of third-country nationals, and for the procedures relating to the issue of travel documents to third-country nationals; c) the financial resources deemed adequate for entry and residence; d) the rules for covering the costs of immigration related procedures; e) the form of travel documents issued to third-country nationals.
Section 111.3. The minister in charge of foreign policies is hereby authorized to decree, in agreement with the minister in charge of immigration, the detailed regulations concerning the entry and exit and the right of residence of persons enjoying diplomatic or other type of immunity.
Section 111.4. The minister in charge of immigration and the minister in charge of the judicial system are hereby authorized to decree, in agreement with the ministers concerned, the regulations for the execution of detention and deportation by order of the immigration authority.
Section 111.5. The minister in charge of the healthcare system is hereby authorized to decree, in agreement with the minister in charge of immigration, the types of diseases which are potentially dangerous to public health.
Section 111.6. The minister in charge of immigration, the minister in charge of foreign policies, and the minister in charge of supervising the national security services are hereby authorized to decree the cases where the central visa authority is required to consult with the central authorities of other Schengen States requesting consultation prior to granting consent for the issue of a visa for a stay not exceeding three months for reasons of public security and national security.”

“Compliance with the Acquis Section 120.1. This Act serves the purpose of partial compliance with the following legislation of the Communities:
e) Council Directive 2004/81/EC of 29 April 2004 on the residence permit issued to third-country nationals who are victims of trafficking in human beings or who have been the subject of an action to facilitate illegal immigration, who cooperate with the competent authorities;”

Government Decree No. 354/2012. (XII.13) on the identification order of victims of trafficking in human beings

 

Penalties
Penalties, General

2012 évi C. törvény a Büntetõ Törvénykönyvrõl (Act C/2012 the Criminal Code)

“Illegal Use of a Human Body
Section 175
(1) Any person who illegally acquires, sells or trades for pecuniary gain human genes, cells, gametes, embryos, organs, tissues, or a cadaver or part(s) of such, or a deceased fetus, is guilty of a felony punishable by imprisonment not exceeding three years.
(2) The penalty shall be imprisonment between one to five years if the illegal use of human body is committed by an employee of a healthcare service provider acting for purposes relating to his profession.
(3) The penalty shall be imprisonment between one to five years in the case provided for in Subsection (1) or imprisonment between two to eight years in the case provided for in Subsection (2) if the illegal use of human body is committed:

a) against a person under the age of eighteen years;
b) on a commercial scale; or
c) in criminal association with accomplices.

(4) Any person who engages in preparations for the illegal use of a human body is guilty of a misdemeanor
punishable by imprisonment not exceeding one year in the case provided for in Subsection (1), or with imprisonment
not exceeding two years in the cases provided for in Subsections (2) and (3).
(5) For the purposes of this Section embryo shall also mean an embryo removed from the mother’s uterus as well
as those produced in special procedures for the purpose of human reproduction, which are not placed into the uterus.”

“Statutes of Limitations
Section 26
(1) Save where Subsections (2)-(3) apply, and unless otherwise provided for by the Act on the Exclusion of Statutes of Limitation for Certain Crimes, prosecution is barred upon the lapse of time equal to the maximum penalty prescribed, or after not less than five years.
(2) In connection with voluntary manslaughter, intentional grievous bodily injury punishable by imprisonment of more than three years, kidnapping, trafficking in human beings, illegal restraint, including criminal offense against sexual freedom and sexual offenses – if at the time when the crime was committed the victim is under the age of eighteen years, and prosecution of the crime is statute barred before the perpetrator’s twenty-third birthday – the limitation period is extended until the time the victim reaches the age twenty-three years, or until the time that such person would have reached the age of twenty-three years.
(3) No statute of limitations applies to the crimes defined in Chapters XIII and XIV, and to crimes which carry a maximum sentence of life imprisonment.”

Penalties, Forced Labour

2012 évi C. törvény a Büntetõ Törvénykönyvrõl (Act C/2012 the Criminal Code)

“Forced Labor
Section 193
(1) Any person who forces another person by taking advantage of his vulnerable situation, or by force or by threat of force, to perform work against his will, is guilty of a felony punishable by imprisonment between one to five years.
(2) The penalty shall be imprisonment between two to eight years if the crime of forced labor is committed:

a) by tormenting the victim;
b) by causing a significant injury of interests; or
c) against a person under the age of eighteen years.”

Penalties, Child Labour

2012 évi C. törvény a Büntetõ Törvénykönyvrõl (Act C/2012 the Criminal Code)

“Child Labor
Section 209
Any person who:

a) violates the statutory provisions on the employment of persons under the age of eighteen years; or
b) employs a third-country national under the age of eighteen years without authorization to undertake gainful employment;
is guilty of a felony punishable by imprisonment not exceeding three years.”

Penalties, Worst Forms of Child Labour

2012 évi C. törvény a Büntetõ Törvénykönyvrõl (Act C/2012 the Criminal Code)

“Exploitation of Child Prostitution
Section 203

(1) Any person who endeavors to profit from the exploitation of the prostitution of a person under the age of eighteen years is guilty of a felony punishable by imprisonment not exceeding three years.
(2) Any person who gives money or any other form of remuneration for sexual activities with a person under the age of eighteen years is punishable in accordance with Subsection (1).
(3) Any person who is supported partly or wholly by profiting from the exploitation of the prostitution of a person under the age of eighteen years is punishable by imprisonment between one to five years.
(4) Any person who maintains or operates a brothel, or provides material assistance for the operation of a brothel where the exploitation of the prostitution of a person under the age of eighteen years takes place is punishable by imprisonment between two to eight years.

Child Pornography
Section 204
(1) Any person who:

a) obtains or have in his possession pornographic images of a person or persons under the age of eighteen years is punishable for a felony by imprisonment not exceeding three years,
b) produces, offers, supplies or makes available pornographic images of a person or persons under the age of eighteen years is punishable by imprisonment between one to five years,
c) distributes, deals with or makes pornographic images of a person or persons under the age of eighteen years available to the general public is punishable by imprisonment between two to eight years.

(2) The penalty shall be imprisonment between two to eight years if the criminal offense defined in Paragraph b) of Subsection (1) is committed against a person who is in the care, custody or supervision of or receives medical treatment from, the perpetrator, or if abuse is made of a recognized position of trust, authority or influence over the victim.
(3) Any person who provides material assistance for the criminal act defined in Paragraph c) of Subsection (1) shall be punishable by imprisonment between one to five years.
(4) Any person who:

a) persuades a person or persons under the age of eighteen years to participate in a pornographic production is punishable by imprisonment not exceeding three years,
b) gives a role to a person or persons under the age of eighteen years in a pornographic production is punishable by imprisonment between one to five years.

(5) Any person who:

a) offers to a person or persons under the age of eighteen years to participate in a pornographic material;
b) participates in a pornographic production in which a person or persons under the age of eighteen years also
participate;
c) provides material assistance for the involvement of a person or persons under the age of eighteen years in a
pornographic production;
is punishable by imprisonment not exceeding three years.

(6) Any person who provides the means necessary for or facilitating the production or distribution of or trafficking
in pornographic material on a person or persons under the age of fourteen years is guilty of a misdemeanor punishable by imprisonment not exceeding two years.
(7) For the purposes of this Section:

a) ‘pornographic material’ shall mean any video, movie or photograph or other form of recording that displays sexuality in a gravely indecent manner of exposure specifically for arousing sexual demeanor,
b) ‘pornographic production’ means an act or show to display sexuality in a gravely indecent manner of exposure specifically for arousing sexual demeanor.”

Penalties, Human Trafficking

2012 évi C. törvény a Büntetõ Törvénykönyvrõl (Act C/2012 the Criminal Code)

“Trafficking in Human Beings
Section 192
(1) Any person who:

a) sells, purchases, exchanges, or transfers or receives another person as consideration; or
b) transports, harbors, shelters or recruits another person for the purposes referred to in Paragraph a), including transfer of control over such person;
is guilty of a felony punishable by imprisonment not exceeding three years.

(2) Any person who – for the purpose of exploitation – sells, purchases, exchanges, supplies, receives, recruits, transports, harbors or shelters another person, including transfer of control over such person, is punishable by imprisonment between one to five years.
(3) The penalty shall be imprisonment between two to eight years if trafficking in human beings is committed:

a) against a person held in captivity;
b) by force or by threat of force;
c) by deception;
d) by tormenting the aggrieved party;
e) against a person who is in the care, custody or supervision of or receives medical treatment from, the perpetrator, or if abuse is made of a recognized position of trust, authority or influence over the victim;
f) for the unlawful use of the human body;
g) by a public official, acting in an official capacity;
h) in criminal association with accomplices; or
i) on a commercial scale.

(4) The penalty shall be imprisonment between five to ten years, if:

a) the criminal offense provided for in Subsection (2) is committed against a person under the age of eighteen years;
b) the criminal offense provided for in Subsection (2) is committed against a person held in captivity, and either of the aggravating circumstances under Paragraphs b)-i) of Subsection (3) apply; or
c) the criminal offense provided for in Subsection (2) results in particularly great damage or danger to life.

(5) The penalty shall be imprisonment between five to fifteen years if:

a) the criminal offense provided for in Subsection (2) is committed against a person under the age of fourteen years;
b) the criminal offense provided for in Subsection (2) is committed against a person under the age of eighteen years, and either of the aggravating circumstances under Subsection (3) apply;
c) the criminal offense provided for in Subsection (2) is committed against a person under the age of eighteen years, and results in particularly great damage or danger to life; or
d) the criminal offense provided for in Subsection (2) is committed against a person under the age of eighteen years for the purpose of child pornography.

(6) The penalty shall be imprisonment between five to twenty years or life imprisonment if:

a) the criminal offense provided for in Subsection (2) is committed against a person under the age of fourteen years, and either of the aggravating circumstances under Subsection (3) apply;
b) the criminal offense provided for in Subsection (2) is committed against a person under the age of fourteen years, and results in particularly great damage or danger to life; or
c) the criminal offense provided for in Subsection (2) is committed against a person under the age of fourteen years for the purpose of child pornography.

(7) Any person who engages in preparations for trafficking in human beings is guilty of misdemeanor punishable by imprisonment not exceeding two years.
(8) In the application of this Section, ‘exploitation’ shall mean the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability for the purpose of taking advantage of the victim forced into or kept in such situation.”

“Unlawful Employment of Third-Country Nationals
Section 356
a) a third-country national on a regular basis or frequently without authorization to undertake gainful employment;
(1) Any person who employs: or

b) a substantial number of third-country nationals at one and the same time without authorization to undertake gainful employment;
is guilty of a misdemeanor punishable by imprisonment not exceeding two years.

(2) The penalty shall be imprisonment not exceeding three years for a felony:

a) if the offender employs a third-country national without authorization to undertake gainful employment under particularly exploitative working conditions;
c) if the third-country national employed without authorization to undertake gainful employment is the victim of trafficking in human beings.

(3) For the purposes of this Section:

a) ‘particularly exploitative working conditions’ shall mean particularly exploitative working conditions as defined by the Act on the Admission and Residence of Third-Country Nationals;
b) ‘substantial number’ shall mean at least five persons.”

“Crimes Against Humanity
Section 143
(1) Any persons who – being part of a widespread or systematic practice:

a) commits murder;
b) forces the civilian population, in part or in whole, to live under conditions threatening the demise of that
population or certain members thereof;
c) orders the displacement of the civilian population, in part or in whole, from their rightful place of residence;
d) engages in the trafficking in human beings or in exploitation in the form of forced labor;
e) deprives another person of his personal freedom, or unlawfully maintains his abduction;
f) forces another person to commit or tolerate sexual violence, forces others into prostitution or to bear a child, or
into illegal abortion;
g) causes serious bodily or mental injury to others;
h) deprives other persons of their basic rights for reasons of their affiliation with a group on the grounds of
political opinion, nationality, ethnic origin, culture, religion, sex or any other reason;
is guilty of a felony punishable by imprisonment between ten to twenty years or with life imprisonment.

(2) Any person who engages in preparations for crimes against humanity is guilty of a felony punishable by imprisonment between two to eight years.
(3) In the application of this Section widespread or systematic assault on the civilian population shall include all conduct which covers the acts defined under Subsection (1) committed systematically against the civilian population aiming to implement or facilitate the policies of a State or organization.”

Data Commitments

A Call to Action to End Forced Labour, Modern Slavery and Human Trafficking, Signed 2017

1.ii. Take steps to measure, monitor and share data on prevalence and response to all such forms of exploitation, as appropriate to national circumstances;

Programs and Agencies for Enforcement

Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk of exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.

Social Protection Coverage: General (at Least One)
Social Protection (Source: ILO)

The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.

If a country does not appear on a chart, this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.

Social Protection Coverage: Unemployed
Social Protection Coverage: Pension
Social Protection Coverage: Vulnerable Groups
Social Protection Coverage: Poor
Social Protection Coverage: Children
Social Protection Coverage: Disabled