Data Dashboards

Iceland
Measurement
Measuring the Change

using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards.

Due to lack of nationally representative data, there is no change to report.

%
Best Target 8.7 Data: Human Trafficking

The data visualization displays the number of identified victims of human trafficking per year in Iceland. Detailed information is provided in the Measurement tab (above).

Data Availability
  • Child labour: No ILO/UNICEF data
  • Human trafficking: Case data available
Context
Human Development

Human Development Index Score: 0.938 (2018)

Mean School Years: 12.5 years (2018)

 

Labour Indicators

Vulnerable Employment: 8.0% (2018)

Working Poverty Rate: No data available

Government Efforts
Key Ratifications
  • ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Ratified 2017
  • ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2000
  • UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Ratified 2010
Social Protection Coverage

General (at least one): No data

Unemployed: 28.6% (2011)

Pension: 69.2% (2014)

Vulnerable: No data

Children: No data

Disabled: 100% (2016)

Poor: No data

Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.

No nationally representative data is available on child labour prevalence in Iceland.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on ILO-SIMPOC methods and guidelines for defining, measuring and collecting data on child labour.

The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.

Identified Victims of Human Trafficking (Source: GRETA)

According to the Council of Europe’s Group of Experts on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings (GRETA), Iceland is primarily a country of destination for trafficked persons and is to a certain extent also a country of transit. In the past few years, there has been a greater influx of migrants into the country, who are particularly vulnerable to trafficking for the purposes of labour exploitation, in particular in the booming construction, tourism and catering sectors.

The graph on the right shows the number of identified victims of human trafficking per year in Iceland, as reported by Icelandic authorities to GRETA.

Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.

Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.

The chart displays information on human development in Iceland between 1990 and 2018. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex. 

The most recent year of the HDI, 2018, shows that the average human development score in Iceland is 0.938. This score indicates that human development is very high. 

 

HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)

Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.

As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:

“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”

The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in Iceland over time.

 

Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in the availability of equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction towards achieving Target 8.7.

HDI Vulnerable Employment (Source: UNDP)

There are reasons to believe that certain types of labour and labour arrangements are more likely to lead to labour exploitation. According to the ILO:

“Own-account workers and contributing family workers have a lower likelihood of having formal work arrangements, and are therefore more likely to lack elements associated with decent employment, such as adequate social security and a voice at work. The two statuses are summed to create a classification of ‘vulnerable employment’, while wage and salaried workers together with employers constitute ‘non-vulnerable employment’.”

Between 1991 and 2018, Iceland showed a decrease in the proportion of workers in vulnerable employment as compared to those in secure employment.

Labour Productivity (Source: ILO)

Labour productivity is an important economic indicator that is closely linked to economic growth, competitiveness, and living standards within an economy.” However, when increased labour output does not produce rising wages, this can point to increasing inequality. As indicated by a recent ILO report (2015), there is a “growing disconnect between wages and productivity growth, in both developed and emerging economies”. The lack of decent work available increases vulnerability to situations of labour exploitation. 

Labour productivity represents the total volume of output (measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product, GDP) produced per unit of labour (measured in terms of the number of employed persons) during a given period.

Rates of Non-fatal Occupational Injuries (Source: ILO)

Occupational injury and fatality data can also be crucial in prevention and response efforts. 

As the ILO explains:

“Data on occupational injuries are essential for planning preventive measures. For instance, workers in occupations and activities of highest risk can be targeted more effectively for inspection visits, development of regulations and procedures, and also for safety campaigns.”

There are serious gaps in existing data coverage, particularly among groups that may be highly vulnerable to labour exploitation. For example, few countries provide information on injuries disaggregated between migrant and non-migrant workers.

Rates of Fatal Occupational Injuries (Source: ILO)

Data on occupational health and safety may reveal conditions of exploitation, even if exploitation may lead to under-reporting of workplace injuries and safety breaches. At present, the ILO collects data on occupational injuries, both fatal and non-fatal, disaggregating by sex and migrant status.

Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.

Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Source: UNHCR)

Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants.

According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children. “

As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements, as recognized by Member States in the New York declaration for refugees and migrants of September 2016.”

The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in Iceland.

Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.

Official Definitions
Forced Labour

Constitution, 1944

Article 68 No one may be subjected to torture or any other inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. No one shall be required to perform compulsory labour.

Child Labour

Lög um aðbúnað, hollustuhætti og öryggi á vinnustöðum nr. 46/1980 (Act on Working Environment, Health and Safety in Workplaces, No. 46/1980)

“CHAPTER X
Work by Children and Teenagers. Article 59
The provisions of this Chapter apply to work by individuals under the age of 18 years. The provisions of the Chapter do not apply to occasional work or short-term work involving home help in private homes or work in family enterprises that is not considered damaging or dangerous to young people.
For the purposes of this Act, young person means an individual under the age of 18 years. For the purposes of this Act, child means an individual who is under the age of 15 years, or who is in compulsory education. For the purposes of this Act, teenager means an individual who is aged at least 15 years, but has not yet attained the age of 18 years, and is no longer in compulsory education.]”

“Article 60 [Children may not be engaged in employment.
Exemptions from the general rule of paragraph 1 may be made in the following cases:

a. Children may be engaged to participate in cultural or artistic events and sporting or advertising activities. A party who engages children who have not attained the age of 13 years shall obtain a licence from the Administration of Occupational Safety and Health
before the engagement takes place.
b. Children aged 14 years and older may be engaged in work that constitutes part of
theoretical or practical studies.
c. Children who have attained the age of 14 years may be engaged in light employment.
Children who have attained the age of 13 years may be engaged for a limited number of hours per week in light employment such as light gardening or service jobs and other comparable jobs.]
Act No. 52/1997, Article 3.”

Regulations regarding work of children and adolescents, No. 426/1999.

SECTION I Definitions and validity. Art. 1 Definitions. This Regulation applies to the work of individuals under the age of 18. Youth in this Regulation refers to an individual under the age of 18. Child in this Regulation refers to an individual under the age of 15 or who is still in compulsory schooling. Adolescent in this Regulation refers to an individual wh

SECTION II General provisions about the work of all youths under the age of 18. Art. 4 General provisions. Applicable to any work by youths under the age of 18 the focus upon the selection and organising of the work shall be on safety and that the mental and physical health of the youths are not jeopardised and that the work does not have disrupting effects on their education or development.

Worst Forms of Child Labour

Lög um aðbúnað, hollustuhætti og öryggi á vinnustöðum nr. 46/1980 (Act on Working Environment, Health and Safety in Workplaces, No. 46/1980)

“Article 62
Young persons may not be engaged in work that is carried out under the following
conditions:

a. Work that is likely to be beyond their physical or mental capacity.
b. Work that is likely to cause permanent damage to health.
c. Workthatinvolvestheriskofhazardousradiation.
d. Work involving a risk of accidents which it can be assumed that children and teenagers
could have difficulty in identifying or avoiding due to their lack of awareness or lack of
experience or training.
e. Work that involves hazards to their health due to excessive cold, heat, noise or vibration. [f. Work where there is a risk of violence or other specific risk, except where the young
people work with adults.]

Exceptions may be made from this provision when this is necessary in connection with the
vocational training of teenagers.”

“17.3 Working hours
The working time of adolescents (15-18) must not exceed 8 hours per day and 40 hours per week.
In special instances, e.g. in case of pressing need due to the nature of the operation, for example if valuables in agriculture or fish processing are to be saved, the work time of adolescents may exceed 8 hours per day and 40 hours per week, provided that the provisions of daily rest and time off are honoured.
Adolescents may not, however, work more than 60 hours per week and 48 hours per week average over a four-month period. The regulation also provides for a minimum daily rest, which shall not be less than 12 hours of consecutive rest and a two day break every week.
Adolescents must furthermore during every seven-day period, receive at least two days of rest, which shall be consecutive if possible. This minimum rest period shall generally include Sundays.
The working time of children 13–15 years of age is further limited.”

Regulations regarding work of children and adolescents, No. 426/1999.

Art. 10 Dangerous equipment and projects. Youths shall not be hired to work with the equipment, or to projects, listed in Appendix 1 A, or to conduct work that represents similar hazards. Youths that have reached the age of 16 may work, however, with the technical aids that are listed in Appendix 1 B. In family enterprises, including agriculture, youths that have reached the age of 15 may engage in the kind of work listed in Appendix 1 C, provided they are given detailed training and guidance, and are under supervision. Youths working in agricultural duties in family enterprises shall have received education and supervision on tractors before work commences with the use of such machinery outside of roads. Art. 11 Dangerous substances. Youths are not permitted to work with or shall not be placed in jeopardy because of the substances listed in Appendix 2. Art. 12 Physical strain. Youths shall not handle heavy weights that may, in the short or long run, damage their health and development. Any unnecessary physical strain of youths shall be avoided in their work, as well as incorrect physical work postures or movements, cf. Appendix 3, paragrahp 1, a and b. Art. 13 Other special danger. Youths may not be hired to work where their physical or mental maturity is faced with special danger unless they work with adults or persons who have reached the age of 18. This applies in particular to work in kiosks, video stores, fast-foot sales outlets, gas stations and at similar places. In assessing the risk, cf. Art. 5 of this Regulation, of the working conditions, cf. this paragraph, a special assessment shall be made on whether the workplace is safe in respect of its location, interior arrangement and the safety measures that are taken. Paragraph 4, Art. 19, applies to the evening and night work of adolescents at such places. Art. 14 General provision. Youth are not permitted to work under working conditions as those specified in Appendix 3, or under similar conditions that represent a risk to their health and safety.

Human Trafficking

General Penal Code, 1940

“Art. 226 Anyone depriving another person of his/her freedom shall be subject to imprisonment for up to 4 years. 1)
In case the deprivation of freedom has been committed for the purpose of gain or been of extended duration and also if a person has without authority been admitted to a lunatic asylum, removed to other countries or handed over to people who are not entitled thereto, penalty of imprisonment shall be applied for no less than 1 year and up to 16 years or for life.”

“Art. 227 a. Anyone becoming guilty of the following acts for the purpose of sexually using a person or for forced labour or to remove his/her organs shall be punished for slavery with up to 8 years imprisonment:-

1. Procuring, removing, housing or accepting someone who has been subjected to unlawful force under Art. 225 or deprived of freedom as per Art. 226 or threat as per Art. 233 or unlawful deception by awakening, strengthening or utilizing his/her lack of understanding of the person concerned about circumstances or other inappropriate method.

2. Procuring, removing, housing or accepting an individual younger than 18 years of age or rendering payment or other gain in order to acquire the approval of those having the care of a child.

The same penalty shall be applied to a person accepting payment or other gain according to clause 2, para. 1.”

 

Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the perpetration of forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour. These actions should be considered in wider societal efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.

Programs and Agencies for Victim Support

Policies for Assistance

Act on Foreigners, 2002

“Art. 12 h
After receiving an application to this effect, and obtaining the opinion of the police, the
Directorate of Immigration shall grant a foreign national, who is suspected of being a
victim of human trafficking, a temporary residence permit for six months even though all
the requirements of Art. 11 are not fulfilled. Notwithstanding the provisions of Art. 20,
the individual concerned may not be deported during this period.
Should there be reasonable grounds to suspect a person is claiming to be a victim for
the sole purpose of obtaining a temporary residence permit, and the opposite is not
demonstrated indisputably, this shall not grant entitlement to a temporary residence
permit. The same shall apply if the granting of a temporary residence permit is contrary
to public order.
A permit granted as referred to in this provision cannot serve as the basis for a
permanent residence permit.
Art. 12 i
In exceptional circumstances the Directorate of Immigration may grant a victim of
human trafficking a renewable temporary residence permit for one year, even if the
requirements of Art. 11 are not fulfilled, if either of the following apply:

a. it is considered necessary due to the personal circumstances of the person
concerned;
b. it is considered necessary in the opinion of the police due to co-operation with the
authorities concerned in investigating and handling a criminal case.

A permit granted as referred to in this provision cannot serve as the basis for a
permanent residence permit.”

Penalties
Penalties, General

General Penal Code, 1940

“Art. 226 Anyone depriving another person of his/her freedom shall be subject to imprisonment for up to 4 years. 1)
In case the deprivation of freedom has been committed for the purpose of gain or been of extended duration and also if a person has without authority been admitted to a lunatic asylum, removed to other countries or handed over to people who are not entitled thereto, penalty of imprisonment shall be applied for no less than 1 year and up to 16 years or for life.”

“Art. 227 a. Anyone becoming guilty of the following acts for the purpose of sexually using a person or for forced labour or to remove his/her organs shall be punished for slavery with up to 8 years imprisonment:-

1. Procuring, removing, housing or accepting someone who has been subjected to unlawful force under Art. 225 or deprived of freedom as per Art. 226 or threat as per Art. 233 or unlawful deception by awakening, strengthening or utilizing his/her lack of understanding of the person concerned about circumstances or other inappropriate method.

2. Procuring, removing, housing or accepting an individual younger than 18 years of age or rendering payment or other gain in order to acquire the approval of those having the care of a child.

The same penalty shall be applied to a person accepting payment or other gain according to clause 2, para. 1.”

Penalties, Child Labour

Lög um aðbúnað, hollustuhætti og öryggi á vinnustöðum nr. 46/1980 (Act on Working Environment, Health and Safety in Workplaces, No. 46/1980)

“CHAPTER XV Penalties. Article 99
Non-compliance with this Act and regulations that are issued accordingly are punishable by fines, unless heavier punishment is applicable through other legislation.
Fines shall be paid to the State Treasury.”

Regulations regarding work of children and adolescents, No. 426/1999.

Art. 36 Penalty. Violation of this Regulation is subject to fines, cf. Art. 99 of Act no. 46/1980, except in instances where more severe penalty is stipulated by other law.

Data Commitments

A Call to Action to End Forced Labour, Modern Slavery and Human Trafficking, Signed 2017

1.ii. Take steps to measure, monitor and share data on prevalence and response to all such forms of exploitation, as appropriate to national circumstances;

Programs and Agencies for Enforcement

Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk of exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.

Social Protection Coverage: General (at Least One)
Social Protection (Source: ILO)

The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.

If a country does not appear on a chart, this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.

Social Protection Coverage: Unemployed
Social Protection Coverage: Pension
Social Protection Coverage: Vulnerable Groups
Social Protection Coverage: Poor
Social Protection Coverage: Children
Social Protection Coverage: Disabled

Delta 8.7 has received no Official Response to this dashboard from Iceland. If you are a representative of Iceland and wish to submit an Official Response, please contact us here.