Data Dashboards

India
Measurement
Measuring the Change

using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards.

Child labour between 2000 and 2012 decreased by 54%

-54%

2000-2012

Best Target 8.7 Data: Child Labour Rate

The data visualization displays yearly child labour statistics based on a variety of nationally-representative household surveys. All years of data hold up to standards set by interagency collaboration between ILO, UNICEF and World Bank, though, in some cases are not perfectly comparable between years. Detailed information on each data point is provided in the Measurement tab (above).

Data Availability
  • Child labour: ILO/UNICEF data
  • Forced labour: No nationally representative data
  • Human trafficking: No nationally representative data
Context
Human Development

Human Development Index Score: 0.640 (2017)

Mean School Years: 6.3 years (2015)

Labour Indicators

Vulnerable Employment: 80.8% (2010)

Working Poverty Rate: 12.1% (2016)

Government Efforts
Key Ratifications
  • ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Not ratified
  • ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2017
  • UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Ratified 2011
Social Protection Coverage

General (at least one): 11% (2016)

Unemployed: Not available

Pension: 24.1% (2016)

Vulnerable: 2.7% (2016)

Children: Not available

Disabled: 5.4% (2016)

Poor: Not available

Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.

Child Labour Rate, Aged 5-17 (Source: ILO)

Based on the international conventions and the International Conference of Labour Statisticians (ICLS) resolution, and consistent with the approach utilized in the ILO global child labour estimates exercise, the statistical definition of child labour used includes: 

a) children aged 5-11 years in all forms of economic activity;
b) children aged 12-14 years in all forms of economic activity except permissible “light” work;
c) children and adolescents aged 15-17 years in hazardous work; and
d) children aged 5-14 years performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week.

In India, the percentage of child labourers has decreased overall from 2000 to 2012. All measures provided do not cover the full definition of hazardous work, but use reduced definitions.

The chart displays differences by sex and region in the percentage of children aged 5-17 in child labour for 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2012 and in the percentage of children aged 6-17 for 1999. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 1999, 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2012.

Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Hazardous child labour is the largest category of the worst forms of child labour with an estimated 73 million children aged 5-17 working in dangerous conditions in a wide range of sectors. Worldwide, the ILO estimates that some 22,000 children are killed at work every year.

In India, the latest estimates show that 0.5 percent of children aged 5-14 were engaged in hazardous work in 2012. The number is lower than in 2010, and has decreased from 1.7 percent in 2000. All measures provided do not cover the full definition of hazardous work, but use reduced definitions. 

The chart displays differences by sex and region in the percentage of children aged 5-14 in hazardous work for 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2012 and in the percentage of children aged 6-17 in hazardous work for 1999. Disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 1999, 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2012.

Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 15-17 (Source: ILO)

Children aged 15-17 are permitted to engage in economic activities by international conventions in most cases, except when the work is likely to harm the health, safety or morals of children (Article 3d of the ILO Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour, 1999, No. 182). 

 In India, the latest estimates show that 7.3 percent of children aged 15-17 were engaged in hazardous work in 2012. The percentage is lower than in 2010, and has decreased from 14.1 percent in 2000. All measures provided do not cover the full definition of hazardous work, but use reduced definitions. 

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 15-17 in hazardous work by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 1999, 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2012.

Weekly Work Hours, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Children aged 5-11 are considered to be subjected to child labour when engaging in any form of economic activity. Children aged 12-14 are permitted to engage in “light” work that is not considered hazardous and falls below 14 hours per week.

According to the 2006 estimates, the average number of hours worked per week by children aged 5-14 in India was 14.8 hours. 

The chart displays differences in the number of hours that children aged 5-14 work in economic activities by sex and region. The sample includes all children of this age group. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2006.

Weekly Work Hours, Children Only in Economic Activity, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Children not attending school who are engaged in economic activity can be subjected to longer working hours. 

In 2006, the latest year with available data, children in economic activity only, meaning they are not in school, worked an average of 26.5 hours per week.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours worked by children aged 5-14 who are not in school, by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2006. 

Weekly Hours Household Chores, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Researchers recognize that children involved in economic activities are not the only children working. The ICLS recommended definition of child labour includes children aged 5-14 performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week. 

Children aged 5-14, on average, are found to work on household chores 10 hours per week according to the latest estimate.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours children aged 5-14 work on household chores by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2006. 

Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: Total (Source: ILO)

Identifying the sectors in which the most child labour exists can help policy actors and practitioners target efforts toward those industries. 

The latest data available on child labour by sector for India is from 2012. By the latest estimate, the Agriculture sector had the most child labourers, followed by the Manufacturing sector and the Commerce, Hotels and Restaurants sector.

The chart to the right displays child labour prevalence in each sector for all children. The charts below show the differences in child labour by sector with comparisons between groups by sex and region.

Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: Sex (Source: ILO)
Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: Area (Source: ILO)

Measuring the incidence of forced labour is a much more recent endeavour and presents unique methodological challenges compared to the measurement of child labour.

No nationally representative data is available on forced labour prevalence in India.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on new guidelines presented by the International Labour Organization and adopted by the International Conference of Labour Statisticians.

The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.

No nationally representative data is available on human trafficking prevalence in India.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page to learn about measuring human trafficking prevalence, including information on collecting data through national referral mechanisms and producing prevalence statistics using Multiple Systems Estimation (MSE).

Case Data: International and Non-Governmental Organizations

Civil society organizations (CSOs) focused on human trafficking victim assistance can serve as crucial sources of data given their ability to reach a population that is notoriously difficult to sample.

Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (CTDC): The International Organization for Migration (IOM), Polaris and Liberty Asia have launched a global data repository on human trafficking, with data contributed by counter-trafficking partner organizations around the world. Not only does the CTDC serve as a central repository for this critical information, it also publishes normed and harmonized data from various organizations using a unified schema. This global dataset facilitates an unparalleled level of cross-border, trans-agency analysis and provides the counter-trafficking movement with a deeper understanding of this complex issue. Equipped with this information, decision makers will be empowered to create more targeted and effective intervention strategies.

Prosecution Data

UNODC compiles a global dataset on detected and prosecuted traffickers, which serves as the basis in their Global Report for country profiles. This information is beginning to paint a picture of trends over time, and case-specific information can assist investigators and prosecutors.

Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.

Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.

The chart displays information on human development in India between 1990 and 2015. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex.

The most recent year of the HDI, 2015, shows that the average human development score in India is 0.624. This score indicates medium human development.

 

HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)

Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.

As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:

“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”

The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in India over time.

Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction towards achieving Target 8.7.

Vulnerable Employment (Source: UNDP)

There are reasons to believe that certain types of labour and labour arrangements are more likely to lead to labour exploitation. According to the ILO:

“Own-account workers and contributing family workers have a lower likelihood of having formal work arrangements, and are therefore more likely to lack elements associated with decent employment, such as adequate social security and a voice at work. The two statuses are summed to create a classification of ‘vulnerable employment’, while wage and salaried workers together with employers constitute ‘non-vulnerable employment’.”

Between 2000 and 2010, India showed a decrease in the proportion of workers in vulnerable employment as compared to those in secure employment.

Working Poverty Rate (Source: ILO)

Labour income tells us about a household’s vulnerability. As the ILO explains in Profits and Poverty

“Poor households find it particularly difficult to deal with income shocks, especially when they push households below the food poverty line. In the presence of such shocks, men and women without social protection nets tend to borrow to smooth consumption, and to accept any job for themselves or their children, even under exploitative conditions.”

ILO indicators that measure poverty with respect to the labour force include working poverty rate, disaggregated by sex, with temporal coverage spanning from 2000 to 2016. The chart displays linear trends in working poverty rate over time for all individuals over 15 years of age.

Labour Productivity (Source: ILO)

“Labour productivity is an important economic indicator that is closely linked to economic growth, competitiveness, and living standards within an economy.” However, when increased labour output does not produce rising wages, this can point to increasing inequality. As indicated by a recent ILO report (2015), there is a “growing disconnect between wages and productivity growth, in both developed and emerging economies.” The lack of decent work available increases vulnerability to situations of labour exploitation.

Labour productivity represents the total volume of output (measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product, GDP) produced per unit of labour (measured in terms of the number of employed persons) during a given period.

Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.

Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Source: UNHCR)

Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants. 

According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children.”

 As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements.”

The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in India.

Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.

Official Definitions
Forced Labour

Constitution of India, 1950 “Right against Exploitation
23. Prohibition of traffic in human beings and forced labour.—

1. Traffic in human beings and begar and other similar forms of forced labour are prohibited and any contravention of this provision shall be an offence punishable in accordance with law.
2. Nothing in this article shall prevent the State from imposing compulsory service for public purposes, and in imposing such service the State shall not make any discrimination on grounds only of religion, race, caste or class or any of them.

Bonded Labour

Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Act, 1976
1. Short title, extent and commencement. —

1. This Act may be called the Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Act, 1976.
2. It extends to the whole of India.
3. It shall be deemed to have come into force on the 25th day of October, 1975.

2. Definitions. – In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires, —

a. “advance” means an advance, whether in cash or in kind, or partly in cash or partly in kind, made by one person (hereinafter referred to as the creditor) to another person (hereinafter referred to as the debtor);
b. “agreement” means an agreement (whether written or oral, partly written and partly oral) between a debtor and creditor and includes an agreement providing for forced labour, the existence of which is presumed under any social custom prevailing in the concerned locality.
Explanation. —The existence of an agreement between the debtor and creditor is ordinarily presumed, under the social custom, in relation to the following forms of forced labour, namely: —
Adiyamar, Baramasia, Basahya, Bethu, Bhagela, Cherumar, Garru-galu, Hali, Hari, Harwai, Holya, Jana, Jeetha, Kamiya, Khundit-Mundit, Kuthia, Lakhari, Munjhi, Mat, Munish system, Nit-Majoor, Paleru, Padiyal, Pannayilal, Sagri, Sanji,Sanjawat, Sewak, Sewakia, Seri, Vetti;

2. Definitions. – In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires, —
“bonded labour system” means the system of forced, or partly forced, labour under which a debtor enters, or has, or is presumed to have, entered, into an agreement with the creditor to the effect that,—

i. In consideration of an advance obtained by him or by any of his lineal ascendants or descendants (whether or not such advance is evidenced by any document) and in consideration of the interest, if any, on such advance, or
ii. In pursuance of any customary or social obligation, or
iii. In pursuance of an obligation devolving on him by succession, or
iv. For any economic consideration received by him or by any of his lineal ascendants or descendants, or
v. By reason of his birth in any particular caste or community, he would—

1. Render, by himself or through any member of his family, or any person dependent on him, labour or service to the creditor, or for the benefit of the creditor, for a specified period or for an unspecified period, either without wages or for nominal wages, or
2. Forfeit the freedom of employment or other means of livelihood for a specified period or for an unspecified period, or
3. Forfeit the right to move freely throughout the territory of India, or
4. Forfeit the right to appropriate or sell at market value any of his property or product of his labour or the labour of a member of his family or any person dependent on him, and includes the system of forced, or partly forced, labour under which a surety for a debtor enters, or has, or is presumed to have, entered, into an agreement with the creditor to the effect that in the event of the failure of the debtor to repay the debt, he would render the bonded labour on behalf of the debtor;

[Explanation.– For the removal of doubts, it is hereby declared that any system of forced, or partly forced labour under which any workman being contract labour as defined in clause (b) of sub-section (1) of section 2 of the Contract Labour (Regulation and Abolition) Act, 1970 (37 of 1970), or an inter-State migrant workman as defined in clause (e) of sub-section (1) of section 2 of the Inter-State Migrant Workmen (Regulation of Employment and Conditions of Service) Act, 1979 (30 of 1979), is required to render labour or service in circumstances of the nature mentioned in sub-clause (1) of this clause or is subjected to all or any of the disabilities referred to in sub-clauses (2) to (4), is “bonded labour system” within the meaning of this clause.]

4. Abolition of bonded labour system.

1. On the commencement of this Act, the bonded labour system shall stand abolished and every bonded labourer shall, on such commencement, stand freed and discharged from any obligation to render any bonded labour.

2. After the commencement of this Act, no person shall—

a. make any advance under, or in pursuance of, the bonded labour system, or
b. compel any person to render any bonded labour or other form of forced labour.

5. Agreement, custom, etc., to be void. – On the commencement of this Act, any custom or tradition or any contract, agreement or other instrument (whether entered into or executed before or after the commencement of this Act), by virtue of which any person, or any member of the family or dependant of such person, is required to do any work or render any service as a bonded labourer, shall be void and inoperative.

Child Labour

Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986 amend. Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Amendment Act, 2016
2. Definitions.—In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires,—

i. “Adolescent” means a person who has completed his fourteenth year of age but has not completed his eighteenth year;
ii. “Child” means a person who has not completed his fourteenth year of age or such age as may be specified in the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009, whichever is more;

3.1. No child shall be employed or permitted to work in any occupation or process.
3.2. Nothing in sub-section (1) shall apply where the child,—

a. Helps his family or family enterprise, which is other than any hazardous occupations or processes set forth in the Schedule, after his school hours or during vacations;
b. Works as an artist in an audio-visual entertainment industry, including advertisement, films, television serials or any such other entertainment or sports activities except the circus, subject to such conditions and safety measures, as may be prescribed:

Provided that no such work under this clause shall affect the school education of the child.

Explanation.—For the purposes of this section, the expression,

a. ‘‘family’’ in relation to a child, means his mother, father, brother,
sister and father’s sister and brother and mother’s sister and brother;
b. ‘‘family enterprise’’ means any work, profession, manufacture or business which is performed by the members of the family with the engagement of other persons;
c. ‘‘artist’’ means a child who performs or practices any work as a hobby or profession directly involving him as an actor, singer, sports person or in such other activity as may be prescribed relating to the entertainment or sports activities falling under clause (b) of sub-section (2).

Factories Act, 1948 “Prohibition of employment of young children.

67. Prohibition of employment of young children. No child who has not completed his fourteenth year shall be required or allowed to work in any factory.

Worst Forms of Child Labour

Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986 amend. Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Amendment Act, 2016
3A. No adolescent shall be employed or permitted to work in any of the hazardous occupations or processes set forth in the Schedule:

Provided that the Central Government may, by notification, specify the nature of the non-hazardous work to which an adolescent may be permitted to work under this Act.

Part III Regulation of conditions of work of Adolescents

7. Hours and Period of Work
The Schedule (See section 3A)

1. Mines.
2. Inflammable substances or explosives.
3. Hazardous process.
Explanation.—For the purposes of this Schedule, “hazardous process” has the meaning assigned to it in clause (cb) of the Factories Act, 1948.

Factories Act, 1948
70. Effect of certificate of fitness granted to adolescent. (1) An adolescent who has been granted a certificate of fitness to work in a factory as an adult under clause (b) of sub-section (2) of section 69, and who while at work in a factory carries a token giving reference to the certificate, shall be deemed to be an adult for all the purposes of Chapters VI and VIII:

1A. No female adolescent or a male adolescent who has not attained the age of seventeen years but who has been granted a certificate of fitness to work in a factory as an adult, shall be required or allowed to work in any factory except between 6 A.M. and 7 P.M:

Provided that the State Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, in respect of any factory or group or class or description of factories,—

i. vary the limits laid down in this subsection so, however, that no such section shall authorise the employment of any female adolescent between 10 P.M. and 5 A.M.;

ii. grant exemption from the provisions of this subsection in case of serious emergency where national interest is involved.

2. An adolescent who has not been granted a certificate of fitness to work in a factory as an adult under the aforesaid clause (b) shall, notwithstanding his age, be deemed to be a child for all the purposes of this Act.

Constitution of India, 1950
24. Prohibition of employment of children in factories, etc.—No child below the age of fourteen years shall be employed to work in any factory or mine or engaged in any other hazardous employment.

39. Certain principles of policy to be followed by the State.—The State shall, in particular, direct its policy towards securing—

e. That the health and strength of workers, men and women, and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength;
f. That children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment.

Children Act, 1960
2. Definitions
In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires,—
(b) “begging” means-

i. Soliciting or receiving alms in a public place or entering on any private premises for the purpose of soliciting or receiving alms, whether under the pretence of singing, dancing, fortune-telling, performing tricks or selling articles or otherwise

ii. Exposing or exhibiting with the object of obtaining or extorting alms any sore, wound, injury, deformity or disease, whether of himself or of any other person or of an animal;

iii. Allowing oneself to be used as an exhibit for the purpose of soliciting or receiving alms;

(e) “child” means a boy who has not attained the age of sixteen years or a girl who has not attained the age of eighteen years;

Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act, 1956
2. Definitions

A child is defined as a person under the age of 16 years old.
A Minor is a child between the ages of 16 and 18 years old.
A Major is a person who is 18 years old or older.

Human Trafficking

Constitution of India, 1950
Right against Exploitation
23. Prohibition of traffic in human beings and forced labour.—

1. Traffic in human beings and begar and other similar forms of forced labour are prohibited and any contravention of this provision shall be an offence punishable in accordance with law.
2. Nothing in this article shall prevent the State from imposing compulsory service for public purposes, and in imposing such service the State shall not make any discrimination on grounds only of religion, race, caste or class or any of them.

Penal Code, 1860 amend. 2013
370. Trafficking of person.—(1) Whoever, for the purpose of exploitation, (a) recruits, (b) transports, (c) harbours, (d) transfers, or (e) receives, a person or persons, by—

First.—using threats, or
Secondly.—using force, or any other form of coercion, or
Thirdly.—by abduction, or
Fourthly.—by practising fraud, or deception, or Fifthly.—by abuse of power, or
Sixthly.— by inducement, including the giving or receiving of payments or benefits, in order to achieve the consent of any person having control over the person recruited, transported, harboured, transferred or received, commits the offence of trafficking.

Explanation 1.—The expression “exploitation” shall include any act of physical exploitation or any form of sexual exploitation, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude, or the forced removal of organs.

Explanation 2.—The Consent of the victim is immaterial in determination of the offence of trafficking.

International Commitments
National Strategies

National Policy on Child Labor

State Action Plans on Child Labor

“Detail state governments’ activities and programs to eliminate child labor. Child labor action plans are in place in only 10 state governments: Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Meghalaya, Orissa, Punjab, Tamil Nadu, and Uttar Pradesh. Research was unable to determine what activities were undertaken to implement the state action plans during the reporting period.”

National Plan of Action for Children, 2016

National Policy for the Empowerment of Women, 2001

International Ratifications

ILO Forced Labour Convention, C029, Ratification 1954

ILO Abolition of Forced Labour Convention, C105, Ratification 2000

ILO Minimum Age Convention, C138, Ratification 2017 (minimum age specified: 14 years)

ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182, Ratification 2017

Slavery Convention 1926 and amended by the Protocol of 1953, Definitive Signature 1954

UN Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, Ratification 1960

UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol), Ratification 2011

UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, Accession 1992

UN Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Ratification 2005

UN Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, Ratification 2005

 

 

Governments take action that assists victims and prevents or ends perpetration of modern slavery, forced labour, child labour and human trafficking. These actions should be considered in efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.

Programs and Agencies for Victim Support (Source: U.S Department of Labor)

Policies for Assistance

Children Act, 1960

An Act to provide for the care, protection, maintenance, welfare, training, education and rehabilitation of neglected or delinquent children and for the trial of delinquent children in the Union territories.

Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Amendment Act, 2016

14B. 1. The appropriate Government shall constitute a Fund in every district or for two or more districts to be called the Child and Adolescent Labour Rehabilitation Fund to which the amount of the fine realized from the employer of the child and adolescent, within the jurisdiction of such district or districts, shall be credited.

2. The appropriate Government shall credit an amount of fifteen thousand rupees to the Fund for each child or adolescent for whom the fine amount has been credited under sub-section (1).

3. The amount credited to the Fund under subsections (1) and (2) shall be deposited in such banks or invested in such manner, as the appropriate Government may decide.

4. The amount deposited or invested, as the case may be under sub-section (3), and the interest accrued on it, shall be paid to the child or adolescent in whose favour such amount is credited, in such manner as may be prescribed.

14C. The child or adolescent, who is employed in contravention of the provisions of this Act and rescued, shall be rehabilitated in accordance with the laws for the time being in force.

Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2015

2. In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires,—

12. “child” means a person who has not completed eighteen years of age;

14. “child in need of care and protection” means a child—

ii. who is found working in contravention of labour laws for the time being in force or is found begging, or living on the street; or

iii. who resides with a person (whether a guardian of the child or not) and such person—

a. has injured, exploited, abused or neglected the child or has violated any other law for the time being in force meant for the protection of child; or

b. has threatened to kill, injure, exploit or abuse the child and there is a reasonable likelihood of the threat being carried out; or

c. has killed, abused, neglected or exploited some other child or children and there is a reasonable likelihood of the child in question being killed, abused, exploited or neglected by that person; or

viii. who has been or is being or is likely to be abused, tortured or exploited for the purpose of sexual abuse or illegal acts; or

ix. who is found vulnerable and is likely to be inducted into drug abuse or trafficking;

Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act, 1956

Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973

357A. Victim compensation scheme.—

1. Every State Government in coordination with the Central Government shall prepare a scheme for providing funds for the purpose of compensation to the victim or his dependents who have suffered loss or injury as a result of the crime and who require rehabilitation.

2. Whenever a recommendation is made by the Court for compensation, the District Legal Service Authority or the State Legal Service Authority, as the case may be, shall decide the quantum of compensation to be awarded under the scheme referred to in sub-section (1).

3. If the trial Court, at the conclusion of the trial, is satisfied, that the compensation awarded under section 357 is not adequate for such rehabilitation, or where the cases end in acquittal or discharge and the victim has to
be rehabilitated, it may make recommendation for compensation.

4. Where the offender is not traced or identified, but the victim is identified, and where no trial takes place, the victim or his dependents may make an application to the State or the District Legal Services Authority for award of compensation.

5. On receipt of such recommendations or on the application under sub-section (4), the State or the District Legal Services Authority shall, after due enquiry award adequate compensation by completing the enquiry within two months.

6. The State or the District Legal Services Authority, as the case may be, to alleviate the suffering of the victim, may order for immediate first-aid facility or medical benefits to be made available free of cost on the certificate of the police officer not below the rank of the officer in charge of the police station or a Magistrate of the area concerned, or any other interim relief as the appropriate authority deems fit.

Standard Operation Procedure to handle trafficking of children for child labour

Protocol on Prevention, Rescue, Repatriation and rehabilitation of Trafficked and Migrant Child

Manuals for Doctors for Dealing with Child Victims of Trafficking

Compensation Scheme for Women Victims/Survivors of Sexual Assault/other crimes

Penalties
Penalties, Forced Labour

Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989

3. Punishments for offences atrocities.—3(1) Whoever, not being a member of a Scheduled Caste or a Scheduled Tribe,—(h) makes a member of a Scheduled Caste or a Scheduled Tribe to do ―begar or other forms of forced or bonded labour other than any compulsory service for public purposes imposed by the Government; shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than six months but which may extend to five years and with fine.

Penal Code, 1860 amend. 2013

374. Unlawful compulsory labour.—Whoever unlawfully compels any person to labour against the will of that person, shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to one year, or with fine, or with both.

Penalties, Bonded Labour

Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Act, 1976

16. Punishment for enforcement of bonded labour.- Whoever, after the commencement of this Act, compels any person to render any bonded labour shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term, which may extend to three years and also with fine, which may extend to two thousand rupees.

17. Punishment for advancement of bonded debt.- Whoever advances, after the commencement of this Act, any bonded debt shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term , which may extend to three years and also with fine which may extend to two thousand rupees.

18. Punishment for extracting bonded labour under the bonded labour system.- Whoever enforces, after the commencement of this Act, any custom, tradition, contract, agreement or other instrument, by virtue of which any person or any member of the family of such person or any dependant of such person is required to render any service under the bonded labour system shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to three years and also with fine which may extend to two thousand rupees; and, out of the fine, if recovered, payment shall be made to the bonded labourer at the rate of rupees five for each day for which the bonded labour was extracted from him.

19. Punishment for omission or failure to restore possession of property to bonded labourers.- Whoever, being required by this Act to restore any property to the possession of any bonded labourer, omits or fails to do so, within a period of thirty days from the commencement of this Act, shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to one year, or with fine which may extend to one thousand rupees, or with both; and, out of the fine, if recovered, payment shall be made to the bonded labourer at the rate of rupees five for each day during which possession of the property was not restored to him.

20. Abetment to be an offence.- Whoever abets any offence punishable under this Act shall, whether or not the offence abetted is committed, be punishable with the same punishment as is provided for the offence, which has been abetted.
Explanation, — For the purpose of this Act, “abetment” has the meaning assigned to it in the Indian Penal Code (46 of 1860).

21. Offences to be tried by Executive Magistrates.- (1) The State Government may confer, on an Executive Magistrates, the powers of a Judicial Magistrate of the first class or of the second class for the trial of offences under this Act; and, on such conferment of powers, the Executive Magistrate, on whom the powers are so conferred, shall be deemed, for the purposes of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (2 of 1974), to be a Judicial Magistrate of the first class, or of the second class, as the case may be.

(2) An offence under this Act may be tried summarily by a Magistrate.

23. Offences by companies.—

1. Where an offence under this Act has been committed by a company, every person who, at the time the offence was committed, was in charge of, and was responsible to, the company for the conduct of the business of the company, as well as the company, shall be deemed to be guilty of the offence and shall be liable to be proceeded against and punished accordingly.
2. Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), where any offence under this Act has been committed by a company and it is proved that offence has been committed with the consent or connivance of, or is attributable to, any neglect on the part of, any director, manager, secretary or other officer of the Company, such director, manager, secretary or other officer shall be deemed to be guilty of that offence and shall be liable to be proceeded against and punished accordingly.

Explanation.– For the purposes of this section,—

a. “company” means any body corporate and includes a firm or other association of individuals; and

b. “director” in relation to a firm, means a partner in the firm.

Penalties, Child Labour

Children Act, 1960

42. Employment of children for begging

1. Whoever employs or uses any child for the purposes of begging or causes any child to beg shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to one year, or with fine, or with both.

2. Whoever, having the actual charge of, or control over, a child, abets the commission of the offence punishable under sub-section (1), shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to one year, or with fine, or with both.

3. The offence punishable under this section shall be cognizable.

44. Exploitation of child employees

Whoever ostensibly procures a child for the purpose of any employment and withholds the earnings of the child or uses such earnings for his own purposes shall be punishable with fine which may extend to one thousand rupees.

Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986 amend. Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Amendment Act, 2016

14. Penalties—

1. Whoever employs any child or permits any child to work in contravention of the provisions of section 3 shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than six months but which may extend to two years, or with fine which shall not be less than twenty thousand rupees but which may extend to fifty thousand rupees, or with both:

Provided that the parents or guardians of such children shall not be punished unless they permit such child for commercial purposes in contravention of the provisions of section 3.

1A. Whoever employs any adolescent or permits any adolescent to work in contravention of the provisions of section 3A shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than six months but which may extend to two years or with fine which shall not be less than twenty thousand rupees but which may extend to fifty thousand rupees, or with both:

Provided that the parents or guardians of such adolescent shall not be punished unless they permit such adolescent to work in contravention of the provisions of section 3A.

1B. Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-sections (1) and (1A) the parents or guardians of any child or adolescent referred to in section 3 or section 3A, shall not be liable for punishment, in case of the first offence.

2. Whoever, having been convicted of an offence under section 3 or section 3A commits a like offence afterwards, he shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than one year but which may extend to three years.

2A. Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (2), the parents or guardian having been convicted of an offence under section 3 or section 3A, commits a like offence afterwards, he shall be punishable with a fine which may extend to ten thousand rupees.

Factories Act, 1948

92. General penalty for offences. Save as is otherwise expressly provided in this Act and subject to the provisions of section 93, if in, or in respect of, any factory there is any contravention of any of the provisions of this Act or of any rules made thereunder or of any order in writing given thereunder, the occupier and manager of the factory shall each be guilty of an offence and punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to 2*[two years] or with fine which may extend to 2*[one lakh rupees] or with both, and if the contravention is continued after conviction, with a further fine which may extend to 2*[one thousand rupees] for each day on which the contravention is so continued:

Provided that where contravention of any of the provisions of Chapter IV or any rule made thereunder section 87 has resulted in an accident causing death or serious bodily injury, the fine shall not be less than 2*[twenty five thousand] in the case of an accident causing death, and 2*[five thousand rupees] in the case of an accident causing serious bodily injury.

99. Penalty for permitting double employment of child. If a child works in a factory on any day on which he has already been working in another factory, the parent or guardian of the child or the person having custody of or control over him or obtaining any direct benefit from his wages, shall be punishable with fine which may extend to 2*[one thousand rupees] unless it appears to the Court that the child so worked without the consent or connivance of such parent, guardian or person.

Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2015

76. 1. Whoever employs or uses any child for the purpose of begging or causes any child to beg shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to five years and shall also be liable to fine of one lakh rupees:
Provided that, if for the purpose of begging, the person amputates or maims the child, he shall be punishable with rigorous imprisonment for a term not less than seven years which may extend up to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine of five lakh rupees.

2. Whoever, having the actual charge of, or control over the child, abets the commission of an offence under sub-section (1), shall be punishable with the same punishment as provided for in sub-section (1) and such person shall be considered to be unfit under sub-clause (v) of clause (14) of section 2:

Provided that the said child, shall not be considered a child in conflict with law under any circumstances, and shall be removed from the charge or control of such guardian or custodian and produced before the Committee for appropriate rehabilitation.

78. Whoever uses a child, for vending, peddling, carrying, supplying or smuggling any intoxicating liquor, narcotic drug or psychotropic substance, shall be liable for rigorous imprisonment for a term which may extend to seven years and shall also be liable to a fine up to one lakh rupees.

79. Notwithstanding anything contained in any law for the time being in force, whoever ostensibly engages a child and keeps him in bondage for the purpose of employment or withholds his earnings or uses such earning for his own purposes shall be punishable with rigorous imprisonment for a term which may extend to five years and shall also be liable to fine of one lakh rupees.

Explanation.–– For the purposes of this section, the term “employment” shall also include selling goods and services, and entertainment in public places for economic gain.

81. Any person who sells or buys a child for any purpose shall be punishable with rigorous imprisonment for a term which may extend to five years and shall also be liable to fine of one lakh rupees:

Provided that where such offence is committed by a person having actual charge of the child, including employees of a hospital or nursing home or maternity home, the term of imprisonment shall not be less than three years and may extend up to seven years.

Penalties, Human Trafficking

Penal Code, 1860 amend. 2013

370. Trafficking of person.—

1. Whoever, for the purpose of exploitation, (a) recruits, (b) transports, (c) harbours, (d) transfers, or (e) receives, a person or persons, by—

First.—using threats, or Secondly.—using force, or any other form of coercion, or Thirdly.—by abduction, or Fourthly.—by practising fraud, or deception, or Fifthly.—by abuse of power, orSixthly.— by inducement, including the giving or receiving of payments or benefits, in order to achieve the consent of any person having control over the person recruited, transported, harboured, transferred or received, commits the offence of trafficking.

Explanation 1.—The expression “exploitation” shall include any act of physical exploitation or any form of sexual exploitation, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude, or the forced removal of organs.

Explanation 2.—The Consent of the victim is immaterial in determination of the offence of trafficking.

2.Whoever commits the offence of trafficking shall be punished with rigorous imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than seven years, but which may extend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

3. Where the offence involves the trafficking of more than one person, it shall be punishable with rigorous imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than ten years but which may extend to imprisonment for life, and shall also be liable to fine.

4. Where the offence involves the trafficking of a minor, it shall be punishable with rigorous imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than ten years, but which may extend to imprisonment for life, and shall also be liable to fine.

5. Where the offence involves the trafficking of more than one minor, it shall be punishable with rigorous imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than fourteen years, but which may extend to imprisonment for life, and shall also be liable to fine.

6. If a person is convicted of the offence of trafficking of minor on more than one occasion, then such person shall be punished with imprisonment for life, which shall mean imprisonment for the remainder of that person’s natural life, and shall also be liable to fine.

7. When a public servant or a police officer is involved in the trafficking of any person then, such public servant or police officer shall be punished with imprisonment for life, which shall mean imprisonment for the remainder of that person’s natural life, and shall also be liable to fine.

370A. Exploitation of a trafficked person.—

1. Whoever, knowingly or having reason to believe that a minor has been trafficked, engages such minor for sexual exploitation in any manner, shall be punished with rigorous imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than five years, but which may extend to seven years, and shall also be liable to fine.

2. Whoever, knowingly by or having reason to believe that a person has been trafficked, engages such person for sexual exploitation in any manner, shall be punished with rigorous imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than three years, but which may extend to five years, and shall also be liable to fine.

Penalties, Slavery

Penal Code, 1860 amend. 2013

371. Habitual dealing in slaves.—Whoever habitually imports, exports, removes, buys, sells, traffics or deals in slaves, shall be punished with 1[imprisonment for life], or with imprisonment of either description for a term not exceeding ten years, and shall also be liable to fine.

Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act, 1956

 

Programs and Agencies for Enforcement (Source: U.S Department of Labor)

Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk of exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.

Social Protection Coverage: General (at Least One)
Social Protections (Source: ILO)

The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour. 

If a country does not appear on a chart, this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.

Social Protection Coverage: Unemployed
Social Protection Coverage: Pension
Social Protection Coverage: Vulnerable Groups
Social Protection Coverage: Poor
Social Protection Coverage: Children
Social Protection Coverage: Disabled

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