Data Dashboards

Indonesia
Measurement
Measuring the Change

using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards.

Child labour data with a complete statistical definition is only provided for 2009. There is no change to report.

%
Best Target 8.7 Data: Child Labour Rate


The data visualization displays yearly child labour statistics based on a variety of nationally-representative household surveys. All years of data hold up to standards set by interagency collaboration between ILO, UNICEF and World Bank, though, in some cases are not perfectly comparable between years. Detailed information on each data point is provided in the Measurement tab (above).

Data Availability
  • Child labour: ILO/UNICEF data
  • Forced labour: No nationally representative data
  • Human trafficking: No nationally representative data
Context
Human Development

Human Development Index Score: 0.694 (2017)

Mean School Years: 7.9 years (2015)

Labour Indicators

Vulnerable Employment: 33% (2013)

Working Poverty Rate: 10.5% (2016)

Government Efforts
Key Ratifications
  • ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Not ratified
  • ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2000
  • UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Ratified 2009
Social Protection Coverage

General (at least one): Not Available

Unemployed: Not Available

Pension: 6% (2016)

Vulnerable: Not Available

Children: Not Available

Disabled: Not Available

Poor: Not Available

Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.

Child Labour Rate, Aged 5-17 (Source: ILO)

Based on the international conventions and the International Conference of Labour Statisticians (ICLS)  resolution, and consistent with the approach utilized in the ILO global child labour estimates exercise, the statistical definition of child labour used includes: 

a) children aged 5-11 years in all forms of economic activity;
b) children aged 12-14 years in all forms of economic activity except permissible “light” work;
c) children and adolescents aged 15-17 years in hazardous work; and
d) children aged 5-14 years performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week.

Only the measure provided for 2009 covers the full definition of hazardous work and cannot be compared directly with data from other sample years.

The chart displays differences by sex and region in the percentage of children aged 5-17 in child labour for 2009 and the percentage of children aged 10-17 in child labour for 2000-2003, 2007-2008 and 2010. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2000-2003 and 2007-2010.

Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Hazardous child labour is the largest category of the worst forms of child labour with an estimated 73 million children aged 5-17 working in dangerous conditions in a wide range of sectors. Worldwide, the ILO estimates that some 22,000 children are killed at work every year.

In Indonesia, estimates show that 1.3 percent of children aged 5-14 were engaged in hazardous work in 2009. Only the measure provided for 2009 covers the full definition of hazardous work and cannot be compared directly with data from other sample years.

The chart displays differences by sex and region the percentage of children aged 5-14 in hazardous labour for 2009 and the percentage of children aged 10-14 in hazardous labour for 2000-2003, 2007-2008 and 2010. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2000-2003 and 2007-2010. 

Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 15-17 (Source: ILO)

Children aged 15-17 are permitted to engage in economic activities by international conventions in most cases, except when the work is likely to harm the health, safety or morals of children (Article 3 (d) of ILO Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour, 1999 (No. 182)). 

In Indonesia, the latest estimates show that 7.4 percent of children aged 15-17 were engaged in hazardous work in 2010. The percentage is lower than the estimate of 8.3 percent of children aged 15-17 engaged in hazardous work in 2009.

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 15-17 in hazardous labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2000-2003 and 2007-2010.

Weekly Work Hours, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Children aged 5-11 are considered to be subjected to child labour when engaging in any form of economic activity. Children aged 12-14 are permitted to engage in “light” work that is not considered hazardous and falls below 14 hours per week.

According to the 2009 estimates, the average number of hours worked per week by children aged 5-14 in Indonesia was 13 hours. 

The chart displays differences by sex and region in the number of hours that children aged 5-14 work in economic activities for 2009 and in the number of hours that children aged 10-14 work in economic activities for 2000-2003, 2007-2008 and 2010. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2000-2003 and 2007-2010.

Weekly Work Hours, Children Only in Economic Activity, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Children not attending school who are engaged in economic activity can be subjected to longer working hours. 

In 2009, children in economic activity only, meaning they are not in school, worked an average of 23.7 hours per week. 

The chart displays differences by sex and region in the number of hours worked by children who are not in school, aged 5-14 for 2009 and aged 10-14 for 2000-2003, 2007-2008 and 2010.  Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2000-2003 and 2007-2010.

Weekly Hours in Household Chores, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Researchers recognize that children involved in economic activities are not the only children working. The ICLS recommended definition of child labour includes children aged 5-14 performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week. 

Children aged 5-14, on average, are found to work on household chores 7.4 hours per week according to the 2009 estimate. 

The chart displays differences in the number of hours children aged 5-14 work on household chores by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2009.

Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 10-14: Total (Source: ILO)

Identifying the sectors in which the most child labour exists can help policy actors and practitioners target efforts toward those industries. 

The latest data available on child labour by sector for Indonesia is from 2010. By the 2010 estimate, the Agriculture sector had the most child labourers, followed by the Commerce, Hotels and Restaurants sector and the Manufacturing sector.

The chart to the right displays child labour prevalence in each sector for all children. The charts below show the differences in child labour by sector with comparisons between groups by sex and region. 

Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 10-14: Sex (Source: ILO)
Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 10-14: Area (Source: ILO)

Measuring the incidence of forced labour is a much more recent endeavour and presents unique methodological challenges compared to the measurement of child labour.

No nationally representative data is available on forced labour prevalence in Indonesia.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on new guidelines presented by the International Labour Organization and adopted by the International Conference of Labour Statisticians.

The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.

No nationally representative data is available on human trafficking prevalence in Indonesia.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page to learn about measuring human trafficking prevalence, including information on collecting data through national referral mechanisms and producing prevalence statistics using Multiple Systems Estimation (MSE).

Case Data: International and Non-Governmental Organizations

Civil society organizations (CSOs) focused on human trafficking victim assistance can serve as crucial sources of data given their ability to reach a population that is notoriously difficult to sample.

Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (CTDC): The International Organization for Migration (IOM), Polaris and Liberty Asia have launched a global data repository on human trafficking, with data contributed by counter-trafficking partner organizations around the world. Not only does the CTDC serve as a central repository for this critical information, it also publishes normed and harmonized data from various organizations using a unified schema. This global dataset facilitates an unparalleled level of cross-border, trans-agency analysis and provides the counter-trafficking movement with a deeper understanding of this complex issue. Equipped with this information, decision makers will be empowered to create more targeted and effective intervention strategies.

Prosecution Data

UNODC compiles a global dataset on detected and prosecuted traffickers, which serves as the basis in their Global Report for country profiles. This information is beginning to paint a picture of trends over time, and case-specific information can assist investigators and prosecutors.

Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.

Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.

The chart displays information on human development in Indonesia between 1990 and 2015. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex. 

The most recent year of the HDI, 2015, shows that the average human development score in Indonesia is 0.689. This score indicates medium human development. 

HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)

Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.

As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:

“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”

The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in Indonesia over time.

Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction towards achieving Target 8.7.

Vulnerable Employment (Source: UNDP)

There are reasons to believe that certain types of labour and labour arrangements are more likely to lead to labour exploitation. According to the ILO:

“Own-account workers and contributing family workers have a lower likelihood of having formal work arrangements, and are therefore more likely to lack elements associated with decent employment, such as adequate social security and a voice at work. The two statuses are summed to create a classification of ‘vulnerable employment’, while wage and salaried workers together with employers constitute ‘non-vulnerable employment’.”

Between 2000 and 2013, Indonesia showed a decrease in the proportion of workers in vulnerable employment as compared to those in secure employment.

Working Poverty Rate (Source: ILO)

Labour income tells us about a household’s vulnerability. As the ILO explains in Profits and Poverty

“Poor households find it particularly difficult to deal with income shocks, especially when they push households below the food poverty line. In the presence of such shocks, men and women without social protection nets tend to borrow to smooth consumption, and to accept any job for themselves or their children, even under exploitative conditions.”

ILO indicators that measure poverty with respect to the labour force include working poverty rate, disaggregated by sex, with temporal coverage spanning from 2000 to 2016. The chart displays linear trends in working poverty rate over time for all individuals over 15 years of age.

Labour Productivity (Source: ILO)

Labour productivity is an important economic indicator that is closely linked to economic growth, competitiveness, and living standards within an economy.” However, when increased labour output does not produce rising wages, this can point to increasing inequality. As indicated by a recent ILO report (2015), there is a “growing disconnect between wages and productivity growth, in both developed and emerging economies”. The lack of decent work available increases vulnerability to situations of labour exploitation. 

Labour productivity represents the total volume of output (measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product, GDP) produced per unit of labour (measured in terms of the number of employed persons) during a given period.

Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.

Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Source: UNHCR)

Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants. 

According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children.”

 As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements.”

The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in Indonesia.

Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.

Official Definitions
Child Labour

Law no 13 concerning manpower, 2003
Article 68 Entrepreneurs are not allowed to employ children
Article 69 Exemption from what is stipulated under Article 68 may be made for the employment of children aged between 13 years old and 15 years old for light work as long as the job does not stunt or disrupt their physical, mental and social developments….
Article 73 Children shall be assumed to be at work if they are found in a workplace unless there is evidence to prove otherwise.

Worst Forms of Child Labour

Law no 13 concerning manpower, 2003
Article 74
1. Every body shall be prohibited from employming and involving children in the worst forms of child labour
2. The worst forms of child labour as referred to under subsection 1 include:

a. All kinds of job in theform of slavery or practices similar to slavery;
b. All kinds of job that make use of, procure, or offer children for prostitution, the production of pornogrpahy, pornographic perforances, or gambling;
c. All kinds of job that make use of, procure, or inviolve children for the production and trade of alcoholic beverages, narcotics, psychotropic substances, and other addictive substances; and/or
d. All kinds of job harmful to the health, safety and moral of the child.

3. The types of jobs that damage the healthy, safety or moral of the child as referred ot under point d of subsection 2 shall be determined and specified with a Ministerial Decision.

Law on Child Protection, 2002
Article 13
1. Every child, so long as he/she is under parents’ care, guardians’, or any other party’s responsible of caregiving, is entitled to have protection and treatment
of:

a. discrimination;
b. exploitation, be it economic or sexual;
c. abandonment;
d. cruelty, violence, and molestation;
e. injustice; and
f. other mistreatment.

2. In cases where parents, guardians or caregivers conduct any kinds of acts as meant by verse 1, the perpetrators are subjects to heavier penalty.

Law on the Ratification of the ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999
Pasal 1 Mengesahkan ILO Convention No. 182 concerning The Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour (Konvensi ILO No. 182 mengenai Pelarangan dan Tindakan Segera Penghapusan Bentuk-Bentuk Pekerjaan Terburuk untuk Anak) yang naskah aslinya dalam bahasa Inggris dan terjemahannya dalam bahasa Indonesia sebagaimana terlampir merupakan bagian tidak terpisahkan dari Undang-undang ini. Pasal 2 Undang-undang ini mulai berlaku pada tanggal diundangkan. Agar setiap orang mengetahuinya, memerintahkan pengundangan Undang-undang ini dengan penempatannya dalam Lembaran Negara Republik Indonesia.

Minister of Manpower and Transmigration Decree 235 concerning Jobs that Jeopardize the Health, Safety and Morals of Children, 2003
Provides for the Ratification of the ILO Convention No. 182 concerning the prohibition and immediate action for the elimination of the worst forms of child labour.

Human Trafficking

Law 21 on the Eradication of the Criminal Act of Trafficking in Persons, 2007
Chapter 1 General Provisions – Article 1
In this Law, the following terms shall have the meaning as assigned:
1. Trafficking in Persons shall mean the recruitment, transportation, harboring, sending, transfer, or receipt of a person by means of threat or use of force, abduction, incarceration, fraud, deception, the abuse of power or a position of vulnerability, debt bondage or the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, whether committed within the country or cross- border, for the purpose of exploitation or which causes the exploitation of a person.
2. The Criminal Act of Trafficking in Persons shall mean any crime or series of crimes which meet the qualifications set out in this Law.
5. A Child shall mean a person under the age of 18 (eighteen) years old, including an unborn baby.
7. Exploitation shall mean an act committed with or without the consent of the victim which includes but is not limited to prostitution, forced labor or service, slavery or practices similar to slavery, repression, extortion, physical abuse, sexual abuse, abuse of the reproductive organs, or the illegal transfer or transplantation of body organs or the use of another persons’ labor or ability for one’s own material or immaterial profit.
8. Sexual Exploitation shall mean any form of the use of sexual organs or other organs of the victim for the purpose of obtaining profit, including but not limited to all acts of prostitution and sexually indecent acts.

Slavery

Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia, 1945
Article 28I
1. The rights to life, freedom from torture, freedom of thought and conscience, freedom of religion, freedom from enslavement, recognition as a person before the law, and the right not to be tried under a law with retrospective effect are all human rights that cannot be limited under any circumstances.

International Commitments
National Strategies

National Action Plan for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour (2002–2022)
Provides a policy framework for the elimination of child labor. Specific activities include improving data collection on the worst forms of child labor, increasing awareness-raising and advocacy efforts, and formulating regulations and policies to prohibit the worst forms of child labor. In 2017, the MOM and other government agencies worked with provincial and district governments to provide assistance to local governments in implementing regulations and legislation that align with the Roadmap Toward a Child Labor-Free Indonesia.

National Action Plan on Preventing Trafficking in Persons (2015–2019)
Guides the work of the National Task Force to Combat Trafficking in Persons. Aims to improve health and social rehabilitation services and repatriation and social reintegration services for human trafficking victims, update anti-human trafficking regulations, and strengthen the investigation of human trafficking cases and the prosecution of perpetrators. Enhances coordination among task force members and between national and international stakeholders.

Roadmap Toward a Child Labour-Free Indonesia in 2022 (2014–2022)
Supports implementation of the National Action Plan for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labor. Aims to mainstream the elimination of the worst forms of child labor into relevant national policies; strengthen coordination between stakeholders at the national, provincial, and district levels; and enhance the capacity of stakeholders to eradicate child labor. Key feature is the establishment of Child-Labor-Free Industrial Zones, which has removed 98,564 child laborers from work between 2008 and 2017. In 2017, removed 18,401 children engaged in child labor.

International Ratifications

ILO Forced Labour Convention, C029, Ratification 1950

ILO Abolition of Forced Labour Convention, C105, Ratification 1999

ILO Minimum Age Convention, C138, Ratification 1999 (minimum age specified: 15 years)

ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182, Ratification 2000

UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol), Ratification 2009

UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, Ratification 1990

UN Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Ratification 2012

UN Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, Ratification 2012

Governments take action that assists victims and prevents or ends perpetration of modern slavery, forced labour, child labour and human trafficking. These actions should be considered in efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.

Programs and Agencies for Victim Support (Source: U.S Department of Labor)

Policies for Assistance
Policies for Assistance, Human Trafficking

Law 21 on the Eradication of the Criminal Act of Trafficking in Persons, 2007
Chapter 1 General Provisions – Article 1
In this Law, the following terms shall have the meaning as assigned:
3. Victim shall mean a person suffering from psychological, mental, physical, sexual, economic, and/or social trauma caused by the criminal act of trafficking in persons.
13. Restitution shall mean the payment of compensation imposed on the offender based on court ruling having permanent legal force for the material and/or immaterial damages suffered by victims or their beneficiaries.
14. Rehabilitation shall mean recovery from physical, psychological and social ailments in order to enable [the victim] to resume his/her role within the family or community.
Article 18
A victim who commits a crime under coercion by an offender of the criminal act of trafficking in persons shall not be liable to criminal charges.

Law on immigration, 2011
Part Four
Treatment of the Victims of Trafficking in Persons and Smuggling
Article 86
Administrative Measures Immigration Provisions do not apply to victims of trafficking and human smuggling.
Article 87
1. Victims of trafficking and human smuggling in Indonesia Region placed in immigration detention house or elsewhere specified.
2. Victims of trafficking and human smuggling as referred to in paragraph (1) get the special treatment that is different from Deteni in general.
Article 88
Minister or a designated Immigration Officer strive for victims of trafficking and human smuggling foreign nationality immediately returned to their home country and be given travel documents if they do not have it.
Article 136
1. In the case of a crime referred to in Article 114, Article 116, Article 117, Article 118, Article 120, Article 124, Article 128 and Article 129 made by the corporation, criminal meted out to officials and corporate.
2. The imposition of criminal penalties against the corporation only with the criminal penalty provisions of the magnitude of 3 (three) times from any criminal penalties as referred to in paragraph (1).
3. The penal provisions referred to in Article 113, Article 119, Article 121 letter b, letter b of Article 123 and Article 126 letters a and b does not apply to victims of trafficking and human smuggling.

Guidelines for Law Enforcement and the Protection of Victims of Trafficking in Handling Trafficking in Persons Cases, 2008

Government Regulation on the Procedure and Mechanism of Integrated Services for Witnesses and/or Victims of Human Trafficking, 2008

Compensation, Restitution and Rehabilitation for Victims of Serious Human Rights Violations, 2002

Government Regulation on procedures for protecting victims and witnesses in violation against human rights, 2002


Policies for Assistance, General

Law on Witness and Victim Protection, 2006

Law on Legal Aid, 2011

Law on Child Protection, 2002 amend.
Law 35 Amending Law on Child Protection, 2014
Pasal 1
Dalam Undang-Undang ini yang dimaksud dengan:
15. Perlindungan Khusus adalah suatu bentuk perlindungan yang diterima oleh Anak dalam situasi dan kondisi tertentu untuk mendapatkan jaminan rasa aman terhadap ancaman yang membahayakan diri dan jiwa dalam tumbuh kembangnya.

Article 18 Every child who becomes a victim of crime or a criminal actor is entitled to get legal aids and other aids.

Fifth section Special Protection Article 59
59.1 Pemerintah, Pemerintah Daerah, dan lembaga negara lainnya berkewajiban dan bertanggung jawab untuk memberikan Perlindungan Khusus kepada Anak.
59.2 Perlindungan Khusus kepada Anak
sebagaimana dimaksud pada ayat 1 diberikan kepada:

a. Anak dalam situasi darurat;
b. Anak yang berhadapan dengan hukum;
c. Anak dari kelompok minoritas dan terisolasi;
d. Anak yang dieksploitasi secara ekonomi dan/atau seksual;
e. Anak yang menjadi korban penyalahgunaan narkotika, alkohol, psikotropika, dan zat adiktif lainnya;
f. Anak yang menjadi korban pornografi;
g. Anak dengan HIV/AIDS;
h. Anak korban penculikan, penjualan, dan/atau perdagangan;
i. Anak korban Kekerasan fisik dan/atau psikis;
j. Anak korban kejahatan seksual;
k. Anak korban jaringan terorisme;
l. Anak Penyandang Disabilitas;
m. Anak korban perlakuan salah dan penelantaran;
n. Anak dengan perilaku sosial menyimpang; dan
o. Anak yang menjadi korban stigmatisasi dari pelabelan terkait dengan kondisi Orang Tuanya.

Pasal 59A

Perlindungan Khusus bagi Anak sebagaimana dimaksud dalam Pasal 59 ayat 1 dilakukan melalui upaya:
a. penanganan yang cepat, termasuk pengobatan dan/atau rehabilitasi secara fisik, psikis, dan sosial, serta pencegahan penyakit dan gangguan kesehatan lainnya;
b. pendampingan psikososial pada saat pengobatan sampai pemulihan;
c. pemberian bantuan sosial bagi Anak yang berasal dari Keluarga tidak mampu; dan
d. pemberian perlindungan dan pendampingan pada setiap proses peradilan.

Pasal 68
Perlindungan Khusus bagi Anak korban penculikan, penjualan, dan/atau perdagangan sebagaimana dimaksud dalam Pasal 59 ayat 2 huruf h dilakukan melalui upaya pengawasan, perlindungan, pencegahan, perawatan, dan rehabilitasi.

Law on Child Welfare, 1979

Regulation of the Minister of Manpower and Transmigraiton No 16, 2012

 

 

Penalties
Penalties, Child Labour

Law no 13 concerning manpower, 2003
183.1 Whosoever violates what is stipulated under Article 74 shall be subjected to a criminal sanction in jail for a minimum of 2 years and a maximum of 5 years and/or a fine of a minimum of Rp 200,000,000 and a maximum of Rp 500,000,000
183.2 the crime referred to under subsection 1 is a felony

Law on Child Protection, 2002 amend. 
Pasal 76F
Setiap Orang dilarang menempatkan, membiarkan, melakukan, menyuruh melakukan, atau turut serta melakukan penculikan, penjualan, dan/atau perdagangan Anak.

Law 35 Amending Law on Child Protection, 2014
Pasal 76I
Setiap Orang dilarang menempatkan, membiarkan, melakukan, menyuruh melakukan, atau turut serta melakukan eksploitasi secara ekonomi dan/atau seksual terhadap Anak.

Pasal 88
Setiap Orang yang melanggar ketentuan sebagaimana dimaksud dalam Pasal 76I, dipidana dengan pidana penjara paling lama 10 (sepuluh) tahun dan/atau denda paling banyak Rp200.000.000,00 (dua ratus juta rupiah

Penalties, Human Trafficking

Law 21 on the Eradication of the Criminal Act of Trafficking in Persons, 2007
Chapter II – Criminal Act of Trafficking in Persons
2.1 Anyone who recruits, transports, harbors, sends, transfers, or receives a person through the threat of force, use of force, abduction, incarceration, fraud, deception, abuse of authority or position of vulnerability, debt bondage or the giving of payment or benefit despite the giving of consent by another individual having charge over the person, for the purpose of exploiting the person within the territory of the Republic of Indonesia shall be punishable by a prison sentence of a minimum period of 3 (three) years and a maximum of 15 (fifteen) years and a fine amounting to a minimum of Rp 120,000,000.00 (one hundred and twenty million rupiah) and a maximum of Rp 600,000,000.00 (six hundred million rupiah).
2.2 If the act as described in paragraph 1 results in a person being exploited, the offender is subject to the same punishment as provided under paragraph 1.
3. Anyone who brings another person into the territory of the Republic of Indonesia with the intention to exploit such person within the said territory or in another country shall be punishable by a prison sentence of a minimum period of 3 (three) years and a maximum of 15 (fifteen) years and a fine amounting to a minimum of Rp120,000,000.00 (one hundred and twenty million rupiah) and a maximum of Rp 600,000,000.00 (six hundred million rupiah).
4. Anyone who takes an Indonesian citizen outside the territory of the Republic of Indonesia with the intention to exploit such person outside the said territory shall be punishable by a prison sentence of a minimum period of 3 (three) years and a maximum of 15 (fifteen) years and a fine amounting to a minimum of Rp120,000,000.00 (one hundred and twenty million rupiah) and a maximum of Rp 600,000,000.00 (six hundred million rupiah).
5. Anyone who adopts a child by promising or giving something with the intention of exploiting [such child] shall be punishable by a prison sentence of a minimum period of 3 (three) years and a maximum of 15 (fifteen) years and a fine amounting to a minimum of Rp120,000,000.00 (one hundred and twenty million rupiah) and a maximum of Rp 600,000,000.00 (six hundred million rupiah).
6. Anyone who sends a child within the country or to another country using any means, thus causing such child to be exploited, shall be punishable by a prison sentence of a minimum period of 3 (three) years and a maximum of 15 (fifteen) years and a fine amounting to a minimum of Rp 120,000,000.00 (one hundred and twenty million rupiah) and a maximum of Rp 600,000,000.00 (six hundred million rupiah).

Article 7
7.1 If the criminal act as described in Article 2 paragraph 2, Article 3, Article 4, Article 5, and Article 6 results in the victim to suffer major injury or major mental disturbance, to contract a life-threatening contagious disease, to become pregnant, or damage or loss to her/his reproductive organs, the applicable punishment will be added by 1/3 (one-third) of the punishment provided under Article 2 paragraph 2, Article 3, Article 4, Article 5, and Article 6.
7.2 If the criminal act as described in Article 2 paragraph 2, Article 3, Article 4, Article 5, and Article 6 results in the death of the victim, the applicable punishment is by prison sentence of a minimum period of 5 (five) years and a maximum of a life term and a fine amounting to a minimum of Rp 200,000,000.00 (two hundred million rupiah) and a maximum of Rp5,000,000,000.00 (five billion rupiah).

Article 8
8.1 A state official who commits an abuse of authority resulting in the criminal act of trafficking in persons as described in Article 2, Article 3, Article 4, Article 5 and Article 6 is subject to an increase of punishment by 1/3 (one-third) of the punishment described in Article 2, Article 3, Article 4, Article 5 and Article 6.
8.2 In addition to the punishment as provided under paragraph 1 above, an offender may be punished with the additional criminal sanction of dishonorable discharge from his/her position.
8.3 The additional criminal sanction as described in paragraph 2 will be expressed in the same court ruling.

Article 9
Anyone who attempts to cause another person to commit the criminal act of trafficking in persons, and the crime is not undertaken, shall be punishable by a prison sentence of a minimum period of 1 (one) year and a maximum of 6 (six) years and a fine amounting to a minimum of Rp 40,000,000.00 (forty million rupiah) and a maximum of Rp 240,000,000.00 (two hundred and forty million rupiah).

Article 10
Anyone who assists or attempts to commit the criminal act of trafficking in persons shall be punishable by the criminal sanctions as provided under Articles 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6.

Article 11
Anyone who plans or participates in an unlawful conspiracy to commit the criminal act of trafficking in persons shall be punishable by the criminal sanctions that apply to the actual perpetrators as provided under Articles 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6.

Article 12
Anyone who uses or takes advantage of a victim of the criminal act of trafficking in persons by way of engaging in sexual intercourse or other indecent acts with the victim, employing the victim so as to continue the exploitative situation, or gains benefit from the result of the crime, shall be punishable with the same criminal sanctions as described in Articles 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6.

Article 13
13.1 The criminal act of trafficking in persons shall be deemed to have been committed by a corporate entity if such a crime is committed by anyone acting for and/or on behalf of the corporation or for the interest of the corporation, either under an employment contract or other forms of relationship, within the scope of the corporate entity’s operations, alone or in alliance with another person.
13.2 If the criminal act of trafficking in persons is committed by a corporate entity as provided under paragraph (1) above, the investigation, prosecution and sentencing of such crime shall be carried out against the corporate entity and/or its management.

Article 15
15.1 In the case where the criminal act of trafficking in persons is committed by a corporate entity, in addition to the punishment and fine imposed on the management, a sanction can be imposed on the entity in the form of [an additional] fine amounting to 3 (three) times the amount of fine as provided under Articles 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6.
15.2 In addition to the fine as referred to in paragraph 1, a corporate entity may be subject to:

a. revocation of its business license;
b. confiscation of proceeds derived from the crime in question;
c. revocation of status as a legal entity;
d. dismissal of the management; and/or
e. prohibition on the management to establish another corporate entity within the same line of business.

Article 16
In the event the criminal act of trafficking in persons is committed by an organized group, each of the offenders in such group shall be punishable by the criminal sanctions as referred to in Article 2 increased by 1/3 (one-third).

Article 17
In the event the criminal act as stipulated under Articles 2, 3, and 4 is committed against a child, the applicable sentence shall be increased by 1/3 (one-third).

Programs and Agencies for Enforcement (Source: U.S Department of Labor)

Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk of exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.

Social Protection Coverage: General (at Least One)
Social Protection Coverage (Source: ILO)

The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour. 

If a country does not appear on a chart, this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.

Social Protection Coverage: Unemployed
Social Protection Coverage: Pension
Social Protection Coverage: Vulnerable Groups
Social Protection Coverage: Poor
Social Protection Coverage: Children
Social Protection Coverage: Disabled

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