Data Dashboards

Israel
Measurement
Measuring the Change

using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards.

Due to lack of nationally representative data, there is no change to report.

%
Best Target 8.7 Data: Child Labour Rate

No data available

Data Availability
  • Child labour: No ILO/UNICEF data
  • Forced labour: No nationally representative data
  • Human trafficking: No nationally representative data
Context
Human Development

Human Development Index Score: 0.906 (2018)

Mean School Years: 13.0 years (2018)

 

Labour Indicators

Vulnerable Employment: 8.3% (2018)

Working Poverty Rate: No data available

Government Efforts
Key Ratifications
  • ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Ratified 2018
  • ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2005
  • UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Ratified 2008
Social Protection Coverage

General (at least one): 54.9% (2016)

Unemployed: 37.0% (2014)

Pension: 85.0% (2014)

Vulnerable: No data

Children: No data

Disabled: 90.4% (2016)

Poor: No data

Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.

No nationally representative data is available on child labour prevalence in Israel.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on ILO-SIMPOC methods and guidelines for defining, measuring and collecting data on child labour.

Measuring the incidence of forced labour is a much more recent endeavour and presents unique methodological challenges compared to the measurement of child labour.

No nationally representative data is available on forced labour prevalence in Israel.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on new guidelines presented by the International Labour Organization and adopted by the International Conference of Labour Statisticians.

The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.

No nationally representative data is available on human trafficking prevalence in Israel.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page to learn about measuring human trafficking prevalence, including information on collecting data through national referral mechanisms and producing prevalence statistics using Multiple Systems Estimation (MSE).

Case Data: International and Non-Governmental Organizations

Civil society organizations (CSOs) focused on human trafficking victim assistance can serve as crucial sources of data given their ability to reach a population that is notoriously difficult to sample.

Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (CTDC): The International Organization for Migration (IOM), Polaris and Liberty Asia have launched a global data repository on human trafficking, with data contributed by counter-trafficking partner organizations around the world. Not only does the CTDC serve as a central repository for this critical information, it also publishes normed and harmonized data from various organizations using a unified schema. This global dataset facilitates an unparalleled level of cross-border, trans-agency analysis and provides the counter-trafficking movement with a deeper understanding of this complex issue. Equipped with this information, decision makers will be empowered to create more targeted and effective intervention strategies.

Prosecution Data

UNODC compiles a global dataset on detected and prosecuted traffickers, which serves as the basis in their Global Report for country profiles. This information is beginning to paint a picture of trends over time, and case-specific information can assist investigators and prosecutors.

Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.

Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.

The chart displays information on human development in Israel between 1990 and 2018. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex. 

The most recent year of the HDI, 2018, shows that the average human development score in Israel is 0.906. This score indicates that human development is very high. 

 

HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)

Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.

As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:

“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”

The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in Israel over time.

 

Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in the availability of equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction towards achieving Target 8.7.

HDI Vulnerable Employment (Source: UNDP)

There are reasons to believe that certain types of labour and labour arrangements are more likely to lead to labour exploitation. According to the ILO:

“Own-account workers and contributing family workers have a lower likelihood of having formal work arrangements, and are therefore more likely to lack elements associated with decent employment, such as adequate social security and a voice at work. The two statuses are summed to create a classification of ‘vulnerable employment’, while wage and salaried workers together with employers constitute ‘non-vulnerable employment’.”

Between 1991 and 2018, Israel showed a increase in the proportion of workers in vulnerable employment as compared to those in secure employment.

Labour Productivity (Source: ILO)

Labour productivity is an important economic indicator that is closely linked to economic growth, competitiveness, and living standards within an economy.” However, when increased labour output does not produce rising wages, this can point to increasing inequality. As indicated by a recent ILO report (2015), there is a “growing disconnect between wages and productivity growth, in both developed and emerging economies”. The lack of decent work available increases vulnerability to situations of labour exploitation. 

Labour productivity represents the total volume of output (measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product, GDP) produced per unit of labour (measured in terms of the number of employed persons) during a given period.

 

Rates of Non-fatal Occupational Injuries (Source: ILO)

Occupational injury and fatality data can also be crucial in prevention and response efforts. 

As the ILO explains:

“Data on occupational injuries are essential for planning preventive measures. For instance, workers in occupations and activities of highest risk can be targeted more effectively for inspection visits, development of regulations and procedures, and also for safety campaigns.”

There are serious gaps in existing data coverage, particularly among groups that may be highly vulnerable to labour exploitation. For example, few countries provide information on injuries disaggregated between migrant and non-migrant workers.

 

Rates of Fatal Occupational Injuries (Source: ILO)

Data on occupational health and safety may reveal conditions of exploitation, even if exploitation may lead to under-reporting of workplace injuries and safety breaches. At present, the ILO collects data on occupational injuries, both fatal and non-fatal, disaggregating by sex and migrant status.

Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.

Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Source: UNHCR)

Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants.

According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children. “

As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements, as recognized by Member States in the New York declaration for refugees and migrants of September 2016.”

The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in Israel.

Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.

Official Definitions
Forced Labour

Basic Law: Freedom of Occupation, 1994

“Basic Principles
1. Fundamental human rights in Israel are founded upon recognition of the value of the human being, the sanctity of human life, and the principle that all persons are free; these rights shall be upheld in the spirit of the principles set forth in the Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel.
Application
5. All governmental authorities are bound to respect the freedom of occupation of all Israel nationals and residents.
Stability
6. This Basic Law shall not be varied, suspended or made subject to conditions by emergency regulations.”

Penal Law 5737-1977 amend. Anti Trafficking (Legislative Amendments), 5766 – 2006

“Forced labor
376. If a person unlawfully compels another to work against his will, using force or other means of pressure or by threatening any of those, or by consent that was fraudulently obtained, all whether for consideration or without consideration, then he shall be liable to seven years imprisonment.”

Child Labour

Youth Labour Law, 5713-1953

“Interpretation
1.a. In this Law-
“child” means a person who has not yet attained the age of 16 years;
“adolescent” means a person who has attained the age of 16 years, but has not yet attained the age of 18 years;
“juvenile” means a child or an adolescent;
1.b. For the purposes of this Law, a juvenile is regarded as employed, and the person with whom he works is regarded as his employer, if the juvenile works –

1. with his parents for the purposes of their business or occupation, except in casual non- industrial work on his parents’ farm’
2. for another person, at any work, whether or not an employer/employee relationship exists; for such purpose “work” includes itinerant trading;
3. in any undertaking the work of which is not aimed solely at supplying the undertaking’s own requirements, even though it may not be work for the purposes of business or profit, including a place declared by the Minister of Labour and Social Affairs to be a centre of vocational training for juveniles intended to impart a trade by practical work.

1.c. For the purpose of this Law the employment of a child in a public or artistic appearance, or for the purposes of advertising, or in photographs for the purposes of advertising, as provided in section 4, shall be deemed to be employment, even if no employer/employee relationship was created by virtue of such employment, and even where it was one time engagement, and this applies whether or not such employment was for consideration or reward; for this purpose, “employment of a child” – includes his participation.”

“Working age of a child.
2.a. A child who has not yet attained the age of fifteen years shall not be employed.
2.b. A child who has attained the age of fifteen years and who is liable to compulsory education under the Compulsory Education Law, 5709-1949, shall not be employed unless –

1. he works as an apprentice under the Apprenticeship Law, 5709-1953; or
2. Repealed.
3. a direction under Section 5b.1.(ii) of the Compulsory Education Law, 5709-1949, has been issued in this respect of that child; or
4. an inspector of the Ministry of Education and Culture has certified that the child has completed his compulsory education within a period shorter than the period of study corresponding to his age.

2.c. The Minister of Labour and Social Affairs may permit the employment of a child who has completed his fourteenth year and in respect of whom exemption has been granted under section 5 of the Compulsory Education Law, 5709-1949. A permit under this Law may be general or specific.”

“Compulsory day of study.
27A.a. The Minister of Labour and Social Affairs shall, by order, impose on every working adolescent who has attained the age of 15 but has not yet attained the age of 18 years the duty of study for the purpose of vocational training, such study to be carried on in a place prescribed by the Minister.
27A.b. The Minister of Labour and Social Affairs may introduce the duty of study gradually, provided that within five years from the date of the coming into force of this section he imposes it on every working adolescent to whom the Apprenticeship Law, 5713-1953 does not apply.”

Worst Forms of Child Labour

Youth Labour Law, 5713-1953

“Prohibition of work in certain places.
5. Even where a child has reached the age of 15, he shall not be employed in a place prescribed by the Minister of Labour and Social Affairs, in general or in particular, if in the opinion of the Minister, the employment of a child in such a place is liable to endanger his physical, psychological or educational development because of the nature of the work, its location or for any other reason.”

“Prohibited work.
6. The Minister of Labour and Social Affairs may prohibit or restrict, by regulations the employment of a child or adolescent in work, production processes or workplaces which in his opinion are likely to prejudice the health, well-being or physical development of the child or adolescent, even if such employment is not prohibited under the preceding sections.”

“Special age for certain work.
7. The Minister of Labour and Social Affairs may by regulations prescribe that a juvenile who has not yet attained a certain age shall not be employed in certain work, if in the opinion of the Minister such work is likely to prejudice the health, well-being or physical, educational, spiritual or moral development of the juvenile, even if his employment there is not prohibited under the preceding sections.”

“Working day and working week.
20.a. A juvenile shall not be employed for more than eight working hours a day and forty working
hours a week.

20.a1. Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection a., where under section 5a. of the Hours of
Work and Rest Law, 5711-1951 it is permissible to work at a workplace for more than 8 hours of work daily, then a juvenile may be employed there for up to 9 working hours per day, provided that the working week does not exceed 40 working hours.
20.b. On the day preceding the weekly day of rest and on the day preceding a festival on which he does not work, whether by virtue of law or by agreement or custom, a juvenile shall not be employed for more than seven working hours.
20.c. “”Working hours”” means hours during which the juvenile is available for work, including short agreed breaks given to the juvenile for recreation and fresh air, but not including breaks under section 22.”

“Prohibition of night work.
24.a. A juvenile shall not be employed, or engaged in itinerant trading, at night.
24.b. In this section, “”night””, in relation to a child and a youth to whom the Compulsory Education Law 5709-1949 applies – means a twelve hour period between 8 p.m. to 8.a.m., and in relation to a youth to whom the Compulsory Education Law 5709-1949 does not apply – means a period of
ten hours between 10 p.m. and 6 a.m.
24.c. For the purposes of this section, notwithstanding section 1b., a juvenile who works in a trade
school is regarded as employed.”

“Dangerous employment.
33. If a person employs a juvenile in one of the following –

1. in contravention of the provisions of sections 2, 2A or 4, or in contravention of the provisions
of a permit issued thereunder;
2. at a place in respect of which the Minister of Labour and Social Affairs has determined, in
accordance with the provisions of section 5, that the work of a juvenile there is liable to endanger him;
3. at work, in production processes or at workplaces at which the Minister of Labour and Social Affairs has prohibited or restricted the employment of juveniles in accordance with the provisions of section 6;
4. at work, at which he must not be employed at his age, in accordance with the provisions of section;
5. in contravention of the provisions of section 14;
he shall be liable to one years imprisonment or to a fine of one and a half times the fine specified in section 61a.2. of the Penal Law 5737-1977 (hereinafter referred to as – The Penal Law).”

“Other prohibited employment.
33A. If a person employs a juvenile in one of the following –

1. In contravention of the provisions of sections 11 or 12, or in contravention of the provisions of permit issued under section 11A, concerning medical examinations;
2. In contravention of the provisions of sections 20, 21, 22 and 24, or in contravention of the provisions of a permit issued under section 25, concerning hours of work and rest;
3. In contravention of the provisions of a permit issued pursuant to this law otherwise than under sections 2, 2A and 4, including provisions relating to the determination of the maximum number of hours of work, weekly rest, breaks at work and work at night;
he shall be liable to six months imprisonment or to a fine as provided in section 61a.2. of the Penal Law.”

Youth Employment Regulations (Prohibited Jobs and Restricted Jobs) (5756-1995)

“Made under Youth Employment Law 5713/1953. Sets forth list of jobs prohibited for young persons. Prohibition does not apply to employment of a youth pursuant to the Apprenticeship Law 5713/1953 or at the Vocational Training Centre for Youth under Section 1b.3. of the Law. Establishes that chief Work Supervisor may permit employment of a youth for a job, in places, and with restrictions laid down in the permit, if it is essential for the professional training of the youth. Revokes Youth Employment Regulations (Prohibited Jobs and Restricted Jobs), 5714/1954.”

Human Trafficking

Penal Law 5737-1977 amend. Anti Trafficking (Legislative Amendments), 5766 – 2006

“Commerce in human beings
377A.a. If a person conducts commerce in human beings for one of the following purposes or if he conducts commerce in a human being and thereby exposes him to the danger of one of them, then he shall be liable to sixteen years imprisonment:

1. removal of any organ of his body;
2. bearing a child and removing it;
3. subjecting him to slavery;
4. causing him to perform forced labor;
5. causing him to engage in prostitution;
6. causing him to participate in an obscene publication or in an obscene performance;
7. subjecting him to a sex offense.

b. If an offense under subsection a. was committed on a minor, then the person who committed the offense shall be liable to twenty years imprisonment.
c. If a person brokers commerce in human beings, as said in subsection a., whether or not for consideration, then he shall be liable to the same penalty as the person who trades in that human being.
d. In this section, “”commerce in human beings”” – selling or buying a person or performing some other transaction with a person, whether or not for consideration.”

Slavery

Penal Law 5737-1977 amend. Anti Trafficking (Legislative Amendments), 5766 – 2006

“Keeping under conditions of slavery
375A.c. In this article, “”slavery”” – a condition under which authority is exercised against a person, such as is generally exercised toward a person’s property; for this purpose, actual control of a person’s life or denial of his freedom shall be deemed the exercise of said authority.”

 

Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the perpetration of forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour. These actions should be considered in wider societal efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.

Programs and Agencies for Victim Support

Policies for Assistance
Policies for Assistance, Human Trafficking

Legal Aid Law, 5732 – 1972 amend. Anti Trafficking (Legislative Amendments), 5766 – 2006

“””Legal Aid
By means of an amendment to the Legal Aid Law 5732 – 1972, legal aid will be accorded to all victims of trafficking and slavery from the date the law goes into force until September 15th 2008. Until this provision, legal aid was accorded only to victims of trafficking for the purpose of prostitution. In order to receive this legal aid, the victim does not have to meet economic criteria. The aid is given in regard to civil claims arising from the slavery or trafficking crimes or connected crimes and in regard to procedures according to the Entry to Israel Law, 5712- 1952″””

Penal Law 5737-1977 amend. Anti Trafficking (Legislative Amendments), 5766 – 2006

“Reasons must be stated when compensation is not awarded
377C. If a person was convicted of an offense under sections 375A or 377A, and if the Court did not adjudge compensation for the injured person under section 77, then – in the sentence – the Court shall specify its reasons for not adjudging the said compensation.”

“Earmarked fund
377E.a. The Court’s confiscation decision under. section 377D shall be the Administrator General’s authority for seizing the confiscated property; confiscated property or its consideration shall be transmitted to the Administrator General and he shall deposit it in an earmarked fund, which he shall manage subject to regulations that will be made under subsection d. (in this section: the Fund).
b. Fines imposed by the Court shall be deposited in the Fund.
c. When the victim of an offense presents a judgment for his compensation to a factor designated for this purpose by the Minister of Justice, and if he demonstrates that he has no reasonable possibility of realizing the all or part of the judgment under any statute, then the all or part of the amount of compensation set in the judgment and not yet realized shall be paid to the victim of the offense out of the Fund; for this purpose, “”judgment”” – a judgment against which there is no further appeal.
d. The Minister of Justice shall prescribe, in regulations with approval by the Knesset Constitution, Law and Justice Committee, how the Fund is to be managed, what use is to be made of the Fund’s assets and how they are to be allocated for these purposes:

1. rehabilitation, treatment and protection of victims of offenses; each year no less than one half the Fund’s assets in one year shall be allocated to this purpose;
2. payment of compensation set by a judgment to victims of offenses, according to the provisions of subsection c.;
3. prevention of offenses;
4. performance of the tasks of the Law enforcement authorities, in order to enforce the provisions of this Law about offenses.”

Penalties
Penalties, Forced Labour

Penal Law 5737-1977 amend. Anti Trafficking (Legislative Amendments), 5766 – 2006

“Forced labor
376. If a person unlawfully compels another to work against his will, using force or other means of pressure or by threatening any of those, or by consent that was fraudulently obtained, all whether for consideration or without consideration, then he shall be liable to seven years imprisonment.”

Penalties, Child Labour

Youth Labour Law, 5713-1953

“Dangerous employment.
33. If a person employs a juvenile in one of the following –

1. in contravention of the provisions of sections 2, 2A or 4, or in contravention of the provisions
of a permit issued thereunder;
2. at a place in respect of which the Minister of Labour and Social Affairs has determined, in
accordance with the provisions of section 5, that the work of a juvenile there is liable to endanger him;
3. at work, in production processes or at workplaces at which the Minister of Labour and Social Affairs has prohibited or restricted the employment of juveniles in accordance with the provisions of section 6;
4. at work, at which he must not be employed at his age, in accordance with the provisions of section;
5. in contravention of the provisions of section 14;

he shall be liable to one years imprisonment or to a fine of one and a half times the fine specified in section 61a.2. of the Penal Law 5737-1977 (hereinafter referred to as – The Penal Law).”

“Other prohibited employment.
33A. If a person employs a juvenile in one of the following –

1. In contravention of the provisions of sections 11 or 12, or in contravention of the provisions of permit issued under section 11A, concerning medical examinations;
2. In contravention of the provisions of sections 20, 21, 22 and 24, or in contravention of the provisions of a permit issued under section 25, concerning hours of work and rest;
3. In contravention of the provisions of a permit issued pursuant to this law otherwise than under sections 2, 2A and 4, including provisions relating to the determination of the maximum number of hours of work, weekly rest, breaks at work and work at night;

he shall be liable to six months imprisonment or to a fine as provided in section 61a.2. of the Penal Law.”

“Employment of an adult.
33B. If a person employs a person who has attained the age of 18 but has not yet attained the age of 21, at work which the Minister of Labour and Social Affairs has determined pursuant to section 16 that it constitutes a danger to health in contravention of Chapter 3: Medical Examinations, or in contravention of the provisions of Chapter 6: Obligatory day at School, he shall be liable to the penalties imposed on a person employing a juvenile as provide”

Additional offences
33C.a. If a person employs a juvenile in one of the following –

1. at work that has been determined under section 18, without having previously ascertained whether the juvenile was given guidance in the choice of an occupation, as provided in that section;
2. in contravention of the provisions of section 23, except for subsection b. thereof, concerning the matter of a juvenile who attends evening classes;
3. without his having produced a special permit for night work in accordance with the provisions of section 26d.;
4. in contravention of the provisions of section 27Ea., concerning the matter of a juvenile to whom the obligation to study applies;
5. without a work booklet having been issued to him in accordance with the provisions of section 28;
6. without having kept a register in accordance with the provisions of section 31;
7. without having informed the juvenile of the provisions of this Law in accordance with the provisions of section 32;
he shall be liable to a fine as provided in section 61a.1. of the Penal Law.

33C.b. where an employer has made a deduction from the pay of a juvenile because of his absence for study, in contravention of the provisions of sections 23b. or 27Eb., then he shall be liable to a fine as provided in subsection a..”d in sections 33 or 33A as the case may be.”

“Responsibility of a body corporate.
33E. Where an offence under sections 33, 33A, 33C, or 33D has been committed by a body corporate, it shall be liable to double the amount of the fine prescribed for that offence.”

“Strict liability.
33F. An offence under sections 33, 33A, 33B, 33C, 33D and 33E shall be of the class of offences for which liability is absolute.”

“Continuing offence
33G. In addition to the penalty prescribed for an offence under this Law, where such offence is a continuing offence, the court may impose on a person convicted of such an offence, a fine as prescribed in section 61c. of the Penal Law for each day in respect of which the offence continues.”

“Juvenile employed by several employers.
34. Where a juvenile is employed by an employer when according to the entries in the work booklet he is employed also by another employer, the employer who employs him on any day or in any week for working hours in excess of eight or forty, respectively, is deemed to have employed him on that day or in that week for all working hours unless he did not know and could not have known the number of the hours that the juvenile had already been employed by another employer.”

“Duty of parents.
37.a. A parent of a juvenile must supervise and do everything possible to prevent the employment of the juvenile in contravention of the provisions of section 33; where a parent is in breach of such obligation he shall be liable to the fine prescribed for a person who employs a juvenile in contravention of those provisions.
37.b. Where a juvenile has been employed in contravention of one of the provisions of section 33, the presumption shall be that the parent of such juvenile has acted in breach of his obligation as provided in subsection a. unless he proves that he acted without criminal intent and not negligently, and that he did everything possible to perform such obligation.”

“The State as employer.
41. For the purposes of this Law, a juvenile employed by the State is treated in like manner as a juvenile employed by any other employer.”

Administrative Offences Regulations (Administrative Fine – Youth Employment), 5754-1994

“Sets out fines for violations of sections 33A, 33C, 33D and 33E of the Youth Employment Act, 5713-1953.”

Penalties, General

Penal Law 5737-1977 amend. Anti Trafficking (Legislative Amendments), 5766 – 2006

“Keeping under conditions of slavery
375A.a. If a person keeps a person under conditions of slavery for work or services, including sexual services, then he shall be liable to sixteen years imprisonment.
b. If an offense under subsection a. was committed in respect of a minor, then the person who committed the offense shall be liable to twenty years imprisonment.
c. In this article, “”slavery”” – a condition under which authority is exercised against a person, such as is generally exercised toward a person’s property; for this purpose, actual control of a person’s life or denial of his freedom shall be deemed the exercise of said authority.”

“Retaining passport
376A. If a person unlawfully retains a passport, laissez passer or identity document of another person, then he shall be liable to three years imprisonment; if he does so for one of the purposes enumerated in section 377Aa. or if he thereby exposes him to one of the dangers enumerated in that section, then he shall be liable to five years imprisonment.”

“Causing a person to leave a State for prostitution or slavery
376B.a. IfapersoncausesapersontoleavetheStateinwhichhelivesin order to employ him in prostitution or to hold him under conditions of slavery, then he shall be liable to ten years imprisonment.
b. If an offense under subsection a. was committed on a minor, then the person who committed the offense shall be liable to fifteen years imprisonment.”

“False imprisonment
377. If a person unlawfully arrests or confines another, then he is liable to three years imprisonment, if he arrested him while pretending to hold official status or that he had a warrant, then he is liable to five years imprisonment.”

“Minimum penalty for the offense of keeping under conditions of slavery and for the offense of commerce in human beings
377B. a. If a person was convicted of an offense under sections 375A or
377A, then his penalty shall not be less than one fourth of the maximum penalty prescribed for that offense, unless the Court decided – for special reasons that shall be recorded – to reduce his penalty.
b. A penalty of imprisonment under subsection a. shall not – in the absence of special reasons – be suspended in its entirety.”

“Confiscation
377D. a. In this section and in section 377E –
“”Struggle against Crime Organizations Law”” the Struggle against Crime Organizations Law 5763-2003;
“”victim of offense”” – the person directly injured by the offense and also the relative of a person whose death was caused by the offense;
“”offense”” – the offense of keeping under conditions of slavery under section 375A and the offense of commerce in human beings under section 377A;
“”property”” and “”property connected to the offense”” – as defined in the Struggle against Crime Organizations Law.
b. The provisions of sections 5 to 33 of the Struggle against Crime Organizations Law, except for sections 8, 142. and 31 of the said Law, shall apply to the confiscation of property connected to the offense, as the case may be an mutatis mutandis.
c. Subject to the provisions of subsection b., property that can be confiscated under the provisions of this Article, and also under the provisions of the Struggle against Crime Organizations Law or the Prohibition of Money Laundering Law 5760-2000, shall be confiscated under the provisions of this Law, unless there are special reasons that justify confiscation of the property otherwise than under the provisions of this Article.
d. The Minister of Justice shall, in regulations with approval by the
Knesset Constitution, Law and Justice Committee, prescribe provisions on Law procedure on petitions for confiscation orders in criminal or civil proceedings, procedures for hearing objections to the confiscation, petitions for relief in order to maintain the property, temporary relief, reconsideration, appeal, and also provisions for implementing the confiscation, managing the assets and giving notice to persons who claim rights to the property.”

“Extortion
431. If a person takes advantage of the distress, physical or mental weakness, inexperience or carelessness of another person for one of the following, then he is liable to three years imprisonment:

1. he demands or obtains a thing not legally due to him;
2. he demands or obtains a consideration for a commodity or service that is unreasonably higher than the customary consideration;
3. he gives for a commodity or service a consideration that is unreasonably lower than the customary consideration.”

Data Commitments

A Call to Action to End Forced Labour, Modern Slavery and Human Trafficking, Signed 2017

1.ii. Take steps to measure, monitor and share data on prevalence and response to all such forms of exploitation, as appropriate to national circumstances;

Programs and Agencies for Enforcement

Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk of exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.

Social Protection Coverage: General (at Least One)
Social Protection (Source: ILO)

The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.

If a country does not appear on a chart, this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.

Social Protection Coverage: Unemployed
Social Protection Coverage: Pension
Social Protection Coverage: Vulnerable Groups
Social Protection Coverage: Poor
Social Protection Coverage: Children
Social Protection Coverage: Disabled

Delta 8.7 has received no Official Response to this dashboard from Israel. If you are a representative of Israel and wish to submit an Official Response, please contact us here.