Measuring the Change
using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards.
Child labour rates increased by 6% between 2007 and 2016.
Best Target 8.7 Data: Child Labour Rate
The data visualization displays yearly child labour statistics based on a variety of nationally-representative household surveys. All years of data hold up to standards set by interagency collaboration between ILO, UNICEF and World Bank, though, in some cases are not perfectly comparable between years. Detailed information on each data point is provided in the Measurement tab (above).
- Child labour: ILO/UNICEF data
- Forced labour: No nationally representative data
- Human trafficking: No nationally representative data
Human Development Index Score: 0.729 (2019)
Mean Years of School: 10.5 years (2019)
Vulnerable Employment: 9.7% (2012)
Working Poverty Rate: 2.9% (2016)
- ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Not ratified
- ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2000
- UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Accession 2009
Social Protection Coverage
General (at least one): No data
Unemployed: 0% (2013)
Pension: 42.2% (2010)
Vulnerable: No data
Children: No data
Disabled: No data
Poor: No data
Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.
Child Labour Rate, Aged 5-17 (Source: ILO)
Based on the international conventions and the International Conference of Labour Statisticians (ICLS) resolution, and consistent with the approach utilized in the ILO global child labour estimates exercise, the statistical definition of child labour used includes:
a) children aged 5-11 years in all forms of economic activity;
b) children aged 12-14 years in all forms of economic activity except permissible “light” work;
c) children and adolescents aged 15-17 years in hazardous work; and
d) children aged 5-14 years performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week.
In Jordan, child labour rates have increased between 2007 and 2016.
The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 5-17 in child labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2007 and 2016.
Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)
Hazardous child labour is the largest category of the worst forms of child labour with an estimated 73 million children aged 5-17 working in dangerous conditions in a wide range of sectors. Worldwide, the ILO estimates that some 22,000 children are killed at work every year.
In Jordan, the latest estimates show that 0.6 percent of children aged 5-14 were engaged in hazardous work in 2016. This number has increased from 0.5 percent in 2007.
The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 5-14 in hazardous labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2007 and 2016.
Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 15-17 (Source: ILO)
Children aged 15-17 are permitted to engage in economic activities by international conventions in most cases, except when the work is likely to harm the health, safety or morals of children (Article 3 (d) of ILO Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour, 1999 (No. 182)).
In Jordan, the latest estimates show that 4.6 percent of children aged 15-17 were engaged in hazardous work in 2016. This number has increased from 4.3 percent in 2007.
The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 15-17 in hazardous labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2007 and 2016.
Weekly Work Hours, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)
Children aged 5-11 are considered to be subjected to child labour when engaging in any form of economic activity. Children aged 12-14 are permitted to engage in “light” work that is not considered hazardous and falls below 14 hours per week.
According to the latest 2007 estimates, the average number of hours worked per week by children aged 5-14 in Jordan was 32.2 hours.
The chart displays differences in the number of hours that children aged 5-14 work in economic activities by sex and region. The sample includes all children of this age group. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2007.
Weekly Work Hours Children Only in Economic Activity, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)
Children not attending school who are engaged in economic activity can be subjected to longer working hours.
In 2007, the latest year with available data, children in economic activity only, meaning they are not in school, worked an average of 52.7 hours per week.
The chart displays differences in the number of hours worked by children aged 5-14 who are not in school, by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2007.
Weekly Hours Household Chores, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)
Researchers recognize that children involved in economic activities are not the only children working. The ICLS recommended definition of child labour includes performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week for children aged 5-14.
Children aged 5-14, on average, are found to work on household chores 5.4 hours per week according to the 2007 estimate.
The chart displays differences in the number of hours children aged 5-14 work on household chores by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2007.
Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: Total (Source: ILO)
Identifying the sectors in which the most child labour exists can help policy actors and practitioners target efforts toward those industries.
The latest data available on child labour by sector for Jordan is from 2007. By the 2007 estimate, the Commerce, Hotels and Restaurants sector had the most child labourers, followed by the Agriculture sector and the Manufacturing sector.
The chart to the right displays child labour prevalence in each sector for all children. The charts below show the differences in child labour by sector with comparisons between groups by sex and region.
Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: Sex (Source: ILO)
Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: Area (Source: ILO)
SDG Indicator 8.7.1, Economic Activity (Source: ILO)
While the concept of child labour includes working in activities that are hazardous in nature, to ensure comparability of estimates over time and to minimize data quality issues, work beyond age-specific hourly thresholds is used as a proxy for hazardous work for the purpose of reporting on SDG indicator 8.7.1. Similarly, while the worst forms of child labour other than hazardous also form part of the concept of child labour more broadly, data on the worst forms of child labour are not currently captured in regular household surveys given difficulties with accurately and reliably measuring it. Therefore, this element of child labour is not captured by the indicators used for reporting on SDG 8.7.1.
In accordance with the ICLS resolutions, child labour can be measured on the basis of the production boundary set by the United Nations System of National Accounts (SNA), which limits the frame of reference to economic activity.
The chart displays the proportion and number of children aged 5-17 years engaged in economic activities at or above age-specific hourly thresholds in Jordan for the year 2016. Gender disaggregated data is provided for 2016.
SDG Indicator 8.7.1, Household Chores (Source: ILO)
In addition to being measured on the basis of SNA, child labour can also be measured on the basis of the general production boundary, which includes economic activity and unpaid household services, that is, the production of domestic and personal services by a household member for consumption within their own household, commonly called “household chores”.
The chart displays the proportion of children aged 5-17 years engaged in economic activities and household chores at or above age-specific hourly thresholds in Jordan for the year 2016. Gender disaggregated data is provided for 2016.
Measuring the incidence of forced labour is a much more recent endeavour and presents unique methodological challenges compared to the measurement of child labour.
No nationally representative data is available on forced labour prevalence in Jordan.
Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on new guidelines presented by the International Labour Organization and adopted by the International Conference of Labour Statisticians.
The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.
No nationally representative data is available on human trafficking prevalence in Jordan.
Visit the How to Measure the Change page to learn about measuring human trafficking prevalence, including information on collecting data through national referral mechanisms and producing prevalence statistics using Multiple Systems Estimation (MSE).
Case Data: International and Non-Governmental Organizations
Civil society organizations (CSOs) focused on human trafficking victim assistance can serve as crucial sources of data given their ability to reach a population that is notoriously difficult to sample.
Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (CTDC): The International Organization for Migration (IOM), Polaris and Liberty Asia have launched a global data repository on human trafficking, with data contributed by counter-trafficking partner organizations around the world. Not only does the CTDC serve as a central repository for this critical information, it also publishes normed and harmonized data from various organizations using a unified schema. This global dataset facilitates an unparalleled level of cross-border, trans-agency analysis and provides the counter-trafficking movement with a deeper understanding of this complex issue. Equipped with this information, decision makers will be empowered to create more targeted and effective intervention strategies.
UNODC compiles a global dataset on detected and prosecuted traffickers, which serves as the basis in their Global Report for country profiles. This information is beginning to paint a picture of trends over time, and case-specific information can assist investigators and prosecutors.
Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.
Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.
The chart displays information on human development in Jordan between 1990 and 2019. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex.
The most recent year of the HDI, 2019, shows that human development score in Jordan for both males and females is 0.729. This score indicates that human development is high.
HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)
Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.
As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:
“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”
The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in Jordan over time.
Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction toward achieving Target 8.7.
HDI Vulnerable Employment (Source: UNDP)
There are reasons to believe that certain types of labour and labour arrangements are more likely to lead to labour exploitation. According to the ILO:
“Own-account workers and contributing family workers have a lower likelihood of having formal work arrangements, and are therefore more likely to lack elements associated with decent employment, such as adequate social security and a voice at work. The two statuses are summed to create a classification of ‘vulnerable employment’, while wage and salaried workers together with employers constitute ‘non-vulnerable employment’.”
Between 2000 and 2012, Jordan showed a decrease in the proportion of workers in vulnerable employment as compared to those in secure employment.
Working Poverty Rate (Source: ILO)
Labour income tells us about a household’s vulnerability. As the ILO explains in Profits and Poverty:
“Poor households find it particularly difficult to deal with income shocks, especially when they push households below the food poverty line. In the presence of such shocks, men and women without social protection nets tend to borrow to smooth consumption, and to accept any job for themselves or their children, even under exploitative conditions.”
ILO indicators that measure poverty with respect to the labour force include working poverty rate, disaggregated by age groupings and sex, with temporal coverage spanning from 2000 to 2016. The chart displays linear trends in working poverty rate over time for all individuals over 15 years of age.
Labour Productivity (Source: ILO)
“Labour productivity is an important economic indicator that is closely linked to economic growth, competitiveness, and living standards within an economy.” However, when increased labour output does not produce rising wages, this can point to increasing inequality. As indicated by a recent ILO report (2015), there is a “growing disconnect between wages and productivity growth, in both developed and emerging economies”. The lack of decent work available increases vulnerability to situations of labour exploitation.
Labour productivity represents the total volume of output (measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product, GDP) produced per unit of labour (measured in terms of the number of employed persons) during a given period.
Rates of Non-fatal Occupational Injuries (Source: ILO)
Occupational injury and fatality data can also be crucial in prevention and response efforts.
“Data on occupational injuries are essential for planning preventive measures. For instance, workers in occupations and activities of highest risk can be targeted more effectively for inspection visits, development of regulations and procedures, and also for safety campaigns.”
There are serious gaps in existing data coverage, particularly among groups that may be highly vulnerable to labour exploitation. For example, few countries provide information on injuries for migrant and non-migrant workers.
Rates of Fatal Occupational Injuries (Source: ILO)
Data on occupational health and safety may reveal conditions of exploitation, even if exploitation may lead to under-reporting of workplace injuries and safety breaches. At present, the ILO collects data on occupational injuries, both fatal and non-fatal, disaggregating on sex and migrant status.
Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.
Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Source: UNHCR)
Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups. Migration can increase vulnerability to exploitation.
According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children.”
As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements.”
The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in Jordan.
Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.
Labour Code No. 8, 2006
The employee is not obliged to undertake a work that is significantly different from the agreed upon work in the work contract unless the necessity so requires to prevent the occurrence of an accident, repair what has resulted from such accident, or in case of force majeure and in other cases stipulated by law provided that this shall be within the employee’s capability and within the limits of the condition that has entailed that work.
Labour Code No. 8, 2006
Article 2: Juvenile: Every person, male or female, who reached the age of seven and not yet eighteen.
Taking into consideration the provisions related to the vocational training, no juvenile not reaching sixteen might be employed under no circumstances.
No juvenile not reaching eighteen might be employed in the dangerous or exhausting occupations or those harmful to health. These occupations shall be specified by decisions issued by the Minister after consulting the competent official authorities.
No juvenile might be employed in the following cases:
A. More than six hours per day provided that he/she shall be given a rest time not less than one hour after successive four working hours.
B. Between 8pm and 6am
C. In the religious feasts, public holidays and weekly holidays.
Worst Forms of Child Labour
Ministerial Order concerning occupations that are dangerous or tiring or harmful to the health of youth, 2011
“This Order determines the types of hazardous employment that are prohibited for juveniles under the age of 18 years.
The Order contains the following list of the types of jobs that are classified as hazardous or dangerous or tiring or harmful to the health of young workers.
1. Physical Hazard Works
2. Psychological and Social Hazards of Work
3. Moral Hazardous Works
4. Chemical Hazards
5. Physical Hazards
6. Biological and Bacteriological Hazards
7. Ergonomic Hazards
8. Other Hazards
Under these headings, further details are given as to the specific occupations that are considered to be hazardous to youth. Under the title other Hazards, children prohibited from working on ships. The Minister by an order may add more hazardous employment that are prohibited for children under the age of 18 years and that shall be according to a report formed by a specialized authority.”
“Outlines the roles and responsibilities of key government agencies, including the ministries of Education, Labor, and Social Development; NGOs; and other stakeholders involved in identifying and responding to cases of child labor. Based on the Framework, Ministry of Labor inspectors monitor child labor and refer cases to the ministries of Social Development and Education for the provision of services. In 2016, the Framework was rolled out in all remaining governorates in the country.”
“Integrates a refugee-based humanitarian response with a resilience response for local communities in areas such as education and social protection. In academic year 2016–2017, a total of 125,000 Syrian refugee children were enrolled in formal education and an additional 67,000 in non-formal education.”
“Employs counselors to respond to children at risk of truancy, raise children’s awareness of the hazards of child labor and the significance of education, incorporate child labor prevention strategies into mainstream programs for legally employed children age 16 and older, and inform students about high quality employment in the tourism sector.”
ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182, Ratification 2000
Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the perpetration of forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour. These actions should be considered in wider societal efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.
Programs and Agencies for Victim Support (Source: U.S. Department of Labor)
Policies for Assistance
Assistance, Human Trafficking
Labour Code, 1996 amend. No. 48, 2008
Section 7: Section 77 of the original Law is repealed and replaced as follows:
a. If the employer or the director of the establishment committed any offence of any section of this chapter or any provision of by-laws or order issued according to this chapter, he/she shall be punished by a fine not less than 300 dinars and not exceeding 500 dinars. The punishment should not be reduced below the minimum required by law.
b. In addition to the penalty provided by law, an employer shall be punished if he/she requests an employee to work by force, fraud or threat, including confiscating his/her passport, by a fine of not less than 500 dinars, but less than 1,000 dinars.
Penalties, Human Trafficking
Programs and Agencies for Enforcement (Source: U.S. Department of Labor)
Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk of exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.
Social Protection (Source: ILO)
The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.
The ILO measures social protections coverage through the Social Security Inquiry (SSI). Every two years, national governments, including responsible ministries, provide data to the SSI on social protections including coverage and expenditure.
Jordan has data available on persons above retirement age receiving a pension for 2010 and unemployed persons receiving unemployment benefits for 2013.
There are no visualizations, as there is not a sufficient amount of data provided on social protections for the Arab States region.