Measuring the Change
using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards.
Due to lack of nationally representative data, there is no change to report.
Best Target 8.7 Data: Child Labour Rate
No data available
- Child labour: ILO/UNICEF data
- Forced labour: No nationally representative data
- Human trafficking: No nationally representative data
Human Development Index Score: 0.817 (2018)
Mean School Years: 11.8 years (2018)
Vulnerable Employment: 25.8% (2018)
Working Poverty Rate: 0.0% (2020)
- ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Not Ratified
- ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2003
- UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Accession 2008
Social Protection Coverage
General (at least one): 100% (2016)
Unemployed: 5.8% (2016)
Pension: 82.6% (2016)
Vulnerable: 100% (2016)
Children: 100% (2016)
Disabled: 100% (2016)
Poor: 28.9% (2016)
Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.
Weekly Work Hours, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)
Children aged 5-11 are considered to be subjected to child labour when engaging in any form of economic activity. Children aged 12-14 are permitted to engage in “light” work that is not considered hazardous and falls below 14 hours per week.
According to the latest 2006 estimates, the average number of hours worked per week by children aged 5-14 in Kazakhstan was 6.7 hours.
The chart displays differences in the number of hours that children aged 5-14 work in economic activities by sex and region. The sample includes all children of this age group. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2006.
Weekly Work Hours Children Only in Economic Activity, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)
Children not attending school who are engaged in economic activity can be subjected to longer working hours.
In 2006, the latest year with available data, children in economic activity only, meaning they are not in school, worked an average of 9.1 hours per week.
The chart displays differences in the number of hours worked by children aged 5-14 who are not in school, by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2006.
Weekly Hours Household Chores, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)
Researchers recognize that children involved in economic activities are not the only children working. The ICLS recommended definition of child labour includes children aged 5-14 performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week.
Children aged 5-14, on average, are found to work on household chores 7.6 hours per week according to the 2006 estimate.
The chart displays differences in the number of hours children aged 5-14 work on household chores by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2006.
Measuring the incidence of forced labour is a much more recent endeavour and presents unique methodological challenges compared to the measurement of child labour.
No nationally representative data is available on forced labour prevalence in Kazakhstan.
Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on new guidelines presented by the International Labour Organization and adopted by the International Conference of Labour Statisticians.
The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.
No nationally representative data is available on human trafficking prevalence in Kazakhstan.
Visit the How to Measure the Change page to learn about measuring human trafficking prevalence, including information on collecting data through national referral mechanisms and producing prevalence statistics using Multiple Systems Estimation (MSE).
Case Data: International and Non-Governmental Organizations
Civil society organizations (CSOs) focused on human trafficking victim assistance can serve as crucial sources of data given their ability to reach a population that is notoriously difficult to sample.
Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (CTDC): The International Organization for Migration (IOM), Polaris and Liberty Asia have launched a global data repository on human trafficking, with data contributed by counter-trafficking partner organizations around the world. Not only does the CTDC serve as a central repository for this critical information, it also publishes normed and harmonized data from various organizations using a unified schema. This global dataset facilitates an unparalleled level of cross-border, trans-agency analysis and provides the counter-trafficking movement with a deeper understanding of this complex issue. Equipped with this information, decision makers will be empowered to create more targeted and effective intervention strategies.
UNODC compiles a global dataset on detected and prosecuted traffickers, which serves as the basis in their Global Report for country profiles. This information is beginning to paint a picture of trends over time, and case-specific information can assist investigators and prosecutors.
Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.
Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.
The chart displays information on human development in Kazakhstan between 1990 and 2018. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex.
The most recent year of the HDI, 2018, shows that the average human development score in Kazakhstan is 0.817. This score indicates that human development is very high.
HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)
Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.
As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:
“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”
The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in Kazakhstan over time.
Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in the availability of equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction towards achieving Target 8.7.
HDI Vulnerable Employment (Source: UNDP)
There are reasons to believe that certain types of labour and labour arrangements are more likely to lead to labour exploitation. According to the ILO:
“Own-account workers and contributing family workers have a lower likelihood of having formal work arrangements, and are therefore more likely to lack elements associated with decent employment, such as adequate social security and a voice at work. The two statuses are summed to create a classification of ‘vulnerable employment’, while wage and salaried workers together with employers constitute ‘non-vulnerable employment’.”
Between 1991 and 2018, Kazakhstan showed a decrease in the proportion of workers in vulnerable employment as compared to those in secure employment.
Working Poverty Rate (Source: ILO)
Labour income tells us about a household’s vulnerability. As the ILO explains in Profits and Poverty:
“Poor households find it particularly difficult to deal with income shocks, especially when they push households below the food poverty line. In the presence of such shocks, men and women without social protection nets tend to borrow to smooth consumption, and to accept any job for themselves or their children, even under exploitative conditions.”
ILO indicators that measure poverty with respect to the labour force include working poverty rate, disaggregated by sex, with temporal coverage spanning from 2000 to 2020. The chart displays linear trends in working poverty rate over time for all individuals over 15 years of age.
Labour Productivity (Source: ILO)
“Labour productivity is an important economic indicator that is closely linked to economic growth, competitiveness, and living standards within an economy.” However, when increased labour output does not produce rising wages, this can point to increasing inequality. As indicated by a recent ILO report (2015), there is a “growing disconnect between wages and productivity growth, in both developed and emerging economies”. The lack of decent work available increases vulnerability to situations of labour exploitation.
Labour productivity represents the total volume of output (measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product, GDP) produced per unit of labour (measured in terms of the number of employed persons) during a given period.
Rates of Non-fatal Occupational Injuries (Source: ILO)
Occupational injury and fatality data can also be crucial in prevention and response efforts.
“Data on occupational injuries are essential for planning preventive measures. For instance, workers in occupations and activities of highest risk can be targeted more effectively for inspection visits, development of regulations and procedures, and also for safety campaigns.”
There are serious gaps in existing data coverage, particularly among groups that may be highly vulnerable to labour exploitation. For example, few countries provide information on injuries disaggregated between migrant and non-migrant workers.
Rates of Fatal Occupational Injuries (Source: ILO)
Data on occupational health and safety may reveal conditions of exploitation, even if exploitation may lead to under-reporting of workplace injuries and safety breaches. At present, the ILO collects data on occupational injuries, both fatal and non-fatal, disaggregating by sex and migrant status.
Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.
Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Source: UNHCR)
Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants.
According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children. “
As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements, as recognized by Member States in the New York declaration for refugees and migrants of September 2016.”
The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in Kazakhstan.
Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.
1. Everyone shall have the right to freedom of labor, free choice of occupation and profession. Involuntary labor shall be permitted only by a court sentence or in the conditions of a state of emergency or martial law.
2. Everyone has the right to working conditions that meet the requirements of safety and hygiene, to remuneration for work without any discrimination, as well as to social protection against unemployment.”
“Article 2. Labor legislation of the Republic of Kazakhstan
3. If an international agreement ratified by the Republic of Kazakhstan establishes other rules than those contained in this Code, then the rules of the international treaty are applied. International treaties ratified by the Republic of Kazakhstan are applied directly to labor relations, except for the cases when it follows from the international treaty that a law is required for its application.”
“Article 4. Principles of labor legislation of the Republic of Kazakhstan
The principles of labor legislation of the Republic of Kazakhstan are:
1) impermissibility of restriction of human and civil rights in labor area;
2) freedom of work;
3) prohibition of discrimination in labor area, forced labor and the worst forms of child labor;
4) ensuring the right to work conditions that meet requirements of safety and hygiene;
5) the priority of life and health of the employee;
6) ensuring the right to remuneration for work which is not lower than the minimum wage;
7) ensuring the right to rest;
8) equality of rights and opportunities for workers;
9) ensuring the right of employees and employers to unite to protect their rights and interests;
10) assistance of the state in strengthening and developing social partnership;
11) state regulation of labor safety and protection issues.”
“Article 7. Prohibition of forced labor
Forced labor is prohibited.
Forced labor means any work or service required from a person under the threat of any punishment, for which this person did not volunteer his services.
Forced labor is allowed only:
as a result of the court verdict that entered into force, provided that the work is carried out under the supervision and control of state bodies and that the person performing it will not be ceded or transferred to the disposal of individuals and (or) legal entities;”
“Article 31. The age when conclusion of employment contract is allowed
1. Conclusion of an employment contract is allowed with citizens who have reached the age of sixteen.
2. The employment contract may be concluded with:
1) citizens who have reached the age of fifteen years, if they obtained a basic secondary, general secondary education in organization of secondary education;
2) pupils who have reached the age of fourteen, to perform work when they are free from their studies, which does not cause harm to health and does not impede the learning process;
3) persons who have not reached the age of fourteen, in the organizations of cinematography, theaters, theatrical and concert organizations, circuses for participation in creation and (or) performance of works without prejudice to health and moral development, subject to the conditions specified in subparagraph 2) of this paragraph.
3. In cases specified in paragraph 2 of this article, along with a minor, the employment contract must be signed by one of his parents, a custodian, a trustee or an adoptive parent.”
Worst Forms of Child Labour
“Article 26. Prohibitions and restrictions for conclusion of employment contract and employment
1.2) with citizens who have not reached the age of eighteen, for heavy work, the work with harmful and (or) dangerous working conditions, as well as for positions and works that provide for the full material responsibility of the employee for failure to ensure the safety of property and other valuables of the employer, as well as for work that can harm their health and moral development (gambling, work at night entertainment facilities, production, transportation and trade of alcoholic beverages, tobacco products, drugs psychotropic substances and precursors);
2.5) for part-time jobs of employees under the age of eighteen, and for workers engaged in heavy work, work with harmful and (or) dangerous working conditions.”
“Article 69. Reduced duration of working hours for certain categories of employees
1. For employees who have not reached the age of eighteen, the reduced working hours are established:
1) for workers aged from fourteen to sixteen – not more than 24 hours per week;
2) for workers aged from sixteen to eighteen – not more than 36 hours per week.
Article 76. Night work
1. The night time is considered to be the time from 22.00 to 06.00.
2. They are not allowed to work at night:
employees under the age of eighteen;
pregnant women who provided the employer with a certificate of pregnancy.
Article 182. Rights and duties of the employer in labor safety and protection area
2. The employer is obliged to:
6) not allow the workers under the age of eighteen to carry and move weight exceeding the established limits for them;”
“Article 3. Explanation of some concepts, contained in this Code
The concepts, contained in this Code, shall have the following meanings, if there are no special instructions in the Law:
Article 128. Human trafficking”
National Action Plans, National Strategies
Addresses four priority areas: (1) child labor policy and legislation improvement, implementation, and monitoring, including the rights of children of migrants and seasonal workers and their access to education, and developing the list of light work for children ages 14–16; (2) child labor coordination between government agencies, including monitoring access to education for children of migrant and seasonal workers, reporting on implementation of international conventions on the worst forms of child labor, and developing a regional social partnership on the elimination of child labor; (3) prevention of child labor and rehabilitation of child laborers, including identifying and referring children to Centers for Adaptation and monitoring the implementation of ministerial orders on employment opportunities for youth over age 16 from dysfunctional or low-income families; and (4) promotion of public awareness on child labor, including conducting informational campaigns and overseeing the involvement of journalists and media resources. Based on available information, it appears that this policy was not implemented in 2017.
Aims to strengthen coordination among government ministries and with foreign governments and international organizations. Emphasizes victim assistance and prevention, specifically to prevent child labor in the production of cotton and construction, to provide access to education for children of stateless and foreign individuals permanently living in Kazakhstan, to monitor and exchange data on the trafficking of children and child pornography, and to enforce criminal laws on the worst forms of child labor. In 2017, the Ministry of Interior blocked or removed child pornography websites from the internet. Social program activities were also carried out during the implementation of this policy.
Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the perpetration of forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour. These actions should be considered in wider societal efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.
Programs and Agencies for Victim Support
Policies for Assistance
“Article 195. Acts of state labor inspector
1. Depending on the revealed violations of the labor legislation of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the state labor inspector shall issue (make) the following acts:
on elimination of violations of the requirements of labor legislation of the Republic of Kazakhstan;
on conducting preventive work on labor safety and protection at production facilities and equipment, as well as in production processes to prevent occurrence of traumatic and emergency situations;
on prohibition (suspension) of operation of individual productions, shops, plots, workplaces and equipment and activities of the organization as a whole.
At that, the act on prohibiting (suspending) the activities of the organization is valid until a court decision is made;
2) a protocol on an administrative offense;
3) the decision to terminate proceedings on the case on an administrative offense; 4) the decision on the case on an administrative offense;
5) the conclusion of the state labor inspector.
2. Acts of the state labor inspector are the legal measures against violations of the labor legislation of the Republic of Kazakhstan by employers and officials. Acts are made in two copies, one of which is handed to the employer against the signature.
3. Acts of the state labor inspector are mandatory for execution by officials, individuals and legal entities.
4. The form of acts of the state labor inspector is approved by the authorized state body for labor.”
“Article 197. Other forms of control with a visit to a subject of control
10. In order to eliminate violations of the requirements of the labor legislation of the Republic of Kazakhstan, an instruction is issued to the subject of control without initiating a case on an administrative offense.
11. According to the violations revealed by the visit, the subject of control is obliged to provide information about the measures taken to eliminate the violations revealed not later than ten working days from moment of receipt of the instruction.
12. State labor inspectors are obliged in the book of visits and inspections (if any) of the inspected subject to make an entry about the activities carried out, indicating the names, positions and data set forth in the act.
13. In case there are no violations of the requirements established by the legislation of the Republic of Kazakhstan, an entry is made in the act on the results of the visit, the instruction is not issued.
14. When visiting a subject of control, preliminary notification of the employer and registration in the authorized body on legal statistics and special records are not required.
15. Visits to the subject of control shall be carried out on the basis of criteria approved jointly by the authorized state body for labor and the authorized body on entrepreneurship and lists of visits to the subject of control formed for the quarter (half year, year) based on the results of the conducted analysis and evaluation.”
“Article 519. Engagement of foreign labour force and labour immigrants with breach of the legislation of the
Republic of Kazakhstan”
“Article 520. Illegal activity on employment of the citizens of the Republic of Kazakhstan abroad
Carrying out of activity on employment of the citizens of the Republic of Kazakhstan abroad with the use of improper advertisement or provision of incomplete or inaccurate information, shall –
entail a fine on individuals in amount of twenty, on subjects of small entrepreneurship – in amount of sixty, on subjects of medium entrepreneurship – in amount of one hundred, on subjects of large entrepreneurship – in amount of five hundred monthly calculation indices.”
“Article 86. Permit to work of a person without conclusion of labour agreement
1. Permit to work of a person without conclusion of labour agreement by an
employer shall –
entail a fine on civil servants in amount of twenty, on subjects of small entrepreneurship or non-profit organizations – in amount of forty, on subjects of medium entrepreneurship – in amount of sixty, on subjects of large entrepreneurship – in amount of one hundred monthly calculation indices.
2. The action provided by a part one of this Article committed repeatedly second time within a year after imposition of administrative sanction shall entail a fine on civil servants in amount of forty, on subjects of small entrepreneurship or non-profit organizations – in amount of sixty, on subjects of medium entrepreneurship – in amount of eighty, on subjects of large entrepreneurship – in amount of one hundred twenty monthly calculation indices.
3. The action provided by a part one of this Article committed in respect of minors shall entail a fine on civil servants in amount of fifty, on subjects of small entrepreneurship or non-profit organizations – in amount of seventy, on subjects of medium entrepreneurship – in amount of one hundred, on subjects of large entrepreneurship – in amount of fifty monthly calculation indices.
4. Action (omission) provided by a part three of this Article committed repeatedly second time second time within a year after imposition of administrative sanction shall entail a fine on civil servants in amount of seventy, on subjects of small entrepreneurship or non-profit organizations – in amount of one hundred, on subjects of medium entrepreneurship – in amount of one hundred fifty, on subjects of large entrepreneurship – in amount of two hundred monthly calculation indices with suspension of licence validity.”
Article 132. Involvement of a minor in the commission of criminal infractions
“Article 152. Violation of the labor legislation of the Republic of Kazakhstan
Article 153. Violation of labor legislation of the Republic of Kazakhstan in relation of minor”
Penalties, human trafficking
“Article 128. Human trafficking
Article 135. Trafficking in minors”
1.ii. Take steps to measure, monitor and share data on prevalence and response to all such forms of exploitation, as appropriate to national circumstances;
Programs and Agencies for Enforcement
Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk of exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.
Social Protection Coverage: General (at Least One)
Social Protection (Source: ILO)
The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.
If a country does not appear on a chart, this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.