Data Dashboards

Kiribati
Measurement
Measuring the Change

using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards.

Due to lack of nationally representative data, there is no change to report.

%
Best Target 8.7 Data: Child Labour Rate

No data available

Data Availability
  • Child labour: No ILO/UNICEF data
  • Forced labour: No nationally representative data
  • Human trafficking: No nationally representative data
Context
Human Development

Human Development Index Score: 0.623 (2018)

Mean School Years: 7.9 years (2018)

 

Labour Indicators:

Vulnerable Employment: No data available

Working Poverty Rate: No data available

Government Efforts
Key Ratifications
  • ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Not Ratified
  • ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2009
  • UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Accession 2005
Social Protection Coverage

General (at least one): No data

Unemployed: No data

Pension: No data

Vulnerable: No data

Children: No data

Disabled: No data

Poor: No data

Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.

No nationally representative data is available on child labour prevalence in Kiribati.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on ILO-SIMPOC methods and guidelines for defining, measuring and collecting data on child labour.

Measuring the incidence of forced labour is a much more recent endeavour and presents unique methodological challenges compared to the measurement of child labour.

No nationally representative data is available on forced labour prevalence in Kiribati.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on new guidelines presented by the International Labour Organization and adopted by the International Conference of Labour Statisticians.

The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.

 

No nationally representative data is available on human trafficking prevalence in Kiribati.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page to learn about measuring human trafficking prevalence, including information on collecting data through national referral mechanisms and producing prevalence statistics using Multiple Systems Estimation (MSE).

Case Data: International and Non-Governmental Organizations

Civil society organizations (CSOs) focused on human trafficking victim assistance can serve as crucial sources of data given their ability to reach a population that is notoriously difficult to sample.

Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (CTDC): The International Organization for Migration (IOM), Polaris and Liberty Asia have launched a global data repository on human trafficking, with data contributed by counter-trafficking partner organizations around the world. Not only does the CTDC serve as a central repository for this critical information, it also publishes normed and harmonized data from various organizations using a unified schema. This global dataset facilitates an unparalleled level of cross-border, trans-agency analysis and provides the counter-trafficking movement with a deeper understanding of this complex issue. Equipped with this information, decision makers will be empowered to create more targeted and effective intervention strategies.

Prosecution Data

UNODC compiles a global dataset on detected and prosecuted traffickers, which serves as the basis in their Global Report for country profiles. This information is beginning to paint a picture of trends over time, and case-specific information can assist investigators and prosecutors.

Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.

 

Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.

The chart displays information on human development in Kiribati between 2000 and 2018. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex. 

The most recent year of the HDI, 2018, shows that the average human development score in Kiribati is 0.623. This score indicates that human development is medium.

HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)

Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.

As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:

“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”

The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in Kiribati over time.

 

Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in the availability of equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction towards achieving Target 8.7.

There are no visualizations for Kiribati as there is not a sufficient amount of data available.

Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.

Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants./span>

According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children.”

As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements.”

There is no visualization for Kiribati as there is not a sufficient amount of data available.

Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.

Official Definitions
Forced Labour

Constitution of Kiribati, 1979

“Protection from slavery and forced labour
6. (1) No person shall be held in slavery or servitude.
(2) No person shall be required to perform forced labour.
(3) For the purposes of this section, the expression “”forced labour”” does not include-

a) any labour required in consequence of the sentence or order of a court;
(b) any labour required of any person while he is lawfully detained that, though not required in consequence of the sentence or order of a court, is reasonably necessary in the interests of hygiene or for the maintenance of the place at which he is detained;
(c) any labour required of a member of a disciplined force in pursuance of his duties as such or, in the case of a person who has conscientious objections to service as a member of a disciplined force, any labour that that person is required by law to perform in place of such service;
(d) any labour required during any period of public emergency or in the event of any other emergency or calamity that threatens the life and well-being of the community, to the extent that the requiring of such labour is reasonably justifiable in the circumstances of any situation arising or existing during that period or as a result of that other emergency or calamity, for the purpose of dealing with that situation; or
(e) any labour reasonably required as part of reasonable and normal communal or other civic obligations.”

Employment and Industrial Relations Code, 2015

“Part XIV Forced Labour
121. Interpretation
(1) In this Part, “”forced or compulsory labour”” means any work or service that is exacted from a person under the menace of any penalty, but does not mean:

(a) any work or service exacted from any person as a consequence of a conviction in a court of law, provided that the said work or service is carried out under the supervision and control of a public authority and that the said person is not hired or placed at the disposal of private individuals, companies, or associations;
(b) any work or service exacted in case of emergency, that is to say, in the event of war, or of a calamity or threatened calamity such as fire, flood, famine, earthquake, violent epidemic or epizootic diseases, invasion by animal, insect or vegetable pests, and in general any circumstances that would endanger the existence or the well-being of the whole or part of the population, provided that such work or service shall be limited to that strictly required by the exigencies of the situation and shall cease as soon as the circumstances endangering the population or its normal living conditions no longer exist;
(c) unpaid labour on minor communal works that are reasonably required as part of reasonable and normal communal or civic obligations, provided that members of the community concerned must be consulted in regard to the need for such works, prior to any obligation imposed on a person to
undertake them.”

Child Labour

Employment and Industrial Relations Code, 2015

“115. Minimum age for employment
(1) A person shall not employ or otherwise engage a child under the age of 14 to perform work in any capacity, except in light work as prescribed by section 116.
(2) Subject to subsection (3), the minimum age for employment applies to all types of work, including domestic work, work in family undertakings, work in agriculture, work as a self- employed person, work as an apprentice and maritime work.
(3) The minimum age for employment does not apply to work performed in schools, as part of an authorised programme of education.
(4) Upon recommendation of the Board, the Minister may prescribe requirements for work performed in schools, as part of an authorised programme of education.
(5) Upon recommendation of the Board, the Minister may prescribe a higher minimum age for the purposes of compliance with this section.
(6) A person who contravenes this section, or any orders or regulations in force under this section, commits an offence and shall be liable on conviction to a fine of $1,000 or a term of imprisonment of 12 months, or both.”

“116. Minimum age for light work
(1) A child aged 12 or 13 may be employed or engaged to perform light work that:

(a) is unlikely to be harmful to the health and development of the child;
(b) shall not prejudice the child’s attendance at school or participation in vocational training;
(c) shall not prejudice the child’s ability to benefit from schooling or vocational training; and
(d) complies with the prescribed requirements for light work.

(2) Upon the recommendation of the Board, the Minister may prescribe requirements for light work, including the permissible times and hours of work, the activities that may be carried out and the conditions under which these activities may be performed.”

Worst Forms of Child Labour

Employment and Industrial Relations Code, 2015

“117. Minimum age for hazardous work
(1) A person shall not employ or otherwise engage a child in hazardous work.
(2) For the purpose of subsection (1), hazardous work is work that, by its nature or the circumstances under which it is carried out, is likely to jeopardise a child’s health, safety or morals, and shall include any categories of work prescribed as such by the Minister.
(3) Upon the recommendation of the Board, the Minister may revise the types of work that are prescribed as hazardous work under subsection (2).
(4) A person who contravenes this section commits an offence and shall be liable on conviction to a fine of $1,000 or a term of imprisonment of 12 months, or both.”

“118. Prohibition of the worst forms of child labour other than hazardous work
(1) The engagement of any child in the following worst forms of child labour is prohibited:

(a) all forms of slavery or practices similar to slavery;
(b) sale or trafficking of children;
(c) debt bondage and serfdom;
(d) forced or compulsory labour;
(e) compulsory recruitment of children for use in armed conflict;
(f) use, procuring or offering of a child for prostitution;
(g) use, procuring or offering of a child for the production of pornography or for pornographic performances;
(h) use, procuring or offering of a child for illicit activities; and
(i) use, procuring or offering of a child for the production or trafficking of illegal drugs.

(2) Any person who contravenes this section is commits an offence and shall be liable on conviction to a fine of $5,000 or a term of imprisonment of 10 years, or both.”

Human Trafficking

Measures to Combat Terrorism and Transnational Organised Crime Act, 2005

“2. Interpretation
(1) In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires -‘child’ means a person under 18 years;
‘exploitation’ includes all forms of sexual exploitation (including sexual servitude and exploitation of another person’s prostitution), forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude and the removal of organs;
‘trafficked person’ means a person who is the victim of trafficking in persons;
‘trafficking in persons’ means the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of a person for the purpose of exploitation;”

Slavery

Constitution of Kiribati, 1979

“Protection from slavery and forced labour
6. (1) No person shall be held in slavery or servitude.
(2) No person shall be required to perform forced labour.
(3) For the purposes of this section, the expression “”forced labour”” does not include-

a) any labour required in consequence of the sentence or order of a court;
(b) any labour required of any person while he is lawfully detained that, though not required in consequence of the sentence or order of a court, is reasonably necessary in the interests of hygiene or for the maintenance of the place at which he is detained;
(c) any labour required of a member of a disciplined force in pursuance of his duties as such or, in the case of a person who has conscientious objections to service as a member of a disciplined force, any labour that that person is required by law to perform in place of such service;
(d) any labour required during any period of public emergency or in the event of any other emergency or calamity that threatens the life and well-being of the community, to the extent that the requiring of such labour is reasonably justifiable in the circumstances of any situation arising or existing during that period or as a result of that other emergency or calamity, for the purpose of dealing with that situation; or
(e) any labour reasonably required as part of reasonable and normal communal or other civic obligations.”

International Commitments

Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the  perpetration of forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour. These actions should be considered in wider societal efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.

Programs and Agencies for Victim Support

Policies for Assistance
Policies for assistance, general

Children, Young Peeople and Family Welfare Act, 2013

“Interpretation
2. In this Act, unles’s the context otherwise requires-
“”child”” means a person who is under the age of 14 years;
“”child or young person in need of care and protection”” means a child or young person-

(a) who has been orphaned, abandoned or is without parental care and appropriate arrangements have not been made for his or her care;
(b) who has been harmed, or is at risk of harm, as a result of anyone or more of the following-

(i) physical abuse;
(ii) sexual abuse or sexual exploitation;
(iii) emotional abuse;
(iv) neglect; or
(v) harsh or exploitive labour that interferes with the child or young person’s health, development or schooling;
and the child or young person’s parents have not protected, or are unlikely or unable to protect, the child or young person from that harm;
“”young person”” means a person who has attained 14 years but is under 18 years of age.”

Policies for assistance, human trafficking

Measures to Combat Terrorism and Transnational Organised Crime Act, 2005

“45. Protection for trafficked persons
(1) A trafficked person is not liable to criminal prosecution for –

(a) the act of trafficking in persons or being a party to an offence of trafficking in persons; or
(b) the person’s illegal entry into Kiribati, in connection with the act of trafficking in persons, if Kiribati is the receiving country; or
(c) the person’s period of unlawful residence in Kiribati after being trafficked, if Kiribati is the receiving country; or
(d) the person’s procurement or possession of any fraudulent travel or identity documents that the person obtained, or with which the person was supplied, for the purpose of entering the receiving country in connection with the act of trafficking in persons.

(2) Subsection (1) does not prevent the removal of a trafficked person under the Immigration Ordinance.”

Penalties
Penalties, Forced Labour

Employment and Industrial Relations Code, 2015

“122. Prohibition of forced labour
Any person who exacts, procures or engages forced or compulsory labour commits an offence and shall be liable on conviction to a fine of $100,000 or a term of imprisonment of 25 years, or both.”

Penal Code, 1965

Unlawful compulsory labour 249. Any person who unlawfully compels any person to labour against the will of that person is guilty of a misdemeanour.

Penalties, Child Labour

Employment and Industrial Relations Code, 2015

“115. Minimum age for employment
(1) A person shall not employ or otherwise engage a child under the age of 14 to perform work in any capacity, except in light work as prescribed by section 116.
(2) Subject to subsection (3), the minimum age for employment applies to all types of work, including domestic work, work in family undertakings, work in agriculture, work as a self- employed person, work as an apprentice and maritime work.
(3) The minimum age for employment does not apply to work performed in schools, as part of an authorised programme of education.
(4) Upon recommendation of the Board, the Minister may prescribe requirements for work performed in schools, as part of an authorised programme of education.
(5) Upon recommendation of the Board, the Minister may prescribe a higher minimum age for the purposes of compliance with this section.
(6) A person who contravenes this section, or any orders or regulations in force under this section, commits an offence and shall be liable on conviction to a fine of $1,000 or a term of imprisonment of 12 months, or both.”

“116. Minimum age for light work
(1) A child aged 12 or 13 may be employed or engaged to perform light work that:

(a) is unlikely to be harmful to the health and development of the child;
(b) shall not prejudice the child’s attendance at school or participation in vocational training;
(c) shall not prejudice the child’s ability to benefit from schooling or vocational training; and
(d) complies with the prescribed requirements for light work.

(2) Upon the recommendation of the Board, the Minister may prescribe requirements for light work, including the permissible times and hours of work, the activities that may be carried out and the conditions under which these activities may be performed.”

“117. Minimum age for hazardous work
(1) A person shall not employ or otherwise engage a child in hazardous work.
(2) For the purpose of subsection (1), hazardous work is work that, by its nature or the circumstances under which it is carried out, is likely to jeopardise a child’s health, safety or morals, and shall include any categories of work prescribed as such by the Minister.
(3) Upon the recommendation of the Board, the Minister may revise the types of work that are prescribed as hazardous work under subsection (2).
(4) A person who contravenes this section commits an offence and shall be liable on conviction to a fine of $1,000 or a term of imprisonment of 12 months, or both.”

“118. Prohibition of the worst forms of child labour other than hazardous work
(1) The engagement of any child in the following worst forms of child labour is prohibited:

(a) all forms of slavery or practices similar to slavery;
(b) sale or trafficking of children;
(c) debt bondage and serfdom;
(d) forced or compulsory labour;
(e) compulsory recruitment of children for use in armed conflict;
(f) use, procuring or offering of a child for prostitution;
(g) use, procuring or offering of a child for the production of pornography or for pornographic performances;
(h) use, procuring or offering of a child for illicit activities; and
(i) use, procuring or offering of a child for the production or trafficking of illegal drugs.

(2) Any person who contravenes this section is commits an offence and shall be liable on conviction to a fine of $5,000 or a term of imprisonment of 10 years, or both.”

Penalties, Human Trafficking

Measures to Combat Terrorism and Transnational Organised Crime Act, 2005

“42. Offence of trafficking in persons
Any person who engages in trafficking in a person or is involved in the arranging of trafficking in a person, knowing that the person’s entry into Kiribati or any other State is or was arranged by specified means, commits an offence and is liable upon conviction to imprisonment for 15 years.
43. Offence of trafficking in children
Any person who intentionally engages in trafficking in a person who is a child or is involved in the arranging of trafficking in a person who is a child, regardless of whether the child’s entry into Kiribati or any other State is or was arranged by specified means, commits an offence and is liable upon conviction to imprisonment for 20 years.
44. Consent of trafficked person
In a criminal prosecution for an offence under section 42 or 43, it is not a defence that – (a) the trafficked person consented to the intended exploitation; or
(b) the intended exploitation did not occur.”

“49. Aggravated offences
Any person who commits an offence under section 46, 47 or 48 with one or more of the following circumstances of aggravation –
(a) the unauthorised person is subjected to torture or to any other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment (including exploitation);
(b) the life or safety of the person being smuggled is, or is likely to be, endangered, is liable upon conviction to imprisonment for life.”

“56. Liability of a body corporate
(1) This Act applies to a body corporate in the same way as it applies to an individual and a body corporate may be found guilty of any of the offences set out in this Act, in addition to the liability of any person for the same offence.
(2) For an offence under this Act, the conduct or state of mind of an employee, agent or officer of a body corporate is taken to be attributed to the body corporate if that person is acting –

(a) within the scope of the person’s employment; or
(b) within the scope of the person’s actual or apparent authority; or (c) with the consent or agreement (express or implied) of a director, servant or agent of the body corporate, and giving that consent is within the actual or apparent authority of the director, servant or agent.

(3) A reference in this section to the state of mind of a person includes the person’s knowledge, intention, opinion, belief or purpose, and the person’s reasons for that intention, opinion, belief or purpose.”

Penalties, General

Penal Code, 1965

Kidnapping or abducting in order to subject person to grievous harm, slavery, etc. 244. Any person who kidnaps or abducts any person in order that such person may be subjected, or may be so disposed of as to be put in danger of being subjected, to grievous harm, or slavery, or to the unnatural lust of any person, or knowing it to be likely that such person will be so subjected or disposed of, is guilty of a felony, and shall be liable to imprisonment for 10 years.

Data Commitments

A Call to Action to End Forced Labour, Modern Slavery and Human Trafficking, Not signed

1.ii. Take steps to measure, monitor and share data on prevalence and response to all such forms of exploitation, as appropriate to national circumstances;

Programs and Agencies for Enforcement

Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk of exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.

Social Protection Coverage: General (at Least One)
Social Protection (Source: ILO)

The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.

If a country does not appear on a chart, this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.

Social Protection Coverage: Pension
Social Protection Coverage: Vulnerable Groups
Social Protection Coverage: Poor
Social Protection Coverage: Children
Social Protection Coverage: Disabled
Social Protection Coverage: Unemployed

Delta 8.7 has received no Official Response to this dashboard from Kiribati. If you are a representative of Kiribati and wish to submit an Official Response, please contact us here.