Data Dashboards

Kyrgyzstan
Measurement
Measuring the Change

using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards.

Child labour between 2007 and 2014 increased by 2%

+2%

2007- 2014

Best Target 8.7 Data: Child Labour Rate

The data visualization displays yearly child labour statistics based on a variety of nationally-representative household surveys. All years of data hold up to standards set by interagency collaboration between ILO, UNICEF and World Bank, though, in some cases are not perfectly comparable between years. Detailed information on each data point is provided in the Measurement tab (above).

Data Availability
  • Child labour: ILO/UNICEF data
  • Forced labour: No nationally representative data
  • Human trafficking: No nationally representative data
Context
Human Development

Human Development Index Score: 0.674 (2018)

Mean School Years: 10.9 years (2018)

Labour Indicators

Vulnerable Employment: 33.9% (2018)

Working Poverty Rate: 0.3% (2020)

Government Efforts
Key Ratifications
  • ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Not Ratified
  • ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2004
  • UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Ratified 2003
Social Protection Coverage

General (at least one): No data

Unemployed: 1.7% (2016)

Pension: 100% (2016)

Vulnerable: No data

Children: 17.8% (2016)

Disabled: 75.9% (2016)

Poor: No data

Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.

Child Labour Rate, Aged 5-17 (Source: ILO)

Based on the international conventions and the International Conference of Labour Statisticians (ICLS)  resolution, and consistent with the approach utilized in the ILO global child labour estimates exercise, the statistical definition of child labour used includes:

a) children aged 5-11 years in all forms of economic activity;
b) children aged 12-14 years in all forms of economic activity except permissible “light” work;
c) children and adolescents aged 15-17 years in hazardous work; and
d) children aged 5-14 years performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week.

In Kyrgyzstan, the percentage of child labourers has increased overall from 2007 to 2014.

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 5-17 in child labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2007 and 2014.

Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Hazardous child labour is the largest category of the worst forms of child labour with an estimated 73 million children aged 5-17 working in dangerous conditions in a wide range of sectors. Worldwide, the ILO estimates that some 22,000 children are killed at work every year.

In Kyrgyzstan, the latest estimates show that 33.2 percent of children aged 5-14 were engaged in hazardous work in 2014. The number is higher than in 2007, and has increased from 31.0 percent.

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 5-14 in hazardous labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2007 and 2014. 

 

Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 15-17 (Source: ILO)

Children aged 15-17 are permitted to engage in economic activities by international conventions in most cases, except when the work is likely to harm the health, safety or morals of children (Article 3 (d) of ILO Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour, 1999 (No. 182)). 

In Kyrgyzstan, the latest estimates show that 49.7 percent of children aged 15-17 were engaged in hazardous work in 2014. The percentage is lower than in 2007, and has decreased from 50.1 percent.

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 15-17 in hazardous labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2007 and 2014.

 

Weekly Work Hours, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Children aged 5-11 are considered to be subjected to child labour when engaging in any form of economic activity. Children aged 12-14 are permitted to engage in “light” work that is not considered hazardous and falls below 14 hours per week.

According to the latest 2014 estimates, the average number of hours worked per week by children aged 5-14 in Kyrgyzstan was 12.7 hours. The average number of hours worked has decreased from 13.5 hours in 2007.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours that children aged 5-14 work in economic activities by sex and region. The sample includes all children of this age group. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2005, 2007 and 2014.

Weekly Work Hours Children Only in Economic Activity, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Children not attending school who are engaged in economic activity can be subjected to longer working hours. 

In 2014, the latest year with available data, children in economic activity only, meaning they are not in school, worked an average of 12.5 hours per week. This number has increased since 2007, when the average number of hours worked by this age group was 11.3. 

The chart displays differences in the number of hours worked by children aged 5-14 who are not in school, by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2005, 2007 and 2014. 

Weekly Hours Household Chores, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Researchers recognize that children involved in economic activities are not the only children working. The ICLS recommended definition of child labour includes children aged 5-14 performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week. 

Children aged 5-14, on average, are found to work on household chores 8.8 hours per week according to the 2014 estimate. This estimate represents a decrease in hours worked across all age groups since the last estimate in 2007, which found that children aged 5-14 in Kyrgyzstan worked an average of 10.2 hours per week.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours children aged 5-14 work on household chores by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2005, 2007 and 2014. 

 

Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: total (Source: ILO)

Identifying the sectors in which the most child labour exists can help policy actors and practitioners target efforts toward those industries. 

The latest data available on child labour by sector for Kyrgyzstan is from 2014. By the 2014 estimate, the Agriculture sector had the most child labourers, followed by the Commerce, Hotels and Restaurants sector, the Manufacturing sector and the Other Services sector.

The chart to the right displays child labour prevalence in each sector for all children. The charts below show the differences in child labour by sector with comparisons between groups by sex and region. 

 

Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: sex (Source: ILO)
Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: area (Source: ILO)

Measuring the incidence of forced labour is a much more recent endeavour and presents unique methodological challenges compared to the measurement of child labour.

No nationally representative data is available on forced labour prevalence in Kyrgyzstan.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on new guidelines presented by the International Labour Organization and adopted by the International Conference of Labour Statisticians.

The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.

No nationally representative data is available on human trafficking prevalence in Kyrgyzstan.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page to learn about measuring human trafficking prevalence, including information on collecting data through national referral mechanisms and producing prevalence statistics using Multiple Systems Estimation (MSE).

Case Data: International and Non-Governmental Organizations

Civil society organizations (CSOs) focused on human trafficking victim assistance can serve as crucial sources of data given their ability to reach a population that is notoriously difficult to sample.

Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (CTDC): The International Organization for Migration (IOM), Polaris and Liberty Asia have launched a global data repository on human trafficking, with data contributed by counter-trafficking partner organizations around the world. Not only does the CTDC serve as a central repository for this critical information, it also publishes normed and harmonized data from various organizations using a unified schema. This global dataset facilitates an unparalleled level of cross-border, trans-agency analysis and provides the counter-trafficking movement with a deeper understanding of this complex issue. Equipped with this information, decision makers will be empowered to create more targeted and effective intervention strategies.

Prosecution Data

UNODC compiles a global dataset on detected and prosecuted traffickers, which serves as the basis in their Global Report for country profiles. This information is beginning to paint a picture of trends over time, and case-specific information can assist investigators and prosecutors.

Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.

Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.

The chart displays information on human development in Kyrgyzstan between 1990 and 2018. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex. 

The most recent year of the HDI, 2018, shows that the average human development score in Kyrgyzstan is 0.674. This score indicates that human development is medium. 

 

HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)

Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.

As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:

“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”

The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in Kyrgyzstan over time.

 

Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in the availability of equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction towards achieving Target 8.7.

HDI Vulnerable Employment (Source: UNDP)

There are reasons to believe that certain types of labour and labour arrangements are more likely to lead to labour exploitation. According to the ILO:

“Own-account workers and contributing family workers have a lower likelihood of having formal work arrangements, and are therefore more likely to lack elements associated with decent employment, such as adequate social security and a voice at work. The two statuses are summed to create a classification of ‘vulnerable employment’, while wage and salaried workers together with employers constitute ‘non-vulnerable employment’.”

Between 1991 and 2018, Kyrgyzstan showed a decrease in the proportion of workers in vulnerable employment as compared to those in secure employment.

 

Working Poverty Rate (Source: ILO)

Labour income tells us about a household’s vulnerability. As the ILO explains in Profits and Poverty

“Poor households find it particularly difficult to deal with income shocks, especially when they push households below the food poverty line. In the presence of such shocks, men and women without social protection nets tend to borrow to smooth consumption, and to accept any job for themselves or their children, even under exploitative conditions.”

ILO indicators that measure poverty with respect to the labour force include working poverty rate, disaggregated by sex, with temporal coverage spanning from 2000 to 2020. The chart displays linear trends in working poverty rate over time for all individuals over 15 years of age.

 

Labour Productivity (Source: ILO)

Labour productivity is an important economic indicator that is closely linked to economic growth, competitiveness, and living standards within an economy.” However, when increased labour output does not produce rising wages, this can point to increasing inequality. As indicated by a recent ILO report (2015), there is a “growing disconnect between wages and productivity growth, in both developed and emerging economies”. The lack of decent work available increases vulnerability to situations of labour exploitation. 

Labour productivity represents the total volume of output (measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product, GDP) produced per unit of labour (measured in terms of the number of employed persons) during a given period.

 

Rates of Non-fatal Occupational Injuries (Source: ILO)

Occupational injury and fatality data can also be crucial in prevention and response efforts. 

As the ILO explains:

“Data on occupational injuries are essential for planning preventive measures. For instance, workers in occupations and activities of highest risk can be targeted more effectively for inspection visits, development of regulations and procedures, and also for safety campaigns.”

There are serious gaps in existing data coverage, particularly among groups that may be highly vulnerable to labour exploitation. For example, few countries provide information on injuries disaggregated between migrant and non-migrant workers.

 

Rates of Fatal Occupational Injuries (Source: ILO)

Data on occupational health and safety may reveal conditions of exploitation, even if exploitation may lead to under-reporting of workplace injuries and safety breaches. At present, the ILO collects data on occupational injuries, both fatal and non-fatal, disaggregating by sex and migrant status. 

 

Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.

Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Source: UNHCR)

Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants.

According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children. “

As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements, as recognized by Member States in the New York declaration for refugees and migrants of September 2016.”

The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in Kyrgyzstan.

Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.

Official Definitions
Forced Labour

Constitution of the Republic of Kyrgyzstan, 2010

“Article 23
1. Slavery and human trafficking is prohibited in the Kyrgyz Republic.
2. Exploitation of child labor is prohibited.
3. Forced labor is prohibited except for cases of war, liquidation of aftermath of natural disasters and other emergencies as well as in execution of the verdict of court.
Enlistment to military or alternative (civilian) service shall not be considered as forced labor.”

Law on Preventing and Combating Trafficking in Human Beings, 2003 amend 2011

“Article 1. Terms used in the present Law:
forced labor – any work or service received under the threat of punishment, without a person’s will;”

Labour Code, 2004

Article 10

Child Labour

Constitution of the Republic of Kyrgyzstan, 2010

“Article 23
1. Slavery and human trafficking is prohibited in the Kyrgyz Republic.
2. Exploitation of child labor is prohibited.
3. Forced labor is prohibited except for cases of war, liquidation of aftermath of natural disasters and other emergencies as well as in execution of the verdict of court.
Enlistment to military or alternative (civilian) service shall not be considered as forced labor.”

Labour Code, 2004

Article 18

Worst Forms of Child Labour

Labour Code, 2004

Article 29Decree No. 314 of 2 July 2001 of the Government of Kyrgyzstan on the list of productions, professions and tasks with difficult and harmful working conditions, to which it is forbidden to employ persons under 18 years of age (Consolidation up to 17 June 2005).

Decree No. 548 on the Adoption of a Standard Maximum Weight for the Lifting and Moving of Heavy Loads by Women and Workers under the Age of 18. Enacted: December 2, 2005

Human Trafficking

Law on Preventing and Combating Trafficking in Human Beings, 2003 amend 2011

“Article 1. Terms used in the present Law:
Trafficking in persons – recruitment, transportation, harboring, receiving, transfer, purchase and sale of the person or other illegal transaction with his/her consent or without consent, carried out by coercion, abduction, fraud, deception, stealing, for the purpose of exploitation or benefits;”

Slavery

Constitution of the Republic of Kyrgyzstan, 2010

“Article 23
1. Slavery and human trafficking is prohibited in the Kyrgyz Republic.
2. Exploitation of child labor is prohibited.
3. Forced labor is prohibited except for cases of war, liquidation of aftermath of natural disasters and other emergencies as well as in execution of the verdict of court.
Enlistment to military or alternative (civilian) service shall not be considered as forced labor.”

Law on Preventing and Combating Trafficking in Human Beings, 2003 amend 2011

“Article 1. Terms used in the present Law:
slavery – condition or situation of the person when some or all principles of the right of property are applied towards him or her;”

International Commitments
International Ratifications

ILO Forced Labour Convention, C029, Ratification 1992

ILO Abolition of Forced Labour Convention, C105, Ratification 1999

ILO Minimum Age Convention, C138 (Minimum age specified: 16 years), Ratification 1992

ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182, Ratification 2004

Slavery Convention 1926 and amended by the Protocol of 1953, Accession 1997

UN Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, Accession 1997

UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol), Ratification 2003

UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, Accession 1994

UN Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Accession 2003

UN Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, Accession 2003

National Action Plans, National Strategies

Interagency Action Plan on Measures to Prevent the Involvement of Children in the Worst Forms of Child Labor (2019–2024)

Aims to address the worst forms of child labor by identifying children at risk of child labor, including those in difficult living situations; providing social services; conducting awareness-raising campaigns, including seminars for social pedagogues and forums for children and their parents on hazardous work; sharing experiences and best practices with international organizations and NGOs; and creating a manual on child protection for labor inspectors. Research was unable to determine whether activities were undertaken to implement this policy during the reporting period.

Regulations on the Procedure for the Identification of Children and Families in Difficult Situations

Establishes the process for identifying children in difficult living situations, including those engaged in the worst forms of child labor. Receives complaints, conducts outreach activities, devises an individual action plan, removes the child from the worst forms of child labor, and provides financial and educational services. Research was unable to determine whether activities were undertaken to implement this policy during the reporting period.

National Action Plan to Combat Trafficking in Persons (2017–2020)

Improves legal framework on human trafficking; improves dissemination of information on human trafficking risks for migrants and vulnerable populations; raises awareness about protections for victims and criminal penalties for perpetrators; and improves coordination among government agencies, NGOs, and international partners.

Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the  perpetration of forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour. These actions should be considered in wider societal efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.

Programs and Agencies for Victim Support

Policies for Assistance
Policies for assistance, human trafficking

Law on Preventing and Combating Trafficking in Human Beings, 2003 amend 2011

“Chapter VI. Social rehabilitation and protection of victims of trafficking in persons”

Policies for assistance, general

Code on Children, 2012

Law on Legal Assistance Guaranteed by the State, 2016

 

Penalties
Penalties, Human trafficking

Penal Code, 1997

“Article 124. Trafficking in Person
(1) Trafficking, including recruiting, transport, harboring, reception, transfer, purchase and sale of a person or another unlawful transaction with or without such person’s consent, using force, blackmail, fraud, deception, kidnapping for the purpose of further exploitation or other interests, –
shall be sentenced by 5 to 10 years of imprisonment with or with no property seizure.
(2) The same act committed:

1) towards several persons;
2) towards a juvenile;
3) repeatedly;
4) under a preliminary group concert;
5) abuse of power or position;
6) towards a person materially or in other way dependent on the offender;
7) with illegal exporting a person abroad or illegal importing a person from abroad;
8) threading with or using non-hazardous violence;
9) using forged documents, as well as with seizure, concealment or destruction of the victim’s identity documents, –
shall be sentenced by 8 to 15 years of imprisonment with property seizure.

(3) The same act committed:

1) with the purpose of removal of the person’s organs or tissues for transplantation;
2) threading with or using hazardous violence;
3) towards a knowingly pregnant woman;
4) towards a juvenile;
5) using arms or objects used as arms;
6) in a manner threading many people’s lives and health;
7) resulting in death of the person or other severe consequences through carelessness;
8) by an organized group, –
shall be sentenced by 15 to 20 years of imprisonment with property seizure.

Note: Exploitation means involvement of a person in criminal
activities, forcing into prostitution or other sexual activities, forced labor or services, slavery, adoption for commercial purposes, or using in armed conflicts.
A person that became a trafficking victim shall be exempted from criminal liability for actions considered criminal offences if such person assists law-enforcement bodies in identifying and making criminally liable of trafficking organizers, executors and participants.
(In version of the Kyrgyz Republic Laws of August 9, 2003, No. 193; January 5, 2006, No. 1)”

Penalties, General

Labour Code, 2004

Penal Code, 1997

“Article 143. Labor Law Violation
Knowingly unlawful dismissal of a person, as well as other significant Labor Law violation committed for personal interest, –
shall be sentenced by fine in amount of up to 50 minimum monthly wages, or revocation of the right to hold certain positions or be engaged in certain activities for up to 5 years.”

Data Commitments

A Call to Action to End Forced Labour, Modern Slavery and Human Trafficking, Not signed

1.ii. Take steps to measure, monitor and share data on prevalence and response to all such forms of exploitation, as appropriate to national circumstances;

Programs and Agencies for Enforcement

Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk of exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.

Social Protection Coverage: General (at Least One)
Social Protection (Source: ILO)

The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.

If a country does not appear on a chart, this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.

Social Protection Coverage: Unemployed
Social Protection Coverage: Pension
Social Protection Coverage: Vulnerable Groups
Social Protection Coverage: Poor
Social Protection Coverage: Children
Social Protection Coverage: Disabled

Delta 8.7 has received no Official Response to this dashboard from Kyrgyzstan. If you are a representative of Kyrgyzstan and wish to submit an Official Response, please contact us here.