Measuring the Change
using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards.
Due to lack of nationally representative data, there is no change to report.
Best Target 8.7 Data: Child Labour Rate
No data available
- Child labour: ILO/UNICEF data
- Forced labour: No nationally representative data
- Human trafficking: No nationally representative data
Human Development Index Score: 0.730 (2018)
Mean School Years: 8.7 years (2018)
Vulnerable Employment: 27.6% (2018)
Working Poverty Rate: 0.1% (2020)
- ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Not Ratified
- ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2001
- UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Ratified 2005
Social Protection Coverage
General (at least one): No data
Unemployed: No data
Pension: 0.0% (2000)
Vulnerable: No data
Children: No data
Disabled: No data
Poor: No data
Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.
Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)
Hazardous child labour is the largest category of the worst forms of child labour with an estimated 73 million children aged 5-17 working in dangerous conditions in a wide range of sectors. Worldwide, the ILO estimates that some 22,000 children are killed at work every year.
In Lebanon, the latest estimates show that 0.4 percent of children aged 5-14 were engaged in hazardous work in 2011.
The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 5-14 in hazardous labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2011.
Weekly Work Hours, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)
Children aged 5-11 are considered to be subjected to child labour when engaging in any form of economic activity. Children aged 12-14 are permitted to engage in “light” work that is not considered hazardous and falls below 14 hours per week.
According to the latest 2011 estimates, the average number of hours worked per week by children aged 5-14 in Lebanon was 10.7 hours.
The chart displays differences in the number of hours that children aged 5-14 work in economic activities by sex and region. The sample includes all children of this age group. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2011.
Weekly Work Hours Children Only in Economic Activity, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)
Children not attending school who are engaged in economic activity can be subjected to longer working hours.
In 2011, the latest year with available data, children in economic activity only, meaning they are not in school, worked an average of 23.6 hours per week.
The chart displays differences in the number of hours worked by children aged 5-14 who are not in school, by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2011.
Weekly Hours Household Chores, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)
Researchers recognize that children involved in economic activities are not the only children working. The ICLS recommended definition of child labour includes children aged 5-14 performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week.
Children aged 5-14, on average, are found to work on household chores 4.3 hours per week according to the 2011 estimate.
The chart displays differences in the number of hours children aged 5-14 work on household chores by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2011.
Measuring the incidence of forced labour is a much more recent endeavour and presents unique methodological challenges compared to the measurement of child labour.
No nationally representative data is available on forced labour prevalence in Lebanon.
Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on new guidelines presented by the International Labour Organization and adopted by the International Conference of Labour Statisticians.
The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.
No nationally representative data is available on human trafficking prevalence in Lebanon.
Visit the How to Measure the Change page to learn about measuring human trafficking prevalence, including information on collecting data through national referral mechanisms and producing prevalence statistics using Multiple Systems Estimation (MSE).
Case Data: International and Non-Governmental Organizations
Civil society organizations (CSOs) focused on human trafficking victim assistance can serve as crucial sources of data given their ability to reach a population that is notoriously difficult to sample.
Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (CTDC): The International Organization for Migration (IOM), Polaris and Liberty Asia have launched a global data repository on human trafficking, with data contributed by counter-trafficking partner organizations around the world. Not only does the CTDC serve as a central repository for this critical information, it also publishes normed and harmonized data from various organizations using a unified schema. This global dataset facilitates an unparalleled level of cross-border, trans-agency analysis and provides the counter-trafficking movement with a deeper understanding of this complex issue. Equipped with this information, decision makers will be empowered to create more targeted and effective intervention strategies.
UNODC compiles a global dataset on detected and prosecuted traffickers, which serves as the basis in their Global Report for country profiles. This information is beginning to paint a picture of trends over time, and case-specific information can assist investigators and prosecutors.
Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.
Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.
The chart displays information on human development in Lebanon between 2005 and 2018. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex.
The most recent year of the HDI, 2018, shows that the average human development score in Lebanon is 0.730. This score indicates that human development is high.
HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)
Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.
As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:
“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”
The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in Lebanon over time.
Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in the availability of equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction towards achieving Target 8.7.
HDI Vulnerable Employment (Source: UNDP)
There are reasons to believe that certain types of labour and labour arrangements are more likely to lead to labour exploitation. According to the ILO:
“Own-account workers and contributing family workers have a lower likelihood of having formal work arrangements, and are therefore more likely to lack elements associated with decent employment, such as adequate social security and a voice at work. The two statuses are summed to create a classification of ‘vulnerable employment’, while wage and salaried workers together with employers constitute ‘non-vulnerable employment’.”
Between 1991 and 2018, Lebanon showed a decrease in the proportion of workers in vulnerable employment as compared to those in secure employment.
Working Poverty Rate (Source: ILO)
Labour income tells us about a household’s vulnerability. As the ILO explains in Profits and Poverty:
“Poor households find it particularly difficult to deal with income shocks, especially when they push households below the food poverty line. In the presence of such shocks, men and women without social protection nets tend to borrow to smooth consumption, and to accept any job for themselves or their children, even under exploitative conditions.”
ILO indicators that measure poverty with respect to the labour force include working poverty rate, disaggregated by sex, with temporal coverage spanning from 2000 to 2018. The chart displays linear trends in working poverty rate over time for all individuals over 15 years of age.
Labour Productivity (Source: ILO)
“Labour productivity is an important economic indicator that is closely linked to economic growth, competitiveness, and living standards within an economy.” However, when increased labour output does not produce rising wages, this can point to increasing inequality. As indicated by a recent ILO report (2015), there is a “growing disconnect between wages and productivity growth, in both developed and emerging economies”. The lack of decent work available increases vulnerability to situations of labour exploitation.
Labour productivity represents the total volume of output (measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product, GDP) produced per unit of labour (measured in terms of the number of employed persons) during a given period.
Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.
Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Source: UNHCR)
Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants.
According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children. “
As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements, as recognized by Member States in the New York declaration for refugees and migrants of September 2016.”
The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in Lebanon.
Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.
“section 8(3)(a) of Decree No. 3855 of 1 September 1972 provides that it shall be forbidden to impose forced or compulsory labour on any person”
“The Committee also noted the Government’s indication that section 569 of the Penal Code, which establishes penal sanctions against any individual who deprives another of their personal freedom, applies to the exaction of forced labour.”
NO one may commit himself by any work covenant for his lifetime, nor pledge himself for his lifetime not to engage in a given profession. Any convenant which would directly or indirectly lead to these effects is void as a matter of right, irrepsective of its form. ”
Are exempted from the present law:
1. Domestic servants employed in provate houses;
2. Agricultural corporations whic hhave no connection with trade or industry and which shall be the object of a special law;
3. Family concerns employing solely members of the family unde rhte management either of hte father, the mother, or the guardian;
4. Municipal or government services in what concerns the employees and casual wage-earners and journeymen, who are not governed by the civil servants regulations. These agents shall be. the object of a special law. “
“Chapter 2-Employment of children and Women
A) Employment of Children
Article 21. The employment of adolescents under eighteen years of age is subject to the provisions of the present chapter
Article 22. It is absolutely forbidden to set to work adolescents who have not yet completed their thirteenth year of age. An adolescent may only begin to work after a medical examination to ascertain that he can carry out the work for chich he was hired. ”
Worst Forms of Child Labour
It is forbidden to set adolescents to work in industrial enterprises or in jobs which are too strenuous or detrimental to health, listed in Annexes No 1 and No 2 of the present law, before thay have completed their fiteenth year of age.
It is also forbiddden to set to work adolescents before they have completed their sixteenth year of age in jobs of a dangerous nature or which represent a threat to life, ehalth or public morals because of the circumstances in which they are carried out.
These jobs shall be detemrined by decree issued by the Council of Ministers on the proposal of the Minister of Labour.
It is forbidden to set adolescents, who have not yet completed their eighteenth year of age, to work more than six hours a day, with a break of at least one hour if the daily working period exceeds four consecutive hours.
It is also forbidden to set them to work between seven o’clock in the evening and seven o’clock in the morning. A period of rest of at least 13 unbroken hours must be granted to the adolescent between two periods of work, and it is aboslutely forbidden to set him to work on an additional job or to set him to work during daily or weekly periods of rest or during holidays or periods during which the establishment is clsoed.
Every adolescent employed in an establishment for at least one year shall be entitled to an annual holiday of 21 days with full pay. The adolescent shall benefit from at least two-thirds of the period of holiday without interruption, and he shall benefit from the rest of the period during the same year. ”
“””Article 1: Minors under the age of 18 shall not be employed in totally prohibited works and activities which, by their nature harm the health, safety or morals of children, limit their education and constitute one of the worst forms of child labor included in Annex No. (1) hereto attached.
Article 2: Minors under the age of 16 shall not be employed in works which, by their nature or the circumstances in which they are carried out, are likely to harm the health, safety or morals of children. These works are included in Annex No. (2) hereto attached.
Article 3: Minors of more than 16 years of age may be employed in the works indicated in Annex No. (2) provided they are offered full protection for their physical, mental and moral health and provided these minors received a special education or appropriate vocational training in the field of these works, unless the type of work or the hazard is totally prohibited for those under the age of 18 as specified in Annex No. (1).”””
“Article 586.1: Trafficking in Persons is:
A) luring, transporting, receiving, detaining, or finding shelter for a person;
B) by using force or threatening to use force against someone who is subject to one’s
power; by kidnapping or deceiving another person; by using one’s power against another person or exploiting that person’s vulnerability; by giving or receiving sums of money or benefits; and by utilizing such methods against another person who is subject to perpetrator’s authority;
C) for the purpose of exploiting said other person or facilitating his exploitation by others.
The consent of a victim shall be given no consideration in case any of the methods shown in this Article are utilized.”
“Victim of Trafficking:
For the purposes of this law a victim of trafficking means any natural person who was the subject of trafficking in persons or who is reasonably considered by the competent authorities to be a victim of trafficking in persons, regardless of whether the perpetrator of the crime [of trafficking in persons] was identified, arrested, tried, or convicted.”
“According to the provisions of this Article, compelling a person to participate in any of the following acts shall be considered exploitation:
A) Acts that are punishable by law;
B) Prostitution or exploitation of the prostitution of others;
C) Sexual exploitation;
E) Slavery or practices that resemble slavery;
F) Forcible or compulsory work;
G) This includes the forcible or mandatory recruitment of children to use them in armed conflicts;
H) Forcible involvement in terrorist acts;
I) Selling organs or tissue from the victim’s body.
Consideration shall not be given to the consent that is given by the victim to exploitation that is to be committed and is indicated in this paragraph; nor shall consideration be given to the consent to such exploitation that is given by one of the victim’s forefathers, legal guardian, or any other person who exercises legal or actual authority over the victim.
Luring, transporting, receiving, detaining, or providing shelter to victims who are under eighteen years of age for the purpose of exploiting them shall be considered trafficking in persons even if such activities were not accompanied by any of the methods indicated in Paragraph (1) (B) of this Article.”
National Action Plans, National Strategies
Establishes strategies for addressing the worst forms of child labor, including improving enforcement of child labor laws and expanding access to education. In 2017, the Ministry of Labor, in cooperation with the ILO, released the Guide for Child Labor in Agriculture Practitioners to raise awareness among stakeholders on child labor in agriculture. The ILO held a training on the Guide in September.
Provides the framework for the prevention of children involved in armed conflict. Research was unable to determine whether activities were undertaken to implement this policy during the reporting period.
Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the perpetration of forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour. These actions should be considered in wider societal efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.
Programs and Agencies for Victim Support
Policies for Assistance
Policies for Assistance, Human Trafficking
“Article 586.8: A victim who proves that he was compelled to commit acts that are punishable by law or that he was compelled to violate the terms of [his] residency or work [permit] shall be given amnesty from punishment.
The investigating judge or the judge who is hearing the case may issue a decision allowing the victim to reside in Lebanon during the period of time required for the investigation procedures.”
“Article 586.10: Sums of money that are earned from the crimes that are mentioned in this chapter shall be confiscated and deposited in a special account with the Ministry of Social Affairs to assist the victims of these crimes.
Regulations for this account shall be determined by statute to be issued by the Council of Ministers based upon a proposal from the Minister of Social Affairs.”
“Protection Procedures in the Crime of Trafficking in Persons
Article 370.2: An investigating judge may decide to hear the testimony of a person who is in possession of information and acting as a witness, and he may exclude from the official report information about the identity of the person providing the testimony if the following two conditions are met:
1- That the crime of trafficking in persons, which is the subject of the investigation, is one that is punishable by criminal penalties that are not less than imprisonment for a period of five years.
2- That there be fears that providing information about the crime could result in a threat to the life or safety of the person who is giving the testimony or to his family or one of his in-laws.
The [judge’s] decision must show cause and must include the factual and concrete reasons upon which the decision was based.
The identity and the address of the person giving said testimony shall be recorded in a special report that shall not be added to the case file. Said report is to be filed and stored with the public defender at the Court of Cassation.”
“Article 370.3: In accordance with the provisions of the previous Article, a defendant may ask a sitting judge to disclose to him the identity of the person giving the testimony if he considers such a measure fundamental to the rights of the defense.
If the judge determines that the conditions for the request have been met, he shall decide to disclose the identity of the person giving testimony provided said person agrees. The judge may also suppress the written minutes of said testimony in accordance with the provisions of Article 270.2.
Article 370.4: A defendant may request that he face the person who gave the testimony in accordance with the provisions of Article 370.2. In this case a judge may decide to seek the assistance of technologies that would make the voice of said person unidentifiable.
The particulars of enforcing the provisions of this Article shall be determined by a statute to be issued by the Council of Ministers based upon a proposal from the Minister of Justice.
Article 370.5: Criminalization may not be limited to the testimony provided by the person whose testimony is being heard in accordance with the provisions of Article 370.2.3
Article 370.6: The penalty for anyone who discloses information about protection measures stipulated in this section shall be imprisonment from two to three years and payment of a fine from twenty million to thirty million Lebanese liras.”
Policies for Assistance, General
Penalties, Human Trafficking
“Article 586.2: The penalty for [a perpetrator of] the crime stipulated in Article 586.1 shall be according to the following:
1- Imprisonment for five years and payment of a fine that can be from one hundred to two hundred times the official minimum wage if these actions were carried out in return for sums of money or any other benefits or the promise to grant or receive such sums or benefits.
2- Imprisonment for seven years and payment of a fine that can be from one hundred and fifty times to three hundred times the official minimum wage if these actions were carried out by using deception, violence, harsh acts or threats or by spending money on the victim or on a member of his family.
Article 586.3: The penalty for a perpetrator of the crime stipulated in Article 586.1 shall be imprisonment for ten years and payment of a fine that can be from two hundred to four hundred times the official minimum wage if said perpetrator, partner, accomplice, or instigator to the crime is:
1- A public official or any person charged with providing a public service, or a director of an employment office or an employee of such an office.
2- One of the victim’s legal or non-legal forefathers, one of the members of his family, or any person who exercises legal authority or actual direct or indirect authority over the victim.”
“Article 586.4: The penalty for the crime stipulated in Article 586.1 shall be imprisonment for fifteen years and payment of a fine that can be from three hundred to six hundred times the official minimum wage if said crime was committed by:
1- A group of two or more persons committing criminal acts in Lebanon or in more than one country.
2- If the crime involved more than one victim.
Article 586.5: If any of the following conditions are present, criminal acts that are mentioned in Article 586.1 shall be punishable, and punishment shall be imprisonment from ten to twelve years and payment of a fine that can be from two hundred to four hundred times the official minimum wage:
A) When the crime involves serious harm to the victim or to another person or when it involves the death of a victim or another person, including death as a result of suicide.
B) When the crime involves a person who is in a state of special vulnerability, including pregnancy.
C) When the crime exposes the victim to a life-threatening disease, including the HIV virus and the AIDS virus.
D) When the victim is physically or mentally disabled.
E) When the victim is under the age of eighteen.
Article 586.6: Penalties shall be waived for anyone who reports to the administrative or judicial authority information about the crimes that are stipulated in this chapter, making it possible for said authority to either uncover the crime before it is committed or arrest the perpetrators, partners, accomplices, or instigators, provided that the person making the report is not the perpetrator of the crime mentioned in Article 586.1.
Article 586.7: Anyone who provides the competent authorities with information about the crimes stipulated in this chapter after said crimes were committed shall benefit from the mitigating circumstances clause when the provision of such information would prevent the continuation of said crimes.”
“Article 524 (new): A person who, to appease the whims of another, takes action to tempt or lure another person or have him removed or taken away with his consent shall be punished by imprisonment for at least one year and payment of a fine that shall not be less than half the value of the official minimum wage.
Article 525 (new): A person who detains another person without his consent in a house of prostitution because of a debt to be paid shall be punished by imprisonment from two months to two years and payment of a fine that could be from one tenth of the official minimum wage to the full value of said wage.”
“Title V Penalties
Article 107 See Law of 17 September 1962
Article 108 See Law of 17 September 1962”
“Any violation of the provisions of the Labour Law or the decrees and decisions issued pursuant thereto is referred to the competent courts and the perpetrator is liable, in respect of each such violation, to a fine ranging from 250,000 to 2,500,000 Lebanese pounds and/or detention for a term of one to three months, the penalty being doubled in the event of a repeated violation during a single year (Art. 2 of the Act promulgated on 17 September 1962, as amended by art. 46 of Act No. 173 of 14 February 2000, under the section on penalties after the annulment of arts. 107 and 108);”
“New Article 618:
Anyone who forces a minor under the age of twelve to engage in begging shall be punishable with imprisonment from six months to two years and a fine
ranging from one to two times the minimum wage.”
“New Article 523:
Anyone who encourages one or more persons, whether male or female, who have not reached twenty-one years of age to engage in debauchery or corruption, facilitates such for them, or assists in the performance of such acts shall be punishable with imprisonment from a month to a year and a fine ranging from one to three times the minimum wage.
Anyone who deals in or facilitates secret prostitution shall be subject to the same penalty.
Retaining the provisions of Article 529 attached to Article 506, the penalty shall be increased in accordance with Article 257 of this Law if the crime occurs within the family, regardless of the age of the victim of the crime.”
1.ii. Take steps to measure, monitor and share data on prevalence and response to all such forms of exploitation, as appropriate to national circumstances;
Programs and Agencies for Enforcement
Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk of exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.
The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.
The ILO measures social protections coverage through the Social Security Inquiry (SSI). Every two years, national governments, including responsible ministries, provide data to the SSI on social protections including coverage and expenditure.
There are no visualizations, as there is not a sufficient amount of data provided on social protections for the Arab States region.