Data Dashboards

Lesotho
Measurement
Measuring the Change

using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards.

All measures provided do not cover the full definition of hazardous work, but use the same/a reduced definition. Therefore, due to lack of nationally representative data that includes the full statistical definition of child labour, there is no change to report.

%
Best Target 8.7 Data: Child Labour Rate

The data visualization displays yearly child labour statistics based on a variety of nationally-representative household surveys. All years of data hold up to standards set by interagency collaboration between ILO, UNICEF and World Bank, though, in some cases are not perfectly comparable between years. Detailed information on each data point is provided in the Measurement tab (above).

Data Availability
  • Child labour: ILO/UNICEF data
  • Forced labour: No nationally representative data
  • Human trafficking: No nationally representative data
Context
Human Development

Human Development Index Score: 0.518 (2018)

Mean School Years: 6.3 years (2018)

Labour Indicators

Vulnerable Employment: 54.7% (2018)

Working Poverty Rate: 38.9% (2020)

 

 

Government Efforts
Key Ratifications
  • ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Ratified 2019
  • ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2001
  • UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Ratified 2003
Social Protection Coverage

General (at least one): 9.2% (2016)

Unemployed: 0.0% (2016)

Pension: 94% (2015)

Vulnerable: 7.8% (2016)

Children: 10.4% (2016)

Disabled: No data

Poor: No data

Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.

Child Labour Rate, Aged 5-17 (Source: ILO)

Based on the international conventions and the International Conference of Labour Statisticians (ICLS)  resolution, and consistent with the approach utilized in the ILO global child labour estimates exercise, the statistical definition of child labour used includes:

a) children aged 5-11 years in all forms of economic activity;
b) children aged 12-14 years in all forms of economic activity except permissible “light” work;
c) children and adolescents aged 15-17 years in hazardous work; and
d) children aged 5-14 years performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week.

All measures provided do not cover the full definition of hazardous work, but use the same/a reduced definition.

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 5-17 in child labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2000 and 2002. 

 

Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Hazardous child labour is the largest category of the worst forms of child labour with an estimated 73 million children aged 5-17 working in dangerous conditions in a wide range of sectors. Worldwide, the ILO estimates that some 22,000 children are killed at work every year.

In Lesotho, the latest estimates show that 0.9 percent of children aged 5-14 were engaged in hazardous work in 2000. 

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 5-14 in hazardous labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2000. 

Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 15-17 (Source: ILO)

Children aged 15-17 are permitted to engage in economic activities by international conventions in most cases, except when the work is likely to harm the health, safety or morals of children (Article 3 (d) of ILO Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour, 1999 (No. 182)).

In Lesotho, the latest estimates show that 0.7 percent of children aged 15-17 were engaged in hazardous work in 2002. 

All measures provided do not cover the full definition of hazardous work, but use the same, reduced definition.

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 15-17 in hazardous labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is only provided for 2000. 

Weekly Work Hours, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Children aged 5-11 are considered to be subjected to child labour when engaging in any form of economic activity. Children aged 12-14 are permitted to engage in “light” work that is not considered hazardous and falls below 14 hours per week.

According to the latest 2000 estimates, the average number of hours worked per week by children aged 5-14 in Lesotho was 10.4 hours.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours that children aged 5-14 work in economic activities by sex and region. The sample includes all children of this age group. Complete disaggregated data is provided for 2000. 

Weekly Work Hours Children Only in Economic Activity, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Children not attending school who are engaged in economic activity can be subjected to longer working hours.

In 2000, the latest year with available data, children in economic activity only, meaning they are not in school, worked an average of 18.9 hours per week.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours worked by children aged 5-14 who are not in school, by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2000. 

Weekly Hours Household Chores, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Researchers recognize that children involved in economic activities are not the only children working. The ICLS recommended definition of child labour includes children aged 5-14 performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week. 

Children aged 5-14, on average, are found to work on household chores 9.4 hours per week according to the 2000 estimate.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours children aged 5-14 work on household chores by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2000. 

 

Measuring the incidence of forced labour is a much more recent endeavour and presents unique methodological challenges compared to the measurement of child labour.

No nationally representative data is available on forced labour prevalence in Lesotho.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on new guidelines presented by the International Labour Organization and adopted by the International Conference of Labour Statisticians.

The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.

No nationally representative data is available on human trafficking prevalence in Lesotho.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page to learn about measuring human trafficking prevalence, including information on collecting data through national referral mechanisms and producing prevalence statistics using Multiple Systems Estimation (MSE).

Case Data: International and Non-Governmental Organizations

Civil society organizations (CSOs) focused on human trafficking victim assistance can serve as crucial sources of data given their ability to reach a population that is notoriously difficult to sample.

Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (CTDC): The International Organization for Migration (IOM), Polaris and Liberty Asia have launched a global data repository on human trafficking, with data contributed by counter-trafficking partner organizations around the world. Not only does the CTDC serve as a central repository for this critical information, it also publishes normed and harmonized data from various organizations using a unified schema. This global dataset facilitates an unparalleled level of cross-border, trans-agency analysis and provides the counter-trafficking movement with a deeper understanding of this complex issue. Equipped with this information, decision makers will be empowered to create more targeted and effective intervention strategies.

Prosecution Data

UNODC compiles a global dataset on detected and prosecuted traffickers, which serves as the basis in their Global Report for country profiles. This information is beginning to paint a picture of trends over time, and case-specific information can assist investigators and prosecutors.

Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.

Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.

The chart displays information on human development in Lesotho between 1990 and 2018. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex. 

The most recent year of the HDI, 2018, shows that the average human development score in Lesotho is 0.518. This score indicates that human development is low. 

 

HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)

Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.

As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:

“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”

The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in Lesotho over time.

 

Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in the availability of equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction towards achieving Target 8.7.

HDI Vulnerable Employment (Source: UNDP)

There are reasons to believe that certain types of labour and labour arrangements are more likely to lead to labour exploitation. According to the ILO:

“Own-account workers and contributing family workers have a lower likelihood of having formal work arrangements, and are therefore more likely to lack elements associated with decent employment, such as adequate social security and a voice at work. The two statuses are summed to create a classification of ‘vulnerable employment’, while wage and salaried workers together with employers constitute ‘non-vulnerable employment’.”

Between 1991 and 2018, Lesotho showed a decrease in the proportion of workers in vulnerable employment as compared to those in secure employment.

 

Working Poverty Rate (Source: ILO)

Labour income tells us about a household’s vulnerability. As the ILO explains in Profits and Poverty

“Poor households find it particularly difficult to deal with income shocks, especially when they push households below the food poverty line. In the presence of such shocks, men and women without social protection nets tend to borrow to smooth consumption, and to accept any job for themselves or their children, even under exploitative conditions.”

ILO indicators that measure poverty with respect to the labour force include working poverty rate, disaggregated by sex, with temporal coverage spanning from 2000 to 2020. The chart displays linear trends in working poverty rate over time for all individuals over 15 years of age.

 

Labour Productivity (Source: ILO)

Labour productivity is an important economic indicator that is closely linked to economic growth, competitiveness, and living standards within an economy.” However, when increased labour output does not produce rising wages, this can point to increasing inequality. As indicated by a recent ILO report (2015), there is a “growing disconnect between wages and productivity growth, in both developed and emerging economies”. The lack of decent work available increases vulnerability to situations of labour exploitation. 

Labour productivity represents the total volume of output (measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product, GDP) produced per unit of labour (measured in terms of the number of employed persons) during a given period.

 

Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.

Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Source: UNHCR)

Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants.

According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children. “

As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements, as recognized by Member States in the New York declaration for refugees and migrants of September 2016.”

The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in Lesotho.

Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.

 

Official Definitions
Forced Labour

Labour Code, 1992

“Terms defined
3. In the Code, unless the context otherwise requires
“”forced labour”” means any work or service which is exacted from any person under the menace of any penalty and for which the said person has not offered himself or herself voluntarily, but does not include

(a) any work or service exacted by virtue of any compulsory military service law for work of a purely military character;
(b) any work or service exacted from any person as a consequenceof a convictionin a court of law, provided that such work or service is carried out under the supervision and control of a public authority, and that the said person is not hired to or placed at the disposal of any private individual, company, association or other such body;
(c) any work or service exacted in case of emergency, that is to say in the event of war or of a calamity or threatened calamity, such as fire, flood, famine, earthquake, violent epidemic or epizootic disease, invasion by animals or insect pests or plant diseasesor pests, and in general any circumstances which would endanger the existence or well-being of the whole or part of the population;
(d) minor communal services of a kind which are to be performed by the membersof a community in the direct interests of such community and not for purposes of economic development and which are civic obligations normally imcumbent upon the members of such community. However, before the extraction of such minor communal services, consultations shall have been made with the inhabitants of the place, town, or village concerned and their Chief, or their direct representatives, in regard for the needs of such services;”

Constitution,1993

“4. Fundamental human rights and freedoms
(1) Whereas every person in Lesotho is entitled, whatever his race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status to fundamental human rights and freedoms, that is to say, to each and all of the following –

(e) freedom from slavery and forced labour;
(f) freedom from arbitrary search or entry;
the provisions of this Chapter shall have effect for the purpose of affording protection to those rights and freedoms, subject to such limitations of that, protection as are contained in those provisions, being limitations designed to ensure that the enjoyment of the said rights and freedoms by any person does not prejudice the rights and freedoms of others or the public interest.

(2) For the avoidance of doubt and without prejudice to any other provision of this Constitution it is hereby declared that the provisions of this Chapter shall, except where the context otherwise requires, apply as well in relation to things done or omitted to be done by persons acting in a private capacity (whether by virtue of any written law or otherwise) as in relation to things done or omitted to be done by or on behalf of the Government of Lesotho or by any person acting in the performance of the functions of any public office or any public authority.”

“9. Freedom from slavery and forced labour

(1) No person shall be held in slavery or servitude.
(2) No person shall be required to perform forced labour.
(3) For the purposes of this section, the expression “”forced labour”” does not include –

(a) any labour required in consequence of the sentence or order of a court;
(b) any labour required of any person while he is lawfully detained that, though not
required in consequence of the sentence or order of a court, is reasonably required in the interests of hygiene or for the maintenance of the place at which he is detained;
(c) any labour required of a member of a disciplined force in pursuance of his duties as such or, in the case of a person who has conscientious objections to service as a member of a military or air force, any labour that that person is required by law to perform in place of such service;
(d) any labour required during any period when Lesotho is at war or a declaration of emergency under section 23 of this Constitution is in force or in the event of any other emergency or calamity that threatens the life or well-being of the community, to the extent that the requiring of such labour is reasonably justifiable, in the circumstances of any situation arising or existing during that period or as a result of that other emergency or calamity, for the purpose of dealing with that situation; or
(e) any labour reasonably required by law as part of reasonable and normal community or other civic obligations.”

Human Rights Act, 1983

“12. (1) No person shall be held in slavery; slavery and the slave-trade in all their forms shall be prohibited-
(2) No person shall be held in servitude.
(3) No person shall be required to perform forced or compulsory labour.
(4) Subsection (3) shall not be held to preclude in cases where imprisonement may be imposed as a sentence for a crime, the performance of labour in pursuance of a sentence to such punishment by a competent court.
(5) For the purpose of this section the term “”forced or compulsory labour”” shall not include

a. any work or service, not referred to in sub-section 4, normally required of a person who is under detention in consequence of a lawful order of a court or of a person during conditional release from such detention;
b. any service of a military character and, in the case of a person who has conscientious objections to service as a member of a miltiary or air force, any labour that person is required by law to perform in place of such service;
c. any service exacted in cases of emergency or calamity threatening the life or well being of the communtiy; and
d. any work or service which forms part of normal civil obligations. “

Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act, 2011

“Interpretation
2. In this Act, unelss the context otherwise requires-
“”forced labour”” means labour or sevices obtained or maintained through threats, use of force, intimidation and other forms of coercion, or physical restraint;”

Child Labour

Labour Code, 1992

“Terms defined
3. In the Code, unless the context otherwise requires
“”child”” means a person under the age of 15 years;”

“124. Minimum age for employment
(I) No child shall be employed or work in any commercial or industrial undertaking other than a private undertaking in which only members of the child’s own family, up to five in total number, are employed.
(2) The provisions of subsection(1) shall not apply to light work done by children between the ages of 13 and 15 in technical schools or similar institutions where the work
has been approved by the Department of Education.
(3) If a candidate for employment states his or her age as 21 years or under, he or she shall present proof of age to the employer.
(4) Any person who employs a child contrary to the provisions of this section shall be guilty of an offence and shall be liable on conviction to a fine of three hundred maloti or to imprisonment for three months or both.”

Children’s Protection and Welfare Act, 2011

“Minimum age for child labour
228.1. The minimum age for admission of a child to employment shall be fifteen years.
2. No person shall employ a child below the minimum age of fifteen years.”

“Engagement in light work
229.1. Notwithstanding section 228, a child who is thirteen years or above may be engaged in light work.
For the purposes of this Act, light work constitutes work which is not likely to be harmful to the health or development of a child and does not affect the child’s attendance at aschool or the capacity of the child to benefit from school”

Worst Forms of Child Labour

Constitution,1993

“32. Protection of children and young persons
Lesotho shall adopt policies designed to provide that –

(a) protection and assistance is given to all children and young persons without any discrimination for reasons of parentage or other conditions;
(b) children and young persons are protected from economic and social exploitation;
(c) the employment of children and young persons in work harmful to their morals or health or dangerous to life or likely to hamper their normal development is
punishable by law; and
(d) there are age limits below which the paid employment of children and young persons is prohibited and punishable by law.”

Children’s Protection and Welfare Act, 2011

“Article 15. Right to protection from exploitative labour
A child has a right ot be protected from exploitative labour as provided for under section 226 of this Act and other international instruments on child labour.”

“Interpretation
3. In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires-
“”trafficking”” means the recruitment, transportation, transfer, sale, harbouring or recipt of person by means of threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purposes of exploitation; ”

“Exploitative child labour
226. (1) No person shall employ a child in exploitative labour
(2) for purposes of this Act, labour is exploitative if it deprives or hinders a child access to health, education or development.”

“Prohibition of child labour at night and in industrial undertakings
227.1 No person shall employ a child in night work or work in industrial undertakings
2. For purpsoes of htis Act, night work constitutes work between the hours of six o’clock in the evening to six o’clock in the morning”

“Minimum age for hazardous employment
230.1. No child below the age of eighteen years shall be employed in any form of hazardous work.
2. Work is hazardous when it poses a danger to the health, development safety or morals of a person.
3. Hazardous work includes –

(a) mining and quarrying
(b) porterage of heavy loads;
(c) manufacturing industries where chemicals are produced or used;
(d) work in places where dangerous machines are used;
(e) work in places such as bars, hotels and places of entertainment where a person may be exposed to immoral behaviour;
(f) herding animals at the cattle posts;
(g) commercial sexual work; or
(h) tobacco production and trafficking”

Part IX-Trafficking and Abduction of Children

Labour Code, 1992

“125. General restrictionson employment of children and young persons
1. No person shall employ a child or young person on any work which is injurious to health or morals, dangerous or otherwise unsuitable, or on any work which the Minister, by notification in the Gazette, or the Labour Commissioner, acting in accordancewith any directions of the Minister, has declared, by notice in writing, to be of a kind which is injurious to the health or morals of a child or young person.
(4) No person under the age of 16 years shall be required or permitted to work for more than four consecutive hours without a break of at least one hour, or for more than eight hours in any one day.
(5) No person under the age of 16 years shall be employed under conditions preventing him or her from returning each night to the place of residence of his or her parent or guardian. This provision shall not apply to domestic servants.
126. Restriction on employment of children and young persons on night work
127. Restrictions on employment of children and young persons in mines and quarries”

Human Trafficking

Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act, 2011

“Interpretation
2. In this Act, unelss the context otherwise requires-
“”child”” means a person who is under the age of 18 years;
“”trafficking”” means the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring, legal or illegal adoption, sale, supply or recipt of person within and across the borders of Lesotho

a. by means of the use of threat, force or other means of coercion, abduction, kidnapping, fraud or deception, the abuse of power, law or legal process or a position of vulnerability or debt bondage; or
b. the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to obtain the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation;”

Slavery

Constitution,1993

“4. Fundamental human rights and freedoms
(1) Whereas every person in Lesotho is entitled, whatever his race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status to fundamental human rights and freedoms, that is to say, to each and all of the following –

(e) freedom from slavery and forced labour;
(f) freedom from arbitrary search or entry;
the provisions of this Chapter shall have effect for the purpose of affording protection to those rights and freedoms, subject to such limitations of that, protection as are contained in those provisions, being limitations designed to ensure that the enjoyment of the said rights and freedoms by any person does not prejudice the rights and freedoms of others or the public interest.

(2) For the avoidance of doubt and without prejudice to any other provision of this Constitution it is hereby declared that the provisions of this Chapter shall, except where the context otherwise requires, apply as well in relation to things done or omitted to be done by persons acting in a private capacity (whether by virtue of any written law or otherwise) as in relation to things done or omitted to be done by or on behalf of the Government of Lesotho or by any person acting in the performance of the functions of any public office or any public authority.”

“9. Freedom from slavery and forced labour
(1) No person shall be held in slavery or servitude.
(2) No person shall be required to perform forced labour.
(3) For the purposes of this section, the expression “”forced labour”” does not include –

(a) any labour required in consequence of the sentence or order of a court;
(b) any labour required of any person while he is lawfully detained that, though not
required in consequence of the sentence or order of a court, is reasonably required in the interests of hygiene or for the maintenance of the place at which he is detained;
(c) any labour required of a member of a disciplined force in pursuance of his duties as such or, in the case of a person who has conscientious objections to service as a member of a military or air force, any labour that that person is required by law to perform in place of such service;
(d) any labour required during any period when Lesotho is at war or a declaration of emergency under section 23 of this Constitution is in force or in the event of any other emergency or calamity that threatens the life or well-being of the community, to the extent that the requiring of such labour is reasonably justifiable, in the circumstances of any situation arising or existing during that period or as a result of that other emergency or calamity, for the purpose of dealing with that situation; or
(e) any labour reasonably required by law as part of reasonable and normal community or other civic obligations.”

Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act, 2011

“Interpretation
2. In this Act, unelss the context otherwise requires-
“”slavery”” means the status or condition of a person over whom any or all the powers attaching to the right of ownership are exercised;”

International Commitments
International Ratifications

ILO Forced Labour Convention, C029, Ratification 1966

Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, 1930, P029, Ratification 2019

ILO Abolition of Forced Labour Convention, C105, Ratification 2001

ILO Minimum Age Convention, C138, Ratification 2001 (minimum age specified: 15 years)

ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182, Ratification 2001

Slavery Convention 1926, and amended by the Protocol of 1953, Succession 1974

UN Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, Succession 1974

UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol), Ratification 2003

UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, Ratification 1992

UN Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Ratification 2003

UN Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, Ratification 2003

National Action Plans, National Strategies

National Action Plan for the Elimination of Child Labor (APEC) (2013–2017)

Focuses on the development of programs to withdraw, rehabilitate, and protect children from the worst forms of child labor. Research was unable to find information about the implementation of this policy during 2017.

National Anti-Trafficking in Persons Strategic Framework and Action Plan (2013–2017)

Supports the national and international obligations and commitments regarding human trafficking, in support of the vision to eliminate all forms of trafficking in persons in Lesotho. Provides for victim protection, successful arrests and prosecutions of offenders, and concrete preventive measures. Research was unable to find information about the implementation of this policy during 2017.

National Strategic Plan on Vulnerable Children (2012–2017)

Safeguards the rights of orphans and vulnerable children to an education, promotes access to apprenticeships and vocational and life skills programs for orphans and vulnerable children, and implements child labor prevention programs. Research was unable to find information about the implementation of this policy during 2017.

Lesotho United Nations Development Assistance Framework (2013–2017)

Includes actions to build the capacity of the government, social partners, and civil society to eliminate child labor. Promotes education for children, supports youth employment, and builds the government’s capacity to provide social welfare services to vulnerable children. Research was unable to find information about the implementation of this policy during 2017.

Kingdom of Lesotho: Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper—National Strategic Development Plan (2012/2013–2016/2017)

Identifies child protection services (CGPU, social welfare, health, and the justice system) and their capacity to respond adequately to cases of violence, abuse, and exploitation of children, including child labor. Outlines prevention measures. Research was unable to find information about the implementation of this policy during 2017.

Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the  perpetration of forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour. These actions should be considered in wider societal efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.

Programs and Agencies for Victim Support

Policies for Assistance
Policies for Assistance, Human Trafficking

Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act, 2011

“Part IV – IDENTIFICATION, CARE AND PROTECTION OF VICTIMS
PART V – CENTRES FOR VICTIMS
PART VII – VICTIMS OF TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS FUND”

“Trafficking of a child by parent, guardian or other person who has parental responsibility
53. (1) Where a court has reason to believe that the parent or guardian of a child or any other person who has parental responsibilities and rights in respect of a child, has trafficked the child or allowed the child to be trafficked, the court may –

(a) suspend all the parental responsibilities and rights of that parent, guardian or other person;
(b) place that child in temporary safe care or place of safety, pending an inquiry by a children’s court.

(2) An action taken by a children’s court in terms of subsection (1) does not exclude a person from liability for committing the offence of trafficking.”

Policies for assistance, general

Penal Code, 2010

“Involuntary Acts
8. (1) In this section, “involuntary act” means an act of which the actor at the time of the commission of the act is not conscious, or an act over which he or she has no control.
(2) Except where expressly provided for in any other written law, a person shall not be criminally liable for any involuntary act.”

Children’s Protection and Welfare Act, 2011

 

Penalties
Penalties, Human Trafficking

Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act, 2011

“PART II – OFFENCES AND PENALTIES
5. Offence of trafficking
6. Acts that promote or facilitate trafficking; Aggravated forms of trafficking
7. Engaging the services of a victim of trafficking
8. Debt bondage
9. Destruction, confiscation, concealment of documents Fraudulent travel or identity document
10. Smuggling of persons
11. Compensation”

Sexual Offences Act, 1993

Article 10. Child Prostitution

Penalties, General

Penal Code, 2010

“Abduction
46. (1) A person who unlawfully takes or entices a child or any person of unsound mind out of the custody of the lawful guardian of such person, with or without the consent of such guardian, for the purpose of marriage, sexual intercourse, or commercial and labour exploitation, commits the offence of abduction.
(2) A guardian who consents to the enticement or taking of any child or person of unsound mind out of his or her custody for the purpose of marriage, sexual intercourse or commercial and labour exploitation, commits the offence of constructive abduction.”

Children’s Protection and Welfare Act, 2011

“Article 45. Children not to be used for begging
Article 66-70 Trafficking and Abduction of Children”

Penalties, Child Labour

Children’s Protection and Welfare Act, 2011

“Minimum age for child labour
228.1. The minimum age for admission of a child to employment shall be fifteen years.
2. No person shall employ a child below the minimum age of fifteen years.
3. A person who contravenes this section commits an offence and is

a. on first conviction, liable tp a fine not exceeding twenty thousand Maloti or to imprisonement for a period not exceeding twenty months or both;
b. on second or subsequent conviction, liable to imprisonment for a minimum period of two years without the option of a fine.”

“230.4. A person who contravenes this section commits an offence and is
a. on first conviction, liable to a fine not exceeding twenty thousand Maloti or to imprisonment for a period not exceeding twenty months or both;
(b) on second or subsequent conviction, liable to imprisonment for a minimum period of two years without the option of a fine.”

“Non-employment of children and young persons in industrial undertakings
231. (1) No employer shall, in an industrial undertaking, employ a child in employment without satisfactory proof of the child’s age.
(2) An employer in an industrial undertaking shall keep a register of the children and young persons employed by him and of the dates of their births.
(3) An industrial undertaking is an undertaking other than one in commerce or agriculture and includes –

(a) mines, quarries and other works of the extraction of minerals from the earth; or
(b) undertakings in which articles are manufactured, altered, cleaned, repaired, ornamented, finished, adopted for sale, broken up or demolished, or in the generation, transformation or transmission of electricity or motive power of any kind.

(4) A person who or organisation which has a reasonable suspicion that a child is employed in an industrial undertaking shall report to the Ministry responsible for labour and employment affairs.
(5) The Ministry responsible for labour and employment affairs shall investigate cases of children employed in industrial undertakings and take appropriate action
(6) The Ministry responsible for labour and employment affairs shall in the investigation of cases referred to under subsection (5), request medical officers, social workers and other professionals to provide any expert
information necessary.
(7) A person who contravenes this section commits an offence and is

(a) on first conviction, liable to a fine not exceeding twenty thousand Maloti or to imprisonment for a period not exceeding twenty months or both;
(b) on second or subsequent conviction, liable to imprison ment for a minimum period of two years without the option of a fine”

“227.3. A Person who contravenes this section commits an offence and is
a. on first conviction, liable to a fine not exceeding twenty thousand Maloti or to imprisonment for a pperiod not exceeding twenty months or both; or
b. on second or subsequent conviction, liable to imprisonment for a minimum period of two years without the option of a fine.”

Labour Code, 1992

“””124. Minimum age for employment
(I) No child shall be employed or work in any commercial or industrial undertaking other than a private undertaking in which only members of the child’s own family, up to five in total number, are employed.
(2) The provisions of subsection(1) shall not apply to light work done by children between the ages of 13 and 15 in technical schools or similar institutions where the work
has been approved by the Department of Education.
(3) If a candidate for employment states his or her age as 21 years or under, he or she shall present proof of age to the employer.
(4) Any person who employs a child contrary to the provisions of this section shall be guilty of an offence and shall be liable on convictionto a fine of three hundred maloti or to imprisonment for three months or both.”””

125.6. Any person who employs a child or young person in contravention of any of the provisions of this section shall be guilty of an offence and shall be liable on conviction therefor to a fine of six hundred maloti or to imprisonement for six months or both

“126. Restriction on employment of children and young persons on night work
127. Restrictions on employment of children and young persons in mines and quarries”

“129. Offences by Parent or guardian
Any parent or guardian of a child or young person who permits such child or young person to be employed in contraventionof this Part shall be guilty of an offence and shall be liable on conviction to a fine of three hundred maloti or to
for three months or both”

Penalties, Forced Labour

Labour Code, 1992

“7. Forced labour prohibited
(1) Any person who exacts or imposes forced labour, as defined in the Code, or causes or permits forced labour to be exacted or imposed for his or her own benefit or for the benefit of any other private individual, association or other such body shall be guilty of an offence and liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding two thousand maloti or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding one year, or to both such fine and imprisonement.
2) Any Chief or public officer who puts any constraint upon the population under his or her charge, or upon any individual member of such population, to work for any private individual,company, association or other such body shall be guilty of an offence and shall be liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding two thousand maloti or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding one year, or to both such fine and imprisonment.”

Data Commitments

A Call to Action to End Forced Labour, Modern Slavery and Human Trafficking, Not signed

1.ii. Take steps to measure, monitor and share data on prevalence and response to all such forms of exploitation, as appropriate to national circumstances;

Programs and Agencies for Enforcement

Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk of exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.

 

Social Protection Coverage: General (at Least One)
Social Protection (Source: ILO)

The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.

If a country does not appear on a chart, this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.

Social Protection Coverage: Pension
Social Protection Coverage: Vulnerable Groups
Social Protection Coverage: Children
Social Protection Coverage: Disabled

Delta 8.7 has received no Official Response to this dashboard from Lesotho. If you are a representative of Lesotho and wish to submit an Official Response, please contact us here.