Papan Pemuka Data

Liberia
Measurement
Measuring the Change

using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards.

Child labour data is only available for 2010. There is no change to report.

%
Best Target 8.7 Data: Child Labour Rate


The data visualization displays yearly child labour statistics based on a variety of nationally-representative household surveys. All years of data hold up to standards set by interagency collaboration between ILO, UNICEF and World Bank, though, in some cases are not perfectly comparable between years. Detailed information on each data point is provided in the Measurement tab (above).

Data Availability
  • Child labour: ILO/UNICEF data
  • Forced labour: No nationally representative data
  • Human trafficking: No nationally representative data
Context
Human Development

Human Development Index Score: 0.427 (2015)

Mean School Years: 4.4 years (2015)

Labour Indicators

Vulnerable Employment: 78.7% (2010)

Working Poverty Rate: 67.1% (2016)

Government Efforts
Key Ratifications
  • ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Not ratified
  • ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2003
  • UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Accession 2004
Social Protection Coverage

General (at least one): No data

Unemployed: No data

Pension: No data

Vulnerable: No data

Children: No data

Disabled: No data

Poor: No data

Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.

Child Labour Rate, Aged 5-17 (Source: ILO)

Based on the international conventions and the International Conference of Labour Statisticians (ICLS)  resolution, and consistent with the approach utilized in the ILO global child labour estimates exercise, the statistical definition of child labour used includes:

a) children aged 5-11 years in all forms of economic activity;
b) children aged 12-14 years in all forms of economic activity except permissible “light” work;
c) children and adolescents aged 15-17 years in hazardous work; and
d) children aged 5-14 years performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week.

In Liberia, data on the percentage of child labourers is provided for 2010. The measure provided for 2010 does not cover the full definition of hazardous work.

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 5-17 in child labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2010.

Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Hazardous child labour is the largest category of the worst forms of child labour with an estimated 73 million children aged 5-17 working in dangerous conditions in a wide range of sectors. Worldwide, the ILO estimates that some 22,000 children are killed at work every year.

In Liberia, the latest estimates show that 2.5 percent of children aged 5-14 were engaged in hazardous work in 2010. All measures provided do not cover the full definition of hazardous work, but use a reduced definition.

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 5-14 in hazardous labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2007 and 2010.

Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 15-17 (Source: ILO)

Children aged 15-17 are permitted to engage in economic activities by international conventions in most cases, except when the work is likely to harm the health, safety or morals of children (Article 3 (d) of ILO Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour, 1999 (No. 182)).

In Liberia, the latest estimates show that 4.5 percent of children aged 15-17 were engaged in hazardous work in 2010. The measure provided for 2010 does not cover the full definition of hazardous work.

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 15-17 in hazardous labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2010.

Weekly Work Hours, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Children aged 5-11 are considered to be subjected to child labour when engaging in any form of economic activity. Children aged 12-14 are permitted to engage in “light” work that is not considered hazardous and falls below 14 hours per week.

According to the latest 2010 estimates, the average number of hours worked per week by children aged 5-14 in Liberia was 26 hours. The average number of hours worked has increased from 5.6 hours in 2007.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours that children aged 5-14 work in economic activities by sex and region. The sample includes all children of this age group. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2007 and 2010.

Weekly Work Hours, Children Only in Economic Activity, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Children not attending school who are engaged in economic activity can be subjected to longer working hours.

In 2010, the latest year with available data, children in economic activity only, meaning they are not in school, worked an average of 38 hours per week. This number has increased since 2007, when the average number of hours worked by this age group was 5.7.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours worked by children aged 5-14 who are not in school, by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2007 and 2010.

Weekly Hours Household Chores, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Researchers recognize that children involved in economic activities are not the only children working. The ICLS recommended definition of child labour includes children aged 5-14 performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week.

Children aged 5-14, on average, are found to work on household chores 5.1 hours per week according to the 2010 estimate. This estimate represents an increase in hours worked across all age groups since the last estimate in 2007, which found that children aged 5-14 in Liberia worked an average of 4.2 hours per week.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours children aged 5-14 work on household chores by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2007 and 2010.

Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: Total (Source: ILO)

Identifying the sectors in which the most child labour exists can help policy actors and practitioners target efforts toward those industries.

The latest data available on child labour by sector for Liberia is from 2010. By the 2010 estimate, the Agriculture sector had the most child labourers, followed by the Commerce, Hotels and Restaurants sector and the Manufacturing sector.

The chart to the right displays child labour prevalence in each sector for all children. The charts below show the differences in child labour by sector with comparisons between groups by sex and region.

Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: Sex (Source: ILO)
Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: Area (Source: ILO)

Measuring the incidence of forced labour is a much more recent endeavour and presents unique methodological challenges compared to the measurement of child labour.

No nationally representative data is available on forced labour prevalence in Liberia.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on new guidelines presented by the International Labour Organization and adopted by the International Conference of Labour Statisticians.

The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.

No nationally representative data is available on human trafficking prevalence in Liberia.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page to learn about measuring human trafficking prevalence, including information on collecting data through national referral mechanisms and producing prevalence statistics using Multiple Systems Estimation (MSE).

Case Data: International and Non-Governmental Organizations

Civil society organizations (CSOs) focused on human trafficking victim assistance can serve as crucial sources of data given their ability to reach a population that is notoriously difficult to sample.

Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (CTDC): The International Organization for Migration (IOM), Polaris and Liberty Asia have launched a global data repository on human trafficking, with data contributed by counter-trafficking partner organizations around the world. Not only does the CTDC serve as a central repository for this critical information, it also publishes normed and harmonized data from various organizations using a unified schema. This global dataset facilitates an unparalleled level of cross-border, trans-agency analysis and provides the counter-trafficking movement with a deeper understanding of this complex issue. Equipped with this information, decision makers will be empowered to create more targeted and effective intervention strategies.

Prosecution Data

UNODC compiles a global dataset on detected and prosecuted traffickers, which serves as the basis in their Global Report for country profiles. This information is beginning to paint a picture of trends over time, and case-specific information can assist investigators and prosecutors.

Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.

Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.

The chart displays information on human development in Liberia between 1999 and 2015. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex.

The most recent year of the HDI, 2015, shows that the average human development score in Liberia is 0.427. This score indicates that human development is low.

HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)

Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.

As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:

“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”

The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in Liberia over time.

Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction toward achieving Target 8.7.

HDI Vulnerable Employment (Source: UNDP)

There are reasons to believe that certain types of labour and labour arrangements are more likely to lead to labour exploitation. According to the ILO:

“Own-account workers and contributing family workers have a lower likelihood of having formal work arrangements, and are therefore more likely to lack elements associated with decent employment, such as adequate social security and a voice at work. The two statuses are summed to create a classification of ‘vulnerable employment’, while wage and salaried workers together with employers constitute ‘non-vulnerable employment’.”

In 2010, the only year for which data is provided, the proportion of workers in vulnerable employment as compared to those in secure employment was 78.7 percent.

Working Poverty Rate (Source: ILO)

Labour income tells us about a household’s vulnerability. As the ILO explains in Profits and Poverty:

“Poor households find it particularly difficult to deal with income shocks, especially when they push households below the food poverty line. In the presence of such shocks, men and women without social protection nets tend to borrow to smooth consumption, and to accept any job for themselves or their children, even under exploitative conditions.”

ILO indicators that measure poverty with respect to the labour force include working poverty rate, disaggregated by sex, with temporal coverage spanning from 2000 to 2016. The chart displays linear trends in working poverty rate over time for all individuals over 15 years of age.

Labour Productivity (Source: ILO)

Labour productivity is an important economic indicator that is closely linked to economic growth, competitiveness, and living standards within an economy.” However, when increased labour output does not produce rising wages, this can point to increasing inequality. As indicated by a recent ILO report (2015), there is a “growing disconnect between wages and productivity growth, in both developed and emerging economies”. The lack of decent work available increases vulnerability to situations of labour exploitation.

Labour productivity represents the total volume of output (measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product, GDP) produced per unit of labour (measured in terms of the number of employed persons) during a given period.

Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.

Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Source: UNHCR)

Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants.

According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children.”

As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements.”

The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in Liberia.

Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.

Official Definitions
Forced Labour

Decent Work Act, 2015
§ 1.4 Definitions
In this Act, unless the context indicates otherwise:

o. forced or compulsory labour means all work or service which is exacted from any person under the menace of any penalty, and for which that person did not offer himself voluntarily;

§ 2.2 Freedom from forced or compulsory labour

a. No person in Liberia shall be subjected to forced or compulsory labour, provided however that this does not prohibit work or service:

i. exacted in consequence of compulsory military service laws of general application, provided that the work or service in question is of a purely military character;
ii. which forms part of the normal civic obligations of a citizen;
iii. exacted as a consequence of a conviction in a court of law, provided that:

a. it is carried out under the supervision and control of a public authority; and
b. no person is hired to or placed at the disposal of private individuals, companies or associations;

iv. exacted in cases of emergency, that is to say, in the event of war or of a calamity or threatened calamity, such as fire, flood, famine, earthquake, violent epidemic or epizootic diseases, invasion by animal, insect or vegetable pests, and in general any circumstance that would endanger the existence or the well-being of the whole or part of the population; or
v. which is in the nature of minor communal services of a kind which, being performed by the members of the community in the direct interest of the said community, can therefore be considered as normal civic obligations incumbent upon the members of the community, provided that the members of the community or their direct representatives shall have the right to be consulted in regard to the need for such services.

b. A person shall not directly or indirectly cause, permit or require any person to perform forced labour.

An Act to Ban Trafficking in Persons, 2005
Article 1. Definitions
105 “Forced labor” shall mean labor or services obtained or maintained through force, threat of force, or other means of coercion or physical restraint.

Child Labour

Decent Work Act, 2015
§ 1.4 Definitions
In this Act, unless the context indicates otherwise:

c. child means a person under the age of 18;

§ 21.2 Minimum Age for Employment
No person shall employ, or allow a child under the age of 15 years to be employed in full time employment.

§ 21.3 Light work for children under the age of 15

a. A child who is at least 13 years old may be employed to perform light work, provided that they:

i. may only work for a maximum of two hours in a day and fourteen hours in a week; and
ii. are employed in compliance with any prescribed procedures.

b. For the purposes of this Act, light work means work or any other activity that:

i. is not likely to be harmful to a child’s health or safety, moral or material welfare or development; and
ii. is not such as to prejudice the child’s attendance at school or their capacity to benefit from instruction.

§ 44.3 Minimum age for recruitment of workers

a. No recruiter shall recruit any Liberian who is not 18 years or older.
b. Provided however that the Ministry may permit the recruiting of persons over the age of 16 years but less than 18 in accordance with such conditions as may be prescribed, and provided further that no such conditions shall be inconsistent with any other provision of this Act regulating the work of children, including regulations made for that purpose.

Labour Practices Law, 1956
§ 74 Child labor prohibited
It shall be unlawful for any person to employ or hire any child under the age of sixteen years during the hours when he is required to attend school in any portion of any month when school is in session; provided, however, that a person may employ minors under sixteen if he keeps a register and the school certificates of such employees open to inspection, which certificates shall show that each of the said minors listed in the register is attending school regularly and is able to read at sight and write simple sentences legibly.

Children’s Law of Liberia, 2011
Article III 20.1 Every child shall have the right to be protected from work and other practices that may threaten her or his health, educational, spiritual, physical, and moral development.

Article VII 9.1 No person shall employ a child in work that is inappropriate for the child’s age or that may be hazardous to the child’s health, educational, emotional or physical development. This prohibition applies to all work undertaken by children, regardless of whether the work is under a contractual relationship, and regardless of whether the work is for payment or other reward.
9.2 The Ministry of Labor shall issue regulations to further specify terms and conditions applicable to specific categories of work, including, as appropriate, the establishment of minimum working ages for different categories of work.

Worst Forms of Child Labour

Decent Work Act, 2015
§ 2.3 Freedom from the worst forms of child labour

a. Except as elsewhere provided in this Act, no person shall employ or cause a child to be employed.
b. Without limiting the scope of the preceding provision, the following forms of work by children are absolutely prohibited:

i. all forms of slavery or practices similar to slavery, such as the sale and trafficking of children, debt bondage and serfdom and forced or compulsory labour, including forced or compulsory recruitment of children for use in armed conflict;
ii. the use, procuring or offering of a child for prostitution, for the production of pornography or for pornographic performances;
iii. the use, procuring or offering of a child for illicit activities, in particular for the production and trafficking of drugs as defined in the relevant international treaties; and
iv. Work which, by its nature or the circumstances in which it is carried out, is likely to harm the health, safety or welfare of children.

c. The Minister may make regulations which identify work prohibited under paragraph b.iv., and other forms of work for children that shall be absolutely prohibited.
d. A person shall not directly or indirectly cause, permit or require a child to participate in a form of work which is absolutely prohibited by or pursuant to this section.

§ 21.4 Types of hazardous work that are prohibited for children

a. The following types of work are prohibited for children:

i. work which exposes children to physical, psychological or sexual abuse;
ii. work underground, under water, at dangerous heights or in confined spaces;
iii. work with dangerous machinery, equipment and tools, or which involves the manual handling or transport of heavy loads;
iv. work in an unhealthy environment which may, for example, expose children to hazardous substances, agents or processes, or to temperatures, noise levels, or vibrations damaging to their health; or
v. work under particularly difficult conditions such as work for long hours or during the night, or work where the child is unreasonably confined to the premises of the employer.

b. The Minister shall within the first twelve months of this Act coming into force make regulations:

i. specifying further the types of work that may be prohibited to children under this section; and
ii. identifying hazardous processes, temperatures, noise levels, or vibrations that are damaging to children’s health.

Human Trafficking

An Act to Ban Trafficking in Persons, 2005
Article 1. Definitions
100 “Trafficking In Persons” shall mean the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or receipt of a person by means of the threat or use of force or other means of coercion, or by abduction, fraud, deception, abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability, or by the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation.

Slavery

An Act to Ban Trafficking in Persons, 2005
Article 1. Definitions
103 “Slavery” shall mean the status or condition of a person over whom any or all the powers attaching to the right of ownership are exercised.
104 “Practices similar to slavery” are defined in the Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of slavery, the Slave Trade, and institutions and practices Similar to Slavery and include, in general, debt bondage, serfdom, forced or servile marriages and delivery of children for exploitation.

International Commitments
National Strategies

National Action Plan for Trafficking in Persons

“Outlines the Government’s anti-human trafficking efforts, including those for child victims. Research could not find information about accomplishments during the year.”

Direct Assistance and Support to Trafficked Victims Standard Operation Procedures

“Establishes roles and responsibilities for coordinating government assistance to human trafficking victims. Provides shelter and care to children who were suspected TIP victims.”

National Social Welfare Policy

“Prioritizes the development of action plans and policies that target children engaged in the worst forms of child labor, including child trafficking.”

International Ratifications

ILO Forced Labour Convention, C029, Ratification 1931

ILO Abolition of Forced Labour Convention, C105, Ratification 1962

ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182, Ratified 2003

Slavery Convention 1926 and amended by the Protocol of 1953, Definitive Signature 1953

UN Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, Signature 1956

UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol), Accession 2004

UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, Ratification 1993

UN Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Signature 2004

UN Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, Signature 2004

Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the perpetration of modern slavery, forced labour, child labour and human trafficking. These actions should be considered in wider societal efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.

Programs and Agencies for Victim Support (Source: U.S. Department of Labor)

Policies for Assistance
Policies for Assistance, Child Labour

Children’s Law of Liberia, 2011
20.1 Every child shall have the right to be protected from work and other practices that may threaten her or his health, educational, spiritual, physical, and moral development.
20.2 A social worker or probation officer shall have power to treat a child involved in work and other practices as described in subsection 1 of this section as a child in need of care under this Law.

Policies for Assistance, Human Trafficking

An Act to Ban Trafficking in Persons, 2005
Section 3: Restitution
Where a defendant is convinced of trafficking in persons under section 5, the court shall order the defendant to pay restitution to the victim for:

a. Costs of medical and psychological treatment;
b. Costs of physical and occupation therapy and rehabilitation;
c. Costs of necessary transportation, temporary housing;
d. Lost income;
e. Attorney’s fees and other costs such as victim advocate fees;
f. Compensation for emotional distress, pain, and suffering;
g. Any other loss suffered by the victim.

Section 4: Payment Or Restitution
Restitution shall be paid to the victim promptly upon the conviction of the defendant, with the proceeds from the property forfeited under Section 5b. The return of the victim from. his/her home country or other absence of the victim from the jurisdiction shall not prejudice the victim’s right to receive restitution.

Section 9: Victim Immunity
A victim of trafficking is not held criminally liable for any immigration-related offense, prostitution, or any other criminal offense that was a direct result of being trafficked.

Penalties
Penalties, General

Decent Work Act, 2015
§ 2.15 Remedies for contravention of fundamental rights

a. A person who is the victim of a violation of a right protected by this Chapter may lodge a complaint under section § 9.2.
b. A registered trade union or registered employers’ organization, acting on behalf of a member of that trade union or registered employers’ organization, may lodge a complaint under section § 9.2 alleging a violation of a right protected by this Chapter.
c. A labour inspector may use the provisions of sections § 8.4 or § 9.1 to enforce compliance with the provisions of this Chapter.
d. Upon a finding by the Ministry or a court, as the case may be, that any requirement of this Chapter has been breached, the Ministry or court may order any of the remedies specified in section § 9.5.

§ 9.5 Decision by the Ministry

a. At the conclusion of a hearing the Ministry shall state its findings of fact.
b.The Ministry may dismiss a complaint if it finds that the respondent has not engaged in the violation that is the subject of the notice.
c. If the Ministry finds that a respondent has committed or is committing a violation of any provision of this Act, it:

i. shall issue and cause to be served on the respondent an order requiring them to:

1. cease and desist from continuing such violation; and
2. take such affirmative and remedial action as is specified in the law or as, in the judgment of the Ministry, will effectuate the purposes of this Act; and

ii. may order the respondent to pay a fine not exceeding $500.

d. The powers of the Ministry in this section operate in addition to its powers under section § 14.10.
e. An order of the Ministry issued under this section shall include a requirement for the respondent to report on the manner of compliance.
f. A respondent shall comply with an order of the Ministry under this section, and shall report on their compliance in such terms as the order may require.
g. The Ministry shall keep on file a copy of all orders it makes in proceedings under this Chapter.

Penalties, Child Labour

Labour Practices Law, 1956
§ 74 Child labor prohibited
Any employer violating the provisions of this section shall be fined one hundred dollars and be committed until such fine is paid; any parent, guardian, or other person having control of any child under sixteen who permits such child to be employed in violation of this section shall be fined for each offense not less than fifteen dollars nor more than twenty-five dollars and shall be committed until the fine is paid.

Children’s Law of Liberia, 2011
Article VII, Section 8. Any person, convicted under the Trafficking Law or any penal law prohibiting the abduction or trafficking of children shall be placed on a child offenders’ register and not allowed to render direct work services to children.

Penalties, Human Trafficking

An Act to Ban Trafficking in Persons, 2005
Section 5: Criminal Offense
Whoever engages in or conspires to engage in, or attempts to engage in, or assists another person to engage in or organizes or directs other persons to engage in “Trafficking in persons” shall be sentenced as defined in Section 7.

Section 6: Convicted Trafficker
Persons. convicted of the crime of transporting a person for the purpose of that person’s prostitution shall be punished in accordance with’ Section 7, but the presence of any one of the following aggravating factors can permit a. longer sentence up to a maximum of 20 years:

a. Transporting two or more person s at the same time;
b. Permanent or life-threatening bodily injury to a person transported;
c. Transporting one or more children;
d. transportation as part of the activity of an organized criminal group.

Section 7: Sentence
A court of competent jurisdiction shall sentence a person convicted of the crime of trafficking in persons to a minimum of one year imprisonment.

a. if the convicted person used, threatened use, or caused another to use or threatened use of a dangerous weapon, 2 years shall be added to the minimum sentence.
b. if a trafficked person suffers a serious bodily injury, or if the convicted person commits a sexual assault against a trafficked person, 5 years shall be added to the minimum sentence;
c. if the trafficked person has not attained the age of 18 years, 5 years shall be added to the minimum sentence;
d. if, in the course of trafficking or subsequent exploitation, the convicted, person recklessly caused a trafficked person to be exposed to a life threatening illness or if the convicted person intentionally caused a trafficked person to become addicted to any drug or medication, 5 years shall be added to the minimum sentence;
e. if a trafficked person suffers a permanent or life threatening injury, 10 years: shall be added to the minimum sentence;
f. if a trafficked person dies as a result of the trafficking, the sentence shall be between 20 years and life imprisonment;
g. if the trafficking was part of the activity of an organized criminal group, 3 years shall be added to the minimum sentence;
h. if the trafficking was part of the activity of an organized criminal group, and the convicted person organized the group or directed its activities, 5 years shall be added to the minimum sentence.
i. If the trafficking occurred as a result of abuse of power or position of authority, including but not limited to a parent or guardian, teacher, children’s club leader, or any other person who has been entrusted with the care or supervision of the child, 3 or 5 years shall be added to the minimum sentence.

Section 8: Consent To Sex
The age of consent to sex, legal age of marriage, or other discretionary age shall not be used as a defense to trafficking. Consent or past sexual behavior history of the victim is irrelevant and inadmissible for the purpose of proving that the victim engaged in other sexual behavior, or to prove the victim’s sexual predisposition.

Programs and Agencies for Enforcement (Source: U.S. Department of Labor)

Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk for exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.

Social Protection Coverage: General (at Least One)
Social Protection (Source: ILO)

The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty , explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.

If a country does not appear on a chart, this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.

Social Protection Coverage: Pension
Social Protection Coverage: Vulnerable Groups
Social Protection Coverage: Children
Social Protection Coverage: Disabled

Delta 8.7 has received no Official Response to this dashboard from Liberia. If you are a representative of Liberia and wish to submit an Official Response, please contact us here.