Data Dashboards

Libya
Measurement
Measuring the Change

using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards.

Due to lack of nationally representative data, there is no change to report.

%
Best Target 8.7 Data: Child Labour Rate

No data available

Data Availability
  • Child labour: No ILO/UNICEF data
  • Forced labour: No nationally representative data
  • Human trafficking: No nationally representative data
Context
Human Development

Human Development Index Score: 0.708 (2018)

Mean School Years: 7.6 years (2018)

Labour Indicators

Vulnerable Employment: 5.7% (2018)

Working Poverty Rate: 0.1% (2020)

Government Efforts
Key Ratifications
  • ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Not Ratified
  • ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2000
  • UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Ratified 2004
Social Protection Coverage

General (at least one): No data

Unemployed: No data

Pension: 42.0% (2000)

Vulnerable: No data

Children: No data

Disabled: No data

Poor: No data

Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.

No nationally representative data is available on child labour prevalence in Libya.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on ILO-SIMPOC methods and guidelines for defining, measuring and collecting data on child labour.

Measuring the incidence of forced labour is a much more recent endeavour and presents unique methodological challenges compared to the measurement of child labour.

No nationally representative data is available on forced labour prevalence in Libya.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on new guidelines presented by the International Labour Organization and adopted by the International Conference of Labour Statisticians.

The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.

No nationally representative data is available on human trafficking prevalence in Libya.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page to learn about measuring human trafficking prevalence, including information on collecting data through national referral mechanisms and producing prevalence statistics using Multiple Systems Estimation (MSE).

Case Data: International and Non-Governmental Organizations

Civil society organizations (CSOs) focused on human trafficking victim assistance can serve as crucial sources of data given their ability to reach a population that is notoriously difficult to sample.

Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (CTDC): The International Organization for Migration (IOM), Polaris and Liberty Asia have launched a global data repository on human trafficking, with data contributed by counter-trafficking partner organizations around the world. Not only does the CTDC serve as a central repository for this critical information, it also publishes normed and harmonized data from various organizations using a unified schema. This global dataset facilitates an unparalleled level of cross-border, trans-agency analysis and provides the counter-trafficking movement with a deeper understanding of this complex issue. Equipped with this information, decision makers will be empowered to create more targeted and effective intervention strategies.

Prosecution Data

UNODC compiles a global dataset on detected and prosecuted traffickers, which serves as the basis in their Global Report for country profiles. This information is beginning to paint a picture of trends over time, and case-specific information can assist investigators and prosecutors.

Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.

Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.

The chart displays information on human development in Libya between 1990 and 2018. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex. 

The most recent year of the HDI, 2018, shows that the average human development score in Libya is 0.708. This score indicates that human development is high.

HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)

Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.

As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:

“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”

The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in Libya over time.

 

Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in the availability of equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction towards achieving Target 8.7.

HDI Vulnerable Employment (Source: UNDP)

There are reasons to believe that certain types of labour and labour arrangements are more likely to lead to labour exploitation. According to the ILO:

“Own-account workers and contributing family workers have a lower likelihood of having formal work arrangements, and are therefore more likely to lack elements associated with decent employment, such as adequate social security and a voice at work. The two statuses are summed to create a classification of ‘vulnerable employment’, while wage and salaried workers together with employers constitute ‘non-vulnerable employment’.”

Between 1991 and 2018, Libya showed a decrease in the proportion of workers in vulnerable employment as compared to those in secure employment.

 

Working Poverty Rate (Source: ILO)

Labour income tells us about a household’s vulnerability. As the ILO explains in Profits and Poverty

“Poor households find it particularly difficult to deal with income shocks, especially when they push households below the food poverty line. In the presence of such shocks, men and women without social protection nets tend to borrow to smooth consumption, and to accept any job for themselves or their children, even under exploitative conditions.”

ILO indicators that measure poverty with respect to the labour force include working poverty rate, disaggregated by sex, with temporal coverage spanning from 2000 to 2020. The chart displays linear trends in working poverty rate over time for all individuals over 15 years of age.

 

Labour Productivity (Source: ILO)

Labour productivity is an important economic indicator that is closely linked to economic growth, competitiveness, and living standards within an economy.” However, when increased labour output does not produce rising wages, this can point to increasing inequality. As indicated by a recent ILO report (2015), there is a “growing disconnect between wages and productivity growth, in both developed and emerging economies”. The lack of decent work available increases vulnerability to situations of labour exploitation. 

Labour productivity represents the total volume of output (measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product, GDP) produced per unit of labour (measured in terms of the number of employed persons) during a given period.

 

Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.

Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Source: UNHCR)

Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants.

According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children. “

As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements, as recognized by Member States in the New York declaration for refugees and migrants of September 2016.”

The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in Libya.

Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.

Official Definitions
Forced Labour

Order of the Revolutionary Command Council, 1969 on the Prohibition of Trafficking of the Labour Force

“ARTICLE 1
A contract is deemed void when one of the parties undertakes to provide an other party with workers to be employed by him or by his representative, in return for a sum that the employer undertakes to pay the person providing the workers and who shall pay the workers an agreed wage. In general, any contract the subject of which is the hiring of workers for an employer through a contractor or supplier is void.
ARTICLE 2
In the cases mentioned above, an employer shall be deemed as having directly contracted the workers and shall undertake to pay them the wage paid to those originally employed by him for the same job, or by those employed for the same work with another employer. They shall enjoy all the rights due to persons of a similar status.”

“ARTICLE 3
Any contract or action shall be deemed void if it seeks to defraud or evade the implementation of the two articles above, or to conceal any violation thereof, whatever the means or form it takes. This shall apply especially in those cases which the Minister of Labour and Social Affairs, in a decision issued by him, finds that the circumstances surrounding them leave no scope for doubt that
the main purpose is to violate the provisions of the above mentioned articles or to conceal such a violation.
ARTICLE 4
An unemployed person may not be charged for being hired or for facilitating his employed in any job.
ARTICLE 5
Under the provisions of this Decision, no workers rights may be relinquished.”

Labour Relations, 2010

“Section 1
Labour relations between citizens in the Great Socialist People’s Libyan Arab Jamahiriya are free and aimed at eliminating wage slavery and allowing partnership among citizens, as well as with non-Libyans, in the economic unit they establish.
As an exception to this rule, work may be performed against remuneration in the public service or if the employer prefers not to engage in partnership, in accordance with the provisions of this Act.
Section 2
In the Great Jamahiriya, employment is a right and a duty for all citizens, men and women, and is based on the principles of equal opportunity between citizens or between citizens and non-nationals legally residing in the Great Jamahiriya. Coercion, forced labour and all other aspects of injustice and exploitation are categorically prohibited.”

“Section 5 For the purposes of the application of this Act, and unless otherwise indicated, the following terms and expressions shall have the meanings assigned hereby to each of them:
FORCED LABOUR: any work or service which is exacted from any person under threat and for which the said person has not offered himself voluntarily. The following types of work are excluded: (a) any work or service exacted in virtue of national or military service laws; (b) any work or service which forms part of the normal civic obligations of citizens and community members and minor community services performed by community members in the direct interest of the community; (c) any work or service exacted from any person as a consequence of a conviction issued by a competent court of law, provided that the said work or service is carried out under the supervision and control of the public authority concerned; (d) any work or service exacted in cases of emergency, that is to say, in the event of war or of a calamity or threatened calamity, such as flood, fire, famine or the propagation of a disease or an epidemic;”

Child Labour

Labour Relations, 2010

“Section 5
For the purposes of the application of this Act, and unless otherwise indicated, the following terms and expressions shall have the meanings assigned hereby to each of them:
ADOLESCENT WORKER: any natural person aged over 16 but under 18 years.”

“Section 27
Young persons under the age of 18 shall not perform any type of work.
Notwithstanding the terms of the previous paragraph, a young person who has reached the age of 16 years may be employed, provided that his health, safety and moral situation are preserved and that his work is for the purposes of an apprenticeship or vocational training.”

Section 28 An adolescent shall not be required to work for more than six hours a day, which shall include one or more breaks for rest and meals of not less than an hour in total, so that the adolescent does not work more than four continuous hours. An adolescent shall not be required to work on weekly days of rest or official holidays or during the night. The General People’s Committee shall determine the activities and jobs in which an adolescent may be employed, and the procedures, terms and conditions of employment, as well as the types of work in which they shall not be employed.

Worst Forms of Child Labour

Order of the Minister of Labour concerning the definition of industries in which it is prohibited to employ young persons under the age of 18, 1972

Human Trafficking

Penal Code, 1953

Article 418-419

Slavery

Penal Code, 1953

“Article 425. Enslavement

Whoever enslaves another or puts him under conditiosn resembling slavery shall be punished by a penalty of imprisonement of from five to fifteen years.”

Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the  perpetration of forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour. These actions should be considered in wider societal efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.

Programs and Agencies for Victim Support

Policies for Assistance
Penalties
Penalties, Forced Labour

Order of the Revolutionary Command Council, 1969 on the Prohibition of Trafficking of the Labour Force

“ARTICLE 9
An employer and the contractor or supplier who violate the provisions of this Decision shall be fined 50 pounds at least; the fine shall be multiplied by the number of workers involved in the violation.”

Labour Relations, 2010

“Chapter 7
Penalties
Section 121
Without prejudice to any more severe penalty prescribed in the Penal Code or any other Law, persons subject to the provisions of this Part shall be punishable as follows:
3. Any person infringing the provisions of the other sections of Parts 1 and 3 of this Act and the regulations and decisions promulgated for its implementation shall be liable to a fine of not less than 200 and not more than 500 dinars. In all cases the fines shall be multiplied by the number of persons against whom the violation was committed. In addition, labour inspectors shall attempt to put an end to the violations by administrative means. The sums accruing from the application of the penalties prescribed in this section shall be collected by the labour inspectors.”

Penalties, Child Labour

Labour Relations, 2010

“Chapter 7
Penalties
Section 121
Without prejudice to any more severe penalty prescribed in the Penal Code or any other Law, persons subject to the provisions of this Part shall be punishable as follows:
1. Any person infringing the provisions of sections 6,7 and 55 of this Act shall be liable to a fine of not less than 1,000 and not more than 2,000 dinars.
2. Any person infringing the provisions of sections 13, 24, 27, 28, 38 and 39 of this Act shall be liable to a fine of not less than 500 and not more than 1,000 dinars.
3. Any person infringing the provisions of the other sections of Parts 1 and 3 of this Act and the regulations and decisions promulgated for its implementation shall be liable to a fine of not less than 200 and not more than 500 dinars. In all cases the fines shall be multiplied by the number of persons against whom the violation was committed. In addition, labour inspectors shall attempt to put an end to the violations by administrative means. The sums accruing from the application of the penalties prescribed in this section shall be collected by the labour inspectors.”

Penalties, Human Trafficking

Penal Code, 1953

Article 418-419

Penalties, Slavery

Penal Code, 1953

“Article 425. Enslavement
Whoever enslaves another or puts him under conditiosn resembling slavery shall be punished by a penalty of imprisonement of from five to fifteen years.”

“Article 426. Trading and Dealing Slaves
Article 427. Commission of the Offense Abroad Against a Libyan”

Data Commitments

A Call to Action to End Forced Labour, Modern Slavery and Human Trafficking, Signed 2017

1.ii. Take steps to measure, monitor and share data on prevalence and response to all such forms of exploitation, as appropriate to national circumstances;

Programs and Agencies for Enforcement

Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk of exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.

Social Protection Coverage: General (at Least One)
Social Protection (Source: ILO)

The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.

If a country does not appear on a chart, this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.

Social Protection Coverage: Pension
Social Protection Coverage: Vulnerable Groups
Social Protection Coverage: Children
Social Protection Coverage: Disabled

Delta 8.7 has received no Official Response to this dashboard from Libya. If you are a representative of Libya and wish to submit an Official Response, please contact us here.