Data Dashboards

Liechtenstein
Measurement
Measuring the Change

using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards.

Due to lack of nationally representative child labour data, there is no change to report.

%
Best Target 8.7 Data: Human Trafficking

The data visualization displays the number of identified victims of human trafficking per year in Liechtenstein. Detailed information is provided in the Measurement tab (above).

Data Availability
  • Child labour: No ILO/UNICEF data
  • Human trafficking: Case data available
Context
Human Development

Human Development Index Score: 0.917 (2018)

Mean School Years: 12.5 years (2018)

 

Labour Indicators

Vulnerable Employment: No data available

Working Poverty Rate: No data available

Government Efforts
Key Ratifications
  • ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Not Ratified
  • ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Not Ratified
  • UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Ratified 2008
National Strategies

No national strategies

Social Protection Coverage

General (at least one): No data

Unemployed: 67.2% (2011)

Pension: No data

Vulnerable: No data

Children: No data

Disabled: No data

Poor: No data

Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.

Youth employment in Liechtenstein is permitted only to those ages 16 and up and is regulated by the Labour Act. There is no data available on child labour in Liechtenstein, most likely due to relatively low incidence.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on ILO-SIMPOC methods and guidelines for defining, measuring and collecting data on child labour.

The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.

Identified Victims of Human Trafficking (Source: GRETA)

According to the Council of Europe’s Group of Experts on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings (GRETA), Liechtenstein is a country of destination for trafficked persons. Sex trafficking is the most prevalent form of trafficking in Liechtenstein. The most vulnerable groups include: asylum seekers, nightclub dancers, agricultural workers arriving in Liechtenstein on a trainee scheme and persons providing personal care for the elderly.

The graph on the right shows the number of identified victims of human trafficking per year in Liechtenstein, as reported by Liechtensteinian authorities to GRETA.

Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.

Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.

The chart displays information on human development in Liechtenstein between 2000 and 2018. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex. 

The most recent year of the HDI, 2018, shows that the average human development score in Liechenstein is 0.917. This score indicates that human development is very high. 

 

HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)

Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.

As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:

“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”

The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in Liechtenstein over time.

 

Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in the availability of equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction towards achieving Target 8.7.

There are no visualizations for Liechtenstein as there is not sufficient data available.

Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.

Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Source: UNHCR)

Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants.

According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children. “

As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements, as recognized by Member States in the New York declaration for refugees and migrants of September 2016.”

The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in Liechtenstein.

Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.

Official Definitions
Forced Labour

Constitution, 1921

“Article 10 2) Emergency decrees may not suspend the Constitution as a whole
or individual provisions thereof but may only limit the applicability of
individual provisions of the Constitution. Emergency decrees may not
curtail the right of each person to life, the prohibition of torture and
inhuman treatment, the prohibition of slavery and forced labour, or the
principle of nulla poena sine lege. Moreover, the provisions of this article,
of articles 3, 13ter, and 113, and of the Law on the Princely House may
not be limited by emergency decrees. Emergency decrees shall expire at
the latest six months after they have been issued. ”

Child Labour

Labour Law

“Art. 30
Minimum age
1) Young people may not be employed before the age of 15. Paragraph 2 remains reserved.
2) Ordinance determines for which groups of companies or employees and under what conditions young people aged:

a) may be used for light work for more than 14 years; however, certain categories of light work may also be performed by young people over the age of 13;
b) may be employed for less than 15 years in cultural, artistic and sporting performances as well as in promotional events.”

“Art. 31
Working and rest time
1) The young people’s daily working hours may not exceed that of other employees employed in the company and, if there are no other employees, the usual local working hours and may not exceed eight hours. Any overtime work as well as compulsory lessons, insofar as it falls within the working time, are to be counted towards the working time.
2) The daily work of the young people, including the breaks, must be within a period of twelve hours. Adolescents up to the age of 16 may not be employed until 8 p.m. and adolescents over 16 years may not be employed until 10 p.m. Deviating provisions on the employment of young people within the meaning of Art. 30 Para. 2 are reserved.
3) Adolescents up to the age of 16 are not allowed to work overtime.
4) The employer may not employ young people during the night and on Sundays. Exceptions can be made by ordinance, in particular in the interests of vocational training and for the employment of young people within the meaning of Article 30 (2).
5) In exceptional cases or in cases where this is justified by objective reasons, a regulation can be used to deviate from the maximum daily working hours specified in paragraph 1.”

Human Trafficking

Criminal Code, 1987 amend. n. 186 2007

Ҥ 104a Trafficking in persons
1. Anyone who with respect to a minor or with respect to an adult, using unfair means (paragraph 2. against the person, with the intention to exploit the person sexually or by removal or organs or by exploiting the person’s labor, recruits, harbors, or otherwise accommodates, transports, or offers or passes on the person to a third party, shall be punished with imprisonment of up to three years.
2. ‘Unfair means’ means deception regarding facts, taking advantage of a position of authority, of plight, of mental illness, or a defenseless state of the person, intimidation, and the granting or acceptance of an advantage for purpose of asserting control over the person.
3. Anyone who commits this offense using force or by serious threat shall be punished with imprisonment of six months to five years.
4. Anyone who commits this offense against an underage person as a member of a criminal group, by using serious violence or in such a way that the offense, either willfully or by gross negligence, constitutes a danger for the person’s life or results in a particular severe disadvantage for the person, shall be punished with imprisonment of one to ten years.”

Slavery

Civil Code

Ҥ 16 Angeborene Rechte
Jeder Mensch hat angeborene, schon durch die Vernunft einleuchtende Rechte, und ist daher als eine Person zu betrachten. Sklaverei oder Leibeigenschaft, und die Ausübung einer darauf sich beziehenden Macht wird in diesen Ländern nicht gestattet.”

Slave Trade

Criminal Code, 1987 amend. n. 186 2007

Ҥ 104 Sklavenhandel
1. Wer Sklavenhandel treibt, ist mit Freiheitsstrafe von zehn bis zu zwanzig Jahren zu bestrafen.

2. Ebenso ist zu bestrafen, wer bewirkt, dass ein anderer versklavt oder in eine sklavereiähnliche Lage gebracht wird oder dass sich ein anderer in Sklaverei oder eine sklavereiähnliche Lage begibt.”

 

Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the perpetration of forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour. These actions should be considered in wider societal efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.

Programs and Agencies for Victim Support

Policies for Assistance
Policies for Assistance, General

Victim Assistance Act, 2007

Penalties
Penalties, General

Criminal Code, 1987 amend. n. 186 2007

Ҥ 104 Sklavenhandel
1. Wer Sklavenhandel treibt, ist mit Freiheitsstrafe von zehn bis zu zwanzig Jahren zu bestrafen.
2. Ebenso ist zu bestrafen, wer bewirkt, dass ein anderer versklavt oder in eine sklavereiähnliche Lage gebracht wird oder dass sich ein anderer in Sklaverei oder eine sklavereiähnliche Lage begibt.”

“§ 106 Schwere Nötigung
1. Wer eine Nötigung begeht, indem er
1. mit dem Tod, mit einer erheblichen Verstümmelung oder einer auffallenden Verunstaltung, mit einer Entführung, mit einer Brandstiftung, mit einer Gefährdung durch Kernenergie, ionisierende Strahlen oder Sprengmittel oder mit der Vernichtung der wirtschaftlichen Existenz oder gesellschaftlichen Stellung droht,
3. die genötigte Person zur Eheschliessung, zur Prostitution oder zur Mitwirkung an einer pornographischen Darbietung (§ 215a Abs. 3. oder sonst zu einer Handlung, Duldung oder Unterlassung veranlasst, die besonders wichtige Interessen der genötigten oder einer dritten Person verletzt,
ist mit Freiheitsstrafe von sechs Monaten bis zu fünf Jahren zu bestrafen.
2. Ebenso ist der Täter zu bestrafen, wenn die Tat den Selbstmord oder einen Selbstmordversuch der genötigten oder einer anderen Person zur Folge hat, gegen die sich die Gewalt oder gefährliche Drohung richtet.”

“§ 217 Grenzüberschreitender Prostitutionshandel
1. Wer eine Person, mag sie auch bereits der Prostitution ergeben sein, der Prostitution in einem anderen Staat als in dem, dessen Staatsangehörigkeit sie besitzt oder in dem sie ihren gewöhnlichen Aufenthalt hat, zuführt oder sie hierfür anwirbt, ist mit Freiheitsstrafe von sechs Monaten bis zu fünf Jahren, wenn er die Tat jedoch gewerbsmässig begeht, mit Freiheitsstrafe von einem bis zu zehn Jahren zu bestrafen.
2. Wer eine Person (Abs. 1. mit dem Vorsatz, dass sie in einem anderen Staat als in dem, dessen Staatsangehörigkeit sie besitzt oder in dem sie ihren gewöhnlichen Aufenthalt hat, Prostitution treibe, durch Täuschung über dieses Vorhaben verleitet oder mit Gewalt oder durch gefährliche Drohung nötigt, sich in einen anderen Staat zu begeben, oder sie mit Gewalt oder unter Ausnützung ihres Irrtums über dieses Vorhaben in einen anderen Staat befördert, ist mit Freiheitsstrafe von einem bis zu zehn Jahren zu bestrafen.”

Penalties, Child Labour

Labour Law

“Art. 53 Strafrechtliche Verantwortlichkeit des Arbeitgebers
1. Der Arbeitgeber ist strafbar, wenn er Vorschriften des Gesetzes oder einer Verordnung:

a. über Gesundheitsvorsorge und Unfallverhütung vorsätzlich oder fahrlässig zuwiderhandelt;
b. über die Arbeits- und Ruhezeit vorsätzlich zuwiderhandelt;
c. über den Sonderschutz der jugendlichen oder weiblichen Arbeitnehmer vorsätzlich oder fahrlässig zuwiderhandelt.

2. Macht sich im Betrieb einer Einzelfirma eine vom Arbeitgeber mit der Leitung des Betriebes betraute Person einer Widerhandlung schuldig, so ist diese Person strafbar. Der Arbeitgeber ist nur strafbar, wenn er von der Widerhandlung Kenntnis hat und es unterlässt, sie zu verhindern oder für Abhilfe zu sorgen.
3. Wird eine Widerhandlung im Betrieb einer juristischen Person oder einer Handelsgesellschaft begangen, so sind diejenigen Personen strafbar, die für sie gehandelt haben oder hätten handeln sollen. Die juristische Person oder die Gesellschaft haftet solidarisch für Geldstrafen und Kosten, sofern sie nicht nachweist, dass sie alle erforderliche Sorgfalt angewendet hat, um die Einhaltung der Vorschriften durch die genannten Personen zu bewirken.”

“Art. 54 Strafrechtliche Verantwortlichkeit des Arbeitnehmers
1. Der Arbeitnehmer ist strafbar, wenn er Vorschriften des Gesetzes oder einer Verordnung über Gesundheitsvorsorge und Unfallverhütung vorsätzlich zuwiderhandelt.
2. Werden dadurch Leben oder Gesundheit anderer Personen erheblich gefährdet, so ist auch die fahrlässige Widerhandlung strafbar.”

“Art. 55 Strafen
1. Wer sich gemäss Art. 53 und 54 des Gesetzes strafbar macht, wird vom Landgericht wegen Übertretung mit einer Busse bis zu 20 000 Franken, im Nichteinbringlichkeitsfalle mit einer Freiheitsstrafe bis zu drei Monaten bestraft.99
2. Vorsätzliche Widerhandlung kann vom Landgericht in schweren Fällen wegen Vergehens mit einer Freiheitsstrafe bis zu sechs Monaten oder einer Geldstrafe bis zu 360 Tagessätzen bestraft werden. Der Fall gilt insbesondere als schwer, wenn der Täter Vorschriften des Gesetzes oder einer Verordnung:

a. über Gesundheitsvorsorge und Unfallverhütung zuwiderhandelt, und dadurch Leben oder Gesundheit von Arbeitnehmern oder anderer Personen erheblich gefährdet;
b. über den Sonderschutz der jugendlichen oder weiblichen Arbeitnehmer zuwiderhandelt.100

3. Wurde aufgrund eines Gesamtarbeitsvertrages eine angemessene Konventionalstrafe ausgesprochen, so kann der Richter die Geldstrafe ermässigen oder von einer solchen absehen.
Art. 56 Vorbehalt des Strafgesetzes
Die Bestimmungen des Strafgesetzes bleiben vorbehalten.”

Penalties, Human Trafficking

Criminal Code, 1987 amend. n. 186 2007

Ҥ 104a Trafficking in persons
1. Anyone who with respect to a minor or with respect to an adult, using unfair means (paragraph 2. against the person, with the intention to exploit the person sexually or by removal of organs or by exploiting the person’s labor, recruits, harbors, or otherwise accommodates, transports, or offers or passes on the person to a third party, shall be punished with imprisonment of up to three years.
2. ‘Unfair means’ means deception regarding facts, taking advantage of a position of authority, of plight, of mental illness, or a defenseless state of the person, intimidation, and the granting or acceptance of an advantage for purpose of asserting control over the person.
3. Anyone who commits this offense using force or by serious threat shall be punished with imprisonment of six months to five years.
4. Anyone who commits this offense against an underage person as a member of a criminal group, by using serious violence or in such a way that the offense, either willfully or by gross negligence, constitutes a danger for the person’s life or results in a particular severe disadvantage for the person, shall be punished with imprisonment of one to ten years.”

National Statistical Office

Bureau of Statistics

Data Commitments

A Call to Action to End Forced Labour, Modern Slavery and Human Trafficking, Signed 2017

1.ii. Take steps to measure, monitor and share data on prevalence and response to all such forms of exploitation, as appropriate to national circumstances;

Programs and Agencies for Enforcement

Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk of exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.

Social Protection Coverage: General (at Least One)
Social Protection (Source: ILO)

The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.

If a country does not appear on a chart, this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.

Social Protection Coverage: Unemployed
Social Protection Coverage: Pension
Social Protection Coverage: Vulnerable Groups
Social Protection Coverage: Poor
Social Protection Coverage: Children
Social Protection Coverage: Disabled

Delta 8.7 has received no Official Response to this dashboard from Liechtenstein. If you are a representative of Liechtenstein and wish to submit an Official Response, please contact us here.