Measuring the Change
using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards.
Due to lack of nationally representative data, there is no change to report.
Best Target 8.7 Data: Human Trafficking
The data visualization displays the number of identified victims of human trafficking per year in Lithuania. Detailed information is provided in the Measurement tab (above).
- Child labour: No ILO/UNICEF data
- Human trafficking: Case data available
Human Development Index Score: 0.882 (2019)
Mean School Years: 13.1 years (2019)
Vulnerable Employment: 9.5% (2018)
Working Poverty Rate: No data available
- ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Ratified 2020
- ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2003
- UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Ratified 2003
Social Protection Coverage
General (at least one): No data
Unemployed: 25.9 % (2014)
Pension: 100% (2014)
Vulnerable: 51.3% (2016)
Children: No data
Disabled: 100% (2016)
Poor: 54.1% (2016)
Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.
Youth employment in Lithuania is permitted only to those ages 16 and up, and is regulated by the Labour Code. There is no data available on child labour in Lithuania, most likely due to relatively low incidence.
The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.
Identified Victims of Human Trafficking (Source: GRETA)
According to the European Commission, Lithuania is primarily a source country for trafficking in human beings for sexual, and labour exploitation, as well as for forced commission of criminal activities. Lithuanian women are trafficked for sexual and labour exploitation, men for labour exploitation and both for forced commission of criminal activities. The fight against trafficking in human beings has been a priority for the Lithuanian Government for a long time. While the first action plan (2002-2004) had a specific focus on trafficking for sexual exploitation and prostitution, the second action plan (2005-2008) had a broader focus, acknowledging different forms of exploitation. In the third action plan, the Programme for the Prevention and Control of Trafficking in Human Beings for 2009-2012, new challenges were taken into account.
The graph on the right shows the number of identified victims of human trafficking per year in Lithuania, as reported by Lithuanian authorities to the Group of Experts on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings (GRETA).
Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.
Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.
The chart displays information on human development in Lithuania between 1990 and 2019. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex.
The most recent year of the HDI, 2019, shows that the average human development score in Lithuania is 0.882. This score indicates that human development is very high.
HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)
Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.
As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:
“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”
The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in Lithuania over time.
Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in the availability of equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction towards achieving Target 8.7.
HDI Vulnerable Employment (Source: UNDP)
There are reasons to believe that certain types of labour and labour arrangements are more likely to lead to labour exploitation. According to the ILO:
“Own-account workers and contributing family workers have a lower likelihood of having formal work arrangements, and are therefore more likely to lack elements associated with decent employment, such as adequate social security and a voice at work. The two statuses are summed to create a classification of ‘vulnerable employment’, while wage and salaried workers together with employers constitute ‘non-vulnerable employment’.”
Between 1991 and 2018, Lithuania showed a decrease in the proportion of workers in vulnerable employment as compared to those in secure employment.
Rates of Non-fatal Occupational Injuries (Source: ILO)
Occupational injury and fatality data can also be crucial in prevention and response efforts.
“Data on occupational injuries are essential for planning preventive measures. For instance, workers in occupations and activities of highest risk can be targeted more effectively for inspection visits, development of regulations and procedures, and also for safety campaigns.”
There are serious gaps in existing data coverage, particularly among groups that may be highly vulnerable to labour exploitation. For example, few countries provide information on injuries disaggregated between migrant and non-migrant workers.
Rates of Fatal Occupational Injuries (Source: ILO)
Data on occupational health and safety may reveal conditions of exploitation, even if exploitation may lead to under-reporting of workplace injuries and safety breaches. At present, the ILO collects data on occupational injuries, both fatal and non-fatal, disaggregating by sex and migrant status.
Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.
Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Source: UNHCR)
Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants.
According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children. “
As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements, as recognized by Member States in the New York declaration for refugees and migrants of September 2016.”
The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in Lithuania.
Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.
Everyone may freely choose a job or business, and shall have the right to have proper, safe, and healthy conditions at work, as well as to receive fair pay for work and social security in the event of unemployment.
The work of foreigners in the Republic of Lithuania shall be regulated by law.
Forced labour shall be prohibited.
Military service or alternative service performed instead of military service, as well as work performed by citizens in time of war, natural disaster, epidemics, or other extreme cases, shall not be considered forced labour.
In cases where persons convicted by a court perform work regulated by law, such work shall not be considered forced labour, either.”
“THE CHILD AND LABOUR
Article 39. General Provisions in Child Labour Activity 1. Child labour activity shall be regulated by the Code of Labour Laws, this Law and other laws. 2. The child shall have the right to work commensurate with his age, state of health, general education level and professional expertise. Work shall be chosen freely. 3. Having attained 16 years of age and unwilling or incapable of continuing the studies, he may work. 4. The Law on Labour Contracts and other laws shall regulate employment of children under 16, their dismissal from work and the conditions of their labour.”
“Article 21. The Parties to an Employment Contract
1. The parties to an employment contract are the employee and the employer.
2. The employee is a natural person who undertakes to perform a job function for remuneration according to an employment contract with an employer. A person who possesses working capacity (the ability to have employment rights and obligations) and legal capacity (the ability to acquire employment rights and create employment obligations through one’s own actions) can be an employee. An employee shall acquire working and legal capacity at the age of 16, aside for the exceptions established by law.”
Worst Forms of Child Labour
Regulations No. 1055 of 11 September 1996 to approve the list of jobs forbidden for persons under the age of 18, those with dangerous aspects and working conditions, and procedure of placement of persons from 13 to 14, 14 to 16, and 16 to 18.(Text No. 543)
“Establishes a list of jobs and conditions considered as dangerous or too arduous for young workers. Defines employers’ obligations for conditions of work of young workers (occupational safety and hygiene, rest periods, hours of work) and employment conditions (minimum age, vocational training, labour contract, parents’ agreement, medical examination).”
“Article 40. Safety of Children at Work 1. Employers must guarantee safe work for children.
2. In instances established by laws, working children must undergo a health examination prior to being employed. 3. Children shall have the right to shortened work time and longer vacation time than that of adults and other guarantees and privileges established by laws.”
Article 42. Protection of the Child from Exploitation at Work 1. State and municipal institutions prohibit natural and legal persons from exploitation of, or other discrimination against a working child. A child may not be entrusted with a job or occupation, detrimental to health or education or one that would interfere with his physical, intellectual or moral maturity. 2. The state shall protect the child from all forms of exploitation at work through use of social, legal, economic, medical and upbringing measures.
Article 47. Protection of the Child from Sexual Exploitation 1. Administrative or criminal liability, in accordance with the laws, shall be applied for encouraging or coercing a child to take part in sexual activity, using him for prostitution or involving him in prostitution, using him for pornography, as well as in production or dissemination of pornographic publications, or other materials of a pornographic or erotic nature. 2. Children must be taught to avoid sexual coercion and exploitation.
“Article 114. Maximum Working Time Requirements
If the provisions of this Code do not establish otherwise, the working-time arrangements may not violate the following maximum working time requirements:
1) the average working time, including overtime but excluding work done according to an agreement on additional work, may not exceed 48 hours over each period of seven days;
Amendments to a point of the Article:
No XIII-413, 6 June 2017, published in the Register of Legal Acts on 14 June 2017, ID code 2017-10021
2) working time, including overtime and work done according to an agreement on additional work, may not exceed 12 hours, excluding lunch breaks, per workday/shift and 60 hours over each period of seven days;
3) the specifics of working-time arrangements for night workers (Article 117 of this Code) and employees who are pregnant, who recently gave birth, or who are breast feeding and persons under the age of 18, as established in the Republic of Lithuania Law on Safety and Health at Work, must be adhered to;
4) no more than six days can be worked over seven consecutive days;”
“Article 147. Trafficking in Human Beings
A person who sells, purchases or otherwise conveys or acquires a person or recruits, transports or holds in captivity a person by using physical violence or threats or by otherwise depriving him of a possibility of resistance or by taking advantage of the victim’s dependence or vulnerability or by resorting to deceit or by paying or granting other material benefit to a person who actually has the victim under his control, where the offender is aware of or seeks involvement of the victim in prostitution or gaining profit from this person’s prostitution or using him for pornography purposes or forced labour “
National Action Plans, National Strategies
Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the perpetration of forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour. These actions should be considered in wider societal efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.
Programs and Agencies for Victim Support
Policies for Assistance
Policies for Assistance, Human Traffikcing
“Article 40. Grounds for the Issue or Replacement of a Temporary Residence Permit
1. A temporary residence permit may be issued or replaced to an alien if:
12) the alien is allowed to remain residing in the Republic of Lithuania as he is or has been a victim of human trafficking and cooperates with the pre-trial investigation body or with the court in the fight against trafficking in human beings or in combating the offences linked to trafficking in human beings. This provision shall only apply to adult aliens;
Article 49(¹). Issue of a Temporary Residence Permit to an Alien Who Cooperates With the Pre-trial Investigation Body or the Court, Combating Trafficking in Human Beings or Crimes Linked to Trafficking in Human Beings
A temporary residence permit may be issued to an adult alien who is or has been a victim of human trafficking and cooperates with the pre-trial investigation body or the court combating trafficking in human beings or crimes linked to human trafficking, provided that the pre-trial investigation body or the court mediates in issuing the temporary residence permit to such an alien.
An alien, for whom the pre-trial investigation body or the court mediates in issuing the temporary residence permit, shall be issued a temporary residence permit for six months.
The temporary residence permit indicated in paragraph 2 of this Article may be replaced to an alien if the pre-trial investigation body or the court mediates in issuing it.
After the alien specified in paragraph 1 of this Article has been issued a temporary residence permit, the alien shall, on the decision of the mediating institution or the court, be permitted to reside in the place of his choice or the place specified by the said institution.
The alien who has been issued a temporary residence permit on the grounds provided for in subparagraph 12 of paragraph 1 of Article 40 of this Law and who is not in possession of sufficient means of subsistence shall be entitled to receive basic medical aid and social services in accordance with the procedure established by the legal acts of Republic of Lithuania.
An alien, issued a temporary residence permit on the grounds provided for in subparagraph 12 of paragraph 1 of Article 40 of this Law, having received a work permit, shall be entitled to work during the period of validity of the temporary residence permit.”
“Article 130. Prohibition to Expel or Return an Alien
4. The alien shall not be expelled from the Republic of Lithuania or returned to a foreign country if he has been granted the reflection period in accordance with the procedure established by the Government of the Republic of Lithuania, during which he, as a present or former victim of offences linked to human trafficking, has to make a decision on cooperation with the pre-trial investigation body or the court.”
Policies for Assistance, General
“Article 1. Objectives of the Law
1. The Law on the Protection from Criminal Influence of the Participants of the Criminal Proceeding and Clandestine Activities, Officers of the Law Enforcement and Justice Administration establishes basic means of the protection from criminal influence, as well as order and grounds for prescribing the means.
2. This Law does not cover the means of the protection from criminal influence, which are provided in Criminal Code of the Republic of Lithuania and Code of Criminal Procedure of the Republic of Lithuania.”
Penalties, Human Trafficking
“Article 147. Trafficking in Human Beings
A person who sells, purchases or otherwise conveys or acquires a person or recruits, transports or holds in captivity a person by using physical violence or threats or by otherwise depriving him of a possibility of resistance or by taking advantage of the victim’s dependence or vulnerability or by resorting to deceit or by paying or granting other material benefit to a person who actually has the victim under his control, where the offender is aware of or seeks involvement of the victim in prostitution or gaining profit from this person’s prostitution or using him for pornography purposes or forced labour shall be punished by imprisonment for a term of two up to ten years.
A person who commits the act provided for in paragraph 1 of this Article in respect of two or more victims or by participating in an organised group or seeking to acquire the victim’s organ, tissue or cells shall be punished by imprisonment for a term of four up to twelve years.
A legal entity shall also be held liable for the acts provided for in this Article.”
Penalties, Forced Labour
“Article 147(1). Use for Forced Labour
A person who, by using physical violence or threats or by otherwise depriving of a possibility of resistance or by taking advantage of a person’s dependence unlawfully forces him to perform a certain work shall be punished by a fine or by restriction of liberty or by arrest or by imprisonment for a term of up to three years.
A person who commits the act indicated in paragraph 1 of this Article by forcing a person to work under the conditions of slavery or under other inhuman conditions shall be punished by arrest or by imprisonment for a term of up to eight years.
A legal entity shall also be held liable for the acts provided for in this Article.”
Penalties, Child Labour
“Article 157. Purchase or Sale of a Child
A person who offers to purchase or otherwise acquire a child or sells, purchases or otherwise conveys or acquires a child, or recruits, transports or holds in captivity a child, while 73 being aware or seeking his involvement in prostitution or gaining profit from his prostitution or his use for pornography purposes or forced labour, shall be punished by imprisonment for a term of three up to twelve years.
A person who commits the act provided for in paragraph 1 of this Article in respect of two or more children or young children or by participating in an organised group or seeking to acquire the victim’s organ, tissue or cells shall be punished by imprisonment for a term of five up to fifteen years.
A legal entity shall also be held liable for the acts provided for in this Article.”
1.ii. Take steps to measure, monitor and share data on prevalence and response to all such forms of exploitation, as appropriate to national circumstances;
Programs and Agencies for Enforcement
Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk of exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.
Social Protection Coverage: General (at Least One)
Social Protection (Source: ILO)
The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.
If a country does not appear on a chart, this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.