Data Dashboards

Malawi Dashboard
Measurement
Measuring the Change

using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards.

Child labour between 2004 and 2014 increased by 19%.

19%

2004- 2014

Best Target 8.7 Data: Child Labour Rate


The data visualization displays yearly child labour statistics based on a variety of nationally-representative household surveys. All years of data hold up to standards set by interagency collaboration between ILO, UNICEF and World Bank, though, in some cases are not perfectly comparable between years. Detailed information on each data point is provided in the Measurement tab (above).

Data Availability
  • Child labour: ILO/UNICEF data
  • Forced labour: No nationally representative data
  • Human trafficking: No nationally representative data
Context
Human Development

Human Development Index Score: 0.476 (2015)

Mean School Years: 4.4 years (2015)

Labour Indicators

Vulnerable Employment: No data

Working Poverty Rate: 65.4% (2016)

Government Efforts
Key Ratifications
  • ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Not ratified
  • ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 1999
  • UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Accession 2005
Social Protections Coverage

General (at least one): 21.3% (2016)

Unemployed: No data

Pension: 2.3% (2016)

Vulnerable: 19.6% (2016)

Children: 9.8% (2016)

Disabled: No data

Poor: 22.3% (2016)

Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.

Child Labour Rate, Aged 5-17 (Source: ILO)

Based on the international conventions and the International Conference of Labour Statisticians (ICLS) resolution, and consistent with the approach utilized in the ILO global child labour estimates exercise, the statistical definition of child labour used includes:

a) children aged 5-11 years in all forms of economic activity;
b) children aged 12-14 years in all forms of economic activity except permissible “light” work;
c) children and adolescents aged 15-17 years in hazardous work; and
d) children aged 5-14 years performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week.

In Malawi, the percentage of child labourers has increased overall from 2004 to 2014. All measures provided do not cover the full definition of hazardous work, but use a reduced definition.

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 5-17 in child labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2004, 2010, 2013 and 2014.

Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Hazardous child labour is the largest category of the worst forms of child labour with an estimated 73 million children aged 5-17 working in dangerous conditions in a wide range of sectors. Worldwide, the ILO estimates that some 22,000 children are killed at work every year.

In Malawi, the latest estimates show that 0.1 percent of children aged 5-14 were engaged in hazardous work in 2014. The number is lower than in 2010, and has decreased from 0.5 percent in 2000. All measures provided do not cover the full definition of hazardous work, but use a reduced definition.

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 5-14 in hazardous labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2000, 2004, 2006, 2010, 2013 and 2014.

Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 15-17 (Source: ILO)

Children aged 15-17 are permitted to engage in economic activities by international conventions in most cases, except when the work is likely to harm the health, safety or morals of children (Article 3 (d) of ILO Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour, 1999 (No. 182)).

In Malawi, the latest estimates show that 0.4 percent of children aged 15-17 were engaged in hazardous work in 2014. The percentage is lower than in 2010, and has decreased from 3.3 percent in 2004. All measures provided do not cover the full definition of hazardous work, but use a reduced definition.

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 15-17 in hazardous labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data is provided for 2004, 2010, 2013 and 2014.

Weekly Work Hours, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Children aged 5-11 are considered to be subjected to child labour when engaging in any form of economic activity. Children aged 12-14 are permitted to engage in “light” work that is not considered hazardous and falls below 14 hours per week.

According to the latest 2014 estimates, the average number of hours worked per week by children aged 5-14 in Malawi was 5.8 hours. The average number of hours worked has decreased from 15.2 hours in 2013.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours that children aged 5-14 work in economic activities by sex and region. The sample includes all children of this age group. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2000, 2004, 2006, 2010, 2013 and 2014.

Weekly Work Hours, Children Only in Economic Activity, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Children not attending school who are engaged in economic activity can be subjected to longer working hours.

In 2014, the latest year with available data, children in economic activity only, meaning they are not in school, worked an average of 9.9 hours per week. This number has decreased since 2010, when the average number of hours worked by this age group was 11.1.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours worked by children aged 5-14 who are not in school, by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2000, 2004, 2006, 2010 and 2014.

Weekly Work Hours, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Researchers recognize that children involved in economic activities are not the only children working. The ICLS recommended definition of child labour includes children aged 5-14 performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week.

Children aged 5-14, on average, are found to work on household chores 7.5 hours per week according to the 2014 estimate. This estimate represents an increase in hours worked across all age groups since the last estimate in 2010, which found that children aged 5-14 in Malawi worked an average of 0.9 hours per week.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours children aged 5-14 work on household chores by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2000, 2004, 2006, 2010 and 2013.

Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: Total (Source: ILO)

Identifying the sectors in which the most child labour exists can help policy actors and practitioners target efforts toward those industries.

The latest data available on child labour by sector for Malawi is from 2013. By the 2013 estimate, the Agriculture sector had the most child labourers, followed by the Commerce, Hotels and Restaurants sector and the Other Services sector.

The chart to the right displays child labour prevalence in each sector for all children. The charts below show the differences in child labour by sector with comparisons between groups by sex and region.

Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: Sex (Source: ILO)
Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: Area (Source: ILO)

Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.

No nationally representative data is available on forced labour prevalence in Malawi.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on new guidelines presented by the International Labour Organization and adopted by the International Conference of Labour Statisticians.

The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.

No nationally representative data is available on human trafficking prevalence in Malawi.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page to learn about measuring human trafficking prevalence, including information on collecting data through national referral mechanisms and producing prevalence statistics using Multiple Systems Estimation (MSE).

Case Data: International and Non-Governmental Organizations

Civil society organizations (CSOs) focused on human trafficking victim assistance can serve as crucial sources of data given their ability to reach a population that is notoriously difficult to sample.

Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (CTDC): The International Organization for Migration (IOM), Polaris and Liberty Asia have launched a global data repository on human trafficking, with data contributed by counter-trafficking partner organizations around the world. Not only does the CTDC serve as a central repository for this critical information, it also publishes normed and harmonized data from various organizations using a unified schema. This global dataset facilitates an unparalleled level of cross-border, trans-agency analysis and provides the counter-trafficking movement with a deeper understanding of this complex issue. Equipped with this information, decision makers will be empowered to create more targeted and effective intervention strategies.

Prosecution Data

UNODC compiles a global dataset on detected and prosecuted traffickers, which serves as the basis in their Global Report for country profiles. This information is beginning to paint a picture of trends over time, and case-specific information can assist investigators and prosecutors.

Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.

Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.

The chart displays information on human development in Malawi between 1990 and 2015. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex.

The most recent year of the HDI, 2015, shows that the average human development score in Malawi is 0.476. This score indicates that human development is low.

HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)

Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.

As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:

“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”

The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in Malawi over time.

Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction toward achieving Target 8.7.

Working Poverty Rate (Source: ILO)

Labour income tells us about a household’s vulnerability. As the ILO explains in Profits and Poverty:

“Poor households find it particularly difficult to deal with income shocks, especially when they push households below the food poverty line. In the presence of such shocks, men and women without social protection nets tend to borrow to smooth consumption, and to accept any job for themselves or their children, even under exploitative conditions.”

ILO indicators that measure poverty with respect to the labour force include working poverty rate, disaggregated by sex, with temporal coverage spanning from 2000 to 2016. The chart displays linear trends in working poverty rate over time for all individuals over 15 years of age.

Labour Productivity (Source: ILO)

Labour productivity is an important economic indicator that is closely linked to economic growth, competitiveness, and living standards within an economy.” However, when increased labour output does not produce rising wages, this can point to increasing inequality. As indicated by a recent ILO report (2015), there is a “growing disconnect between wages and productivity growth, in both developed and emerging economies”. The lack of decent work available increases vulnerability to situations of labour exploitation.

Labour productivity represents the total volume of output (measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product, GDP) produced per unit of labour (measured in terms of the number of employed persons) during a given period.

Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.

Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Source: UNHCR)

Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants.

According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children.”

As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements.”

The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in Malawi.

Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.

Official Definitions
Forced Labour

Republic of Malawi (Constitution) Act, 1994
Slavery, servitude and forced labour
27.1. No person shall be held in slavery or servitude.
27.2. Slavery and the slave trade are prohibited.
27.3. No person shall be subject to forced labour.
27.4. No person shall be subject to tied labour that amounts to servitude.

Employment Act, 1999
4.1. No person shall be required to perform forced labour.

Child Labour

Employment Act, 1999
21.1. subject to subsection (2), no person under the age of fourteen shall be employed or work in any public or private agricultural, industrial or non-industrial undertaking or any branch thereof.
21.2. Subsection (1) shall not apply to work done in homes, vocational technical schools or other training institutions

Worst Forms of Child Labour

Republic of Malawi (Constitution) Act, 1994
Rights of children
23.1. All children, regardless of the circumstances of their birth, are entitled to equal treatment before the law.
23.2. All children shall have the right to a given name and a family name and the right to a nationality.
23.3. Children have the right to know, and to be raised by, their parents.
23.4. Children are entitled to be protected from economic exploitation or any treatment, work or punishment that is, or is likely to–

a. be hazardous;
b. interfere with their education; or
c. be harmful to their health or to their physical, mental or spiritual or social development.

23.5. For purposes of this section, children shall be persons under sixteen years of age.

Employment Act, 1999
22.1. No person between the age of fourteen and eighteen years shall work or be employed in any occupation or activity that is likely to be – (Hazardous work)

a. harmful to the health, safety, education, morals or development of such a person; or
b. prejudicial to his attendance at school or any other vocational or training programme.

22.2. The Minister may, in consultation with relevant organizations of employers and employees, specify, by notice published in the Gazette, occupations or activities, which, in this opinion, are likely to have the effect mentioned in subsection (1).

Employment (Prohibition of Hazardous Work for Children) Order, 2012
SCHEDULE – LIST OF PROHIBITED WORK

Child Care, Protection and Justice Act, 2010
79.2. For the purposes of this section, child trafficking means the recruitment, transaction, transfer, harbouring or receipt of a child for the purposes of exploitation.

Human Trafficking

Trafficking in Persons Bill, 2012
2. In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires—

“trafficking in persons” means recruitment, transportation, transferring, harbouring, receiving or obtaining another person, within or beyond the territory of Malawi, through the means of—

a. threats or use of force or coercion;
b. abduction;
c. fraud or deception;
d. abuse or threats of abuse of power or position;
e. abuse or threats of abuse of position of vulnerability;
f. abuse or threats of abuse of the law or legal process;
g. giving or receiving of payments to obtain consent of a person having control of that other person,
for the purpose of exploitation of that person.

“exploitation” includes-

a. the extraction of work or services from any person;
b. the participation of a person in all forms of commercial sexual activity such as prostitution, sexually-explicit performance, forced prostitution, and forced participation in the production of pornography;
c. the removal of body parts or the extraction of organs or tissue; or
d. any other practice in terms of which it cannot be said that the person participated willingly.

Slavery

Republic of Malawi (Constitution) Act, 1994
Slavery, servitude and forced labour
27.1. No person shall be held in slavery or servitude.
27.2. Slavery and the slave trade are prohibited.
27.3. No person shall be subject to forced labour.
27.4. No person shall be subject to tied labour that amounts to servitude.

Limitations on rights
44.1. There shall be no derogation, restrictions or limitation with regard to–
d. the prohibition of slavery, the slave trade and slave-like practices;
44.2. Without prejudice to subsection (1), no restrictions or limitations may be placed on the exercise of any rights and freedoms provided for in this Constitution other than those prescribed by law, which are reasonable, recognized by international human rights standards and necessary in an open and democratic society.
44.3. Laws prescribing restrictions or limitations shall not negate the essential content of the right or freedom in question, shall be of general application.

International Commitments
National Strategies

National Action Plan on Child Labour for Malawi (2010–2016)

“Assigns roles and responsibilities for each ministry in charge of implementing child labor policies, provides a comprehensive framework to reduce the worst forms of child labor, and proposes concrete activities to support policies that combat child labor. In September 2016, an operational planning workshop was held to begin the process of revising the NAP.”

Child Protection Strategic Plan

“Outlines the responsibilities of the MOL, Malawi Police Service, and MOG in coordinating efforts to combat
child labor.”

National Action Plan for Vulnerable Children (2015–2019)

“Provides a framework for the development of district implementation plans for assisting vulnerable children,
including those vulnerable to child labor; coordinated by the MOG.”

UN Development Assistance Framework (2012–2016)

“Recognizes child labor as a common constraint to the creation of decent and productive employment. Proposes strategies to address child labor, including enforcement of existing labor laws and enactment of pending legislation and policies.”

Malawi Growth and Development Strategy II (2011–2016)

“Includes strategies to eliminate child labor, such as integrating child labor issues into development initiatives and interventions; highlights that poverty is the root cause of child labor. To ensure consistency across policies, the MOL is incorporating child labor into all the sectors of the Malawi Growth and Development Strategy II.”

International Ratifications

ILO Forced Labour Convention, C029, Ratification 1999

ILO Abolition of Forced Labour Convention, C105, Ratification 1999

ILO Minimum Age Convention, C138, Ratification 1999

ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182, Ratification 1999

Slavery Convention 1926 and amended by the Protocol of 1953, Accession 1965

UN Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, Accession 1965

UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol), Accession 2005

UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, Accession 1991

UN Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Ratification 2010

UN Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, Ratification 2009

Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the perpetration of modern slavery, forced labour, child labour and human trafficking. These actions should be considered in wider societal efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.

Programs and Agencies for Victim Support (Source: U.S. Department of Labor)

Policies for Assistance
Policies for Assistance, Child Labour

Child Care, Protection and Justice Act, 2010
23.1. A child is in need of care and protection if-

j. the child frequents the company of immoral, vicious, or otherwise undesirable person or persons or is living in circumstances calculated to cause or induce the seduction, corruption or prostitution of the child;
k. the child is allowed to be on a street, premises or any place for the purpose of-

i. begging or receiving alms, whether or not there is any pretence of singing, playing, performing or offering anything for sale and as a result the child becomes a habitual beggar;
ii. carrying out illegal hawking, illegal lotteries, gambling or other illegal activities detrimental to the health and welfare or retard the educational advancement of the child;

24. A police officer, social welfare officer, a chief or any member of the community, if satisfied on reasonable grounds that a child is in need of care and protection, may take the child and place him/her into his/her temporary custody or a place of safety.

84.1. A social welfare officer who has reasonable grounds to believe that a child-

a. has been trafficked;
b. has been abducted;
c. has been subjected to a harmful cultural practice or any practice prohibited under sections 81 and 82; or
d. is being used for the purposes of prostitution or immoral practices,
may remove and temporarily place the child in a place of safety.

84.2. A child who is temporarily placed in a place of safety, under this Division shall be brought before a child justice court within forty-eight hours if it is practicable to do so.
84.3. The child justice court may commit the child to a foster home or may place the child under the supervision of a social welfare officer until an inquiry into the circumstances of the case has been carried out and submitted to the child justice court by a social welfare officer.

Policies for Assistance, Human Trafficking

Trafficking in Persons Bill, 2012
43. The Minister may, by notice published in the Gazette, appoint an officer charged with duties in relation to social welfare, to exercise and perform the duties of a protection officer under this Act.

44.1. The Protection Officer shall perform the following duties—

a. ensure that trafficked persons are accorded proper treatment and are provided with the necessary care, assistance and protection; and
b. ensure that all interviews of trafficked persons are conducted in accordance with the Guiding Principles for Conducting Screening Interviews for the Identification of Trafficked Persons contained in the First Schedule and that Form A contained in the Second Schedule is duly completed.

45.1. The Minister may by notice published in the Gazette –

a. designate any premises to be a shelter for the care and protection of trafficked persons;
b. make rules for the standard of care and protection services for trafficked persons at a shelter; or
c. make regulations for the administration of any shelter within Malawi.

45.2. A person in charge of a shelter shall ensure that the rights and freedoms of trafficked persons are observed and protected.
45.3. A person or organization may apply to the Minister to designate the premises of that person or organization as a shelter.
45.4. A person who operates a shelter in contravention of this section commits an offence and shall, upon conviction, be liable to a fine of K 300,000 and to imprisonment for five years.

46.1. A person shall not, without leave of court, disclose in the public media regarding—

a. any step taken in relation to a trafficked person at any stage of any judicial proceedings under this Act; or
b. the identity of a trafficked person or any particular that may lead to disclosure of his identity.

46.2. A person shall not disclose any information, capable of prejudicing the safety or provision of care and protection to any trafficked person, acquired in the exercise of the powers, performance of the functions or carrying out of the duties conferred upon, assigned to or imposed upon him by or under this Act.
46.3. Any person who contravenes the provisions of this section commits an offence and shall, upon conviction, be liable to a fine of K1,000,000 and to imprisonment for two years.

51.1. There is hereby established a Fund to be known as the Trafficking in Persons Fund.
51.2. The Fund shall consist of—

a. such amount of money as may be appropriated by Parliament for payment into the Fund;
b. such amount of money as may be paid to the Fund by way of loans, grants or donations;
c. such amount of money as may be realized from proceeds of confiscation, seizure, or sale of property connected with trafficking in persons after conviction of the offence under this Act; or
d. such amount of money from any source approved by the Minister.

52. The purpose of the Fund is to finance—

a. the training of enforcement officers, protection officers or any other personnel engaged in any capacity to effect the provisions of this Act;
b. the provision of care, assistance and support to victims of trafficking in persons, specifically by—

i. constructing or commissioning a building as a reception shelter for such victims;
ii. tracing the family of a victim of offences under this Act and where possible facilitating the reintegration of such a victim with his family; or

First Schedule Trafficking In Persons Act:
Guiding Principles In Conducting Screening Interviews For The Identification Of Trafficked Persons

Penalties
Penalties, Forced Labour

Employment Act, 1999
4.1. No person shall be required to perform forced labour.
4.2. Any person who exacts or imposes forced labour or causes or permits forced labour shall be guilty of an offence and liable to a fine of MK 10,000 and to imprisonment for two years.

Penalties, Child Labour

Employment Act, 1999
24. Any person who contravenes any provision of this Part shall be guilty of an offence and liable to a fine of MK 20,000 and to imprisonment for five years.

Child Care, Protection and Justice Act, 2010
79.1. A person who takes part in any transaction the object or one of the objects of which is child trafficking commits an offence and shall be liable to imprisonment for life.
79.2. For the purposes of this section, child trafficking means the recruitment, transaction, transfer, harbouring or receipt of a child for the purposes of exploitation.

82. No person shall-

a. sell a child or use a child as a pledge to obtain credit;
b. use a child as surety for a debt or mortgage; or
c. force a child into providing labour for the income of a parent, guardian or any other person.

83. A person who contravenes sections 80, 81 and 82 commits an offence and shall be liable to imprisonment for ten (10) years.

Penalties, Human Trafficking

Trafficking in Persons Bill, 2012
15.1. A person who traffics another person commits the offence termed trafficking in persons and shall, upon conviction, be liable to imprisonment for fourteen years without the option of a fine.
15.2. The consent of a trafficked person is immaterial where any of the means set out in section 2 have been used.

16.1. Notwithstanding section 15, a person who recruits, transports, transfers, harbours, receives or obtains a child, within or beyond the territory of Malawi, for the purpose of exploiting the child commits an offence termed trafficking in children and shall, upon conviction, be liable to imprisonment for twenty-one years without the option of a fine.
16.2. It is immaterial that at the time of commission of trafficking in children, the means set out in section 2 with respect to trafficking in persons were use or the child consented to the commission of the offence.

17.1. An offence of trafficking in persons or trafficking in children is deemed to be aggravated if committed in any of the following circumstances—

a. the judicial processes of adoption, fosterage, guardianship or wardship have been used to recruit a child;
b. the accused is a relative of the trafficked person;
c. the trafficked person is of unsound mind;
d. the offence is committed by an organized criminal group;
e. the offence is committed by a public servant, a religious leader, a traditional leader or any person acting in an official capacity in the exercise of his duties;
f. the offence is committed by a person purporting to act, in the exercise of an official duty where such official acts in abuse of authority or moral ascendancy;
g. the offence is committed for the purpose of removing body parts or extracting, tissue or organs;
h. on occasion of the commission of the offence the trafficked person—

i. dies;
ii. develops a mental condition;
iii. becomes pregnant or is forced to terminate a pregnancy;
iv. suffers mutilation, disfigurement or permanent bodily injury; or
v. is exposed to any other substantial health risk.

17.2. A person who commits the offence of trafficking in persons or trafficking in children in any of the circumstances in subsection (1), shall, upon conviction, be liable to imprisonment for life without the option of a fine.

18. The offence of trafficking in persons or trafficking in children constitutes an offence of moral turpitude for the purposes of sections 51, 80 and 94 of the Constitution.

19. A person convicted of the offence of trafficking in persons or trafficking in children shall be ineligible to work in any capacity with children for a period of seven years from the last day of expiry of the sentence served.

20. Where an offence of trafficking in persons is committed by a person acting or purporting to act in an official capacity for a non-governmental organization or other establishment or body, the court may, upon conviction, order the closure and de-registration of the non-governmental organization, establishment or body under which the person acted.

21. A person who intentionally benefits from the exploitation of a trafficked person or causes or enables another person to benefit from exploitation of a trafficked person for any purpose, commits an offence and shall, upon conviction, be liable to imprisonment for five years.

Penalties, General

Penal Code, 1930
140. Procuration Any person who—

a. procures or attempts to procure any girl or woman under the age of twenty-one years to have unlawful carnal connexion, either in Malawi or elsewhere, with any other person or persons; or
b. procures or attempts to procure any woman or girl to become, either in Malawi or elsewhere, a common prostitute; or
c. procures or attempts to procure any woman or girl to leave Malawi with intent that she may become an inmate of or frequent a brothel elsewhere; or
d. procures or attempts to procure any woman or girl to leave her usual place of abode in Malawi with intent that she may, for the purposes of prostitution, become an inmate of or frequent a brothel either in the Republic or elsewhere,
shall be guilty of a misdemeanour and, if a male person, may, at the discretion of the court, and in addition to any term of imprisonment awarded in respect of the said offence shall be sentenced to corporal punishment:

Provided that no person shall be convicted of any offence under this section upon the evidence of one witness only, unless such witness be corroborated in some material particular by evidence implicating the accused.

263. Kidnapping or abducting in order to subject person to grievous harm, slavery, etc.
Any person who kidnaps or abducts any person in order that such person may be subjected, or may be so disposed of as to be put in danger of being subjected, to grievous harm, or slavery, or to the unnatural lust of any person, or knowing it to be likely that such person will be so subjected or disposed of, shall be guilty of a felony and shall be liable to imprisonment for ten years.

267. Buying or disposing of any person as a slave
Any person who imports, exports, removes, buys, sells or disposes of any person as a slave, or accepts, receives or detains against his will any person as a slave, shall be guilty of a felony, and shall be liable to imprisonment for seven years.

268. Habitual dealing in slaves
Any person who habitually imports, exports, removes, buys, sells, traffics or deals in slaves shall be guilty of a felony, and shall be liable to imprisonment for ten years.

269. Unlawful compulsory labour
Any person who unlawfully compels any person to labour against the will of that person shall be guilty of a misdemeanour.

Programs and Agencies for Enforcement (Source: U.S. Department of Labor)

Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk for exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.

Social Protections: General (at Least One)
Social Protections (Source: ILO)

The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.

If a country does not appear on a chart, this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.

Social Protections: Pension
Social Protections: Vulnerable Groups
Social Protections: Children
Social Protections: Disabled

Delta 8.7 has received no Official Response to this dashboard from Malawi. If you are a representative of Malawi and wish to submit an Official Response, please contact us at info@delta87.org.