Data Dashboards

Mali
Measurement
Measuring the Change

using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards.

Child labour between 2005 and 2015 decreased by 68%

-68%

2005- 2015

Best Target 8.7 Data: Child Labour Rate

The data visualization displays yearly child labour statistics based on a variety of nationally-representative household surveys. All years of data hold up to standards set by interagency collaboration between ILO, UNICEF and World Bank, though, in some cases are not perfectly comparable between years. Detailed information on each data point is provided in the Measurement tab (above).

Data Availability
  • Child labour: ILO/UNICEF data
  • Forced labour: No nationally representative data
  • Human trafficking: No nationally representative data
Context
Human Development

Human Development Index Score: 0.427 (2018)

Mean School Years: 2.4 years (2018)

Labour Indicators

Vulnerable Employment: 89.6% (2018)

Working Poverty Rate: 44.3% (2020)

Government Efforts
Key Ratifications
  • ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Ratified 2016
  • ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2000
  • UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Ratified 2002
National Strategies
Social Protection Coverage

General (at least one): No data

Unemployed: No data

Pension: 2.7% (2016)

Vulnerable: No data

Children: 5.4% (2016)

Disabled: 0.6% (2016)

Poor: No data

Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7

Child Labour Rate, Aged 5-17 (Source: ILO)

Based on the international conventions and the International Conference of Labour Statisticians (ICLS)  resolution, and consistent with the approach utilized in the ILO global child labour estimates exercise, the statistical definition of child labour used includes:

a) children aged 5-11 years in all forms of economic activity;
b) children aged 12-14 years in all forms of economic activity except permissible “light” work;
c) children and adolescents aged 15-17 years in hazardous work; and
d) children aged 5-14 years performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week.

In Mali, the percentage of child labourers has decreased overall from 2005 to 2015. The measure provided for 2001 does not cover the full definition of hazardous work and cannot be compared directly with data from other sample years.

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 5-17 in child labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2001, 2005, 2007, 2014 and 2015. 

 

Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Hazardous child labour is the largest category of the worst forms of child labour with an estimated 73 million children aged 5-17 working in dangerous conditions in a wide range of sectors. Worldwide, the ILO estimates that some 22,000 children are killed at work every year.

In Mali, the latest estimates show that 5.1 percent of children aged 5-14 were engaged in hazardous work in 2015. The number is lower than in 2014, and has decreased from 15.4 percent in 2005.

The measure provided for 2001 does not cover the full definition of hazardous work and cannot be compared directly with data from other sample years. 

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 5-14 in hazardous labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare group is provided for 2001, 2005, 2007, 2012, 2014 and 2015. 

 

 

Children in Hazardous Work, Aged 15-17 (Source: ILO)

Children aged 15-17 are permitted to engage in economic activities by international conventions in most cases, except when the work is likely to harm the health, safety or morals of children (Article 3 (d) of ILO Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour, 1999 (No. 182)).

In Mali, the latest estimates show that 20.1 percent of children aged 15-17 were engaged in hazardous work in 2015. The number is lower than in 2014, and has decreased from 31.5 percent in 2005.

Measures provided for 2001 do not cover the full definition of hazardous work and cannot be compared directly with data from other sample years. 

The chart displays differences in the percentage of children aged 15-17 in hazardous labour by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare group is provided for 2001, 2005, 2007, 2012, 2014 and 2015. 

 

Weekly Work Hours, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Children aged 5-11 are considered to be subjected to child labour when engaging in any form of economic activity. Children aged 12-14 are permitted to engage in “light” work that is not considered hazardous and falls below 14 hours per week.

According to the latest 2015 estimates, the average number of hours worked per week by children aged 5-14 in Mali was 40.1 hours. The average number of hours worked has increased from 37.9 hours in 2014.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours that children aged 5-14 work in economic activities by sex and region. The sample includes all children of this age group. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2001, 2005, 2007, 2012, 2014 and 2015.

 

Weekly Work Hours Children Only in Economic Activity, Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Children not attending school who are engaged in economic activity can be subjected to longer working hours. 

In 2015, the latest year with available data, children in economic activity only, meaning they are not in school, worked an average of 42.3 hours per week. This number has increased since 2014, when the average number of hours worked by this age group was 39.6.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours worked by children aged 5-14 who are not in school, by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2001, 2005, 2007, 2012, 2014 and 2015.

Weekly Hours Household Chores, Children Aged 5-14 (Source: ILO)

Researchers recognize that children involved in economic activities are not the only children working. The ICLS recommended definition of child labour includes children aged 5-14 performing household chores for at least 21 hours per week. 

Children aged 5-14, on average, are found to work on household chores 7.3 hours per week according to the 2015 estimate. This estimate represents a decrease in hours worked across all age groups since the last estimate in 2014, which found that children aged 5-14 in Mali worked an average of 8.4 hours per week.

The chart displays differences in the number of hours children aged 5-14 work on household chores by sex and region. Complete disaggregated data to compare groups is provided for 2001, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2012, 2014 and 2015.

Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: total (Source: ILO)

Identifying the sectors in which the most child labour exists can help policy actors and practitioners target efforts toward those industries. 

The latest data available on child labour by sector for Mali is from 2015. By the 2015 estimate, the Agriculture sector had the most child labourers, followed by the Other Services sector, the Commerce, Hotels and Restaurants sector, the Construction, Mining and Other Industrial Sectors and the Manufacturing sector.

The chart to the right displays child labour prevalence in each sector for all children. The charts below show the differences in child labour by sector with comparisons between groups by sex and region.

Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: sex (Source: ILO)
Children in Economic Activity by Sector, Aged 5-14: area (Source: ILO)

Measuring the incidence of forced labour is a much more recent endeavour and presents unique methodological challenges compared to the measurement of child labour.

No nationally representative data is available on forced labour prevalence in Mali.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on new guidelines presented by the International Labour Organization and adopted by the International Conference of Labour Statisticians.

The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.

No nationally representative data is available on human trafficking prevalence in Mali.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page to learn about measuring human trafficking prevalence, including information on collecting data through national referral mechanisms and producing prevalence statistics using Multiple Systems Estimation (MSE).

Case Data: International and Non-Governmental Organizations

Civil society organizations (CSOs) focused on human trafficking victim assistance can serve as crucial sources of data given their ability to reach a population that is notoriously difficult to sample.

Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (CTDC): The International Organization for Migration (IOM), Polaris and Liberty Asia have launched a global data repository on human trafficking, with data contributed by counter-trafficking partner organizations around the world. Not only does the CTDC serve as a central repository for this critical information, it also publishes normed and harmonized data from various organizations using a unified schema. This global dataset facilitates an unparalleled level of cross-border, trans-agency analysis and provides the counter-trafficking movement with a deeper understanding of this complex issue. Equipped with this information, decision makers will be empowered to create more targeted and effective intervention strategies.

Prosecution Data

UNODC compiles a global dataset on detected and prosecuted traffickers, which serves as the basis in their Global Report for country profiles. This information is beginning to paint a picture of trends over time, and case-specific information can assist investigators and prosecutors.

Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.

Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.

The chart displays information on human development in Mali between 1990 and 2018. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex. 

The most recent year of the HDI, 2018, shows that the average human development score in Mali is 0.427. This score indicates that human development is low. 

 

HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)

Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.

As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:

“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”

The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in Mali over time.

 

Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in the availability of equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction towards achieving Target 8.7.

HDI Vulnerable Employment (Source: UNDP)

There are reasons to believe that certain types of labour and labour arrangements are more likely to lead to labour exploitation. According to the ILO:

“Own-account workers and contributing family workers have a lower likelihood of having formal work arrangements, and are therefore more likely to lack elements associated with decent employment, such as adequate social security and a voice at work. The two statuses are summed to create a classification of ‘vulnerable employment’, while wage and salaried workers together with employers constitute ‘non-vulnerable employment’.”

Between 1991 and 2018, Mali showed a decrease in the proportion of workers in vulnerable employment as compared to those in secure employment.

 

Working Poverty Rate (Source: ILO)

Labour income tells us about a household’s vulnerability. As the ILO explains in Profits and Poverty

“Poor households find it particularly difficult to deal with income shocks, especially when they push households below the food poverty line. In the presence of such shocks, men and women without social protection nets tend to borrow to smooth consumption, and to accept any job for themselves or their children, even under exploitative conditions.”

ILO indicators that measure poverty with respect to the labour force include working poverty rate, disaggregated by sex, with temporal coverage spanning from 2000 to 2020. The chart displays linear trends in working poverty rate over time for all individuals over 15 years of age.

 

Labour Productivity (Source: ILO)

Labour productivity is an important economic indicator that is closely linked to economic growth, competitiveness, and living standards within an economy.” However, when increased labour output does not produce rising wages, this can point to increasing inequality. As indicated by a recent ILO report (2015), there is a “growing disconnect between wages and productivity growth, in both developed and emerging economies”. The lack of decent work available increases vulnerability to situations of labour exploitation. 

Labour productivity represents the total volume of output (measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product, GDP) produced per unit of labour (measured in terms of the number of employed persons) during a given period.

 

Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.

Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Source: UNHCR)

Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants.

According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children. “

As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements, as recognized by Member States in the New York declaration for refugees and migrants of September 2016.”

The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in Mali.

Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.

Official Definitions
Legally Defining 8.7
Forced Labour

Code du Travail, 1992 amend Loi 2017-021, 2017

Art.6.‐ Le travail forcé ou obligatoire est interdit de façon absolue.Nul ne peut y recourir:

1. en tant que mesure de coercition ou en tant que sanction à l’égard de personnes ayant exprimé des opinions politiques;
2. en tant que mesure de discipline du travail;
3. en tant que mesure de disrcimination sociale, raciale, nationale ou religieuse;
4. en tant que méthode de mobilisation et d’utilisation de la main d’œuvre à des fins de développement économique.

Le terme « travail forcé ou obligatoire » désigne tout travail ou service exigé d’un individu sous la menace d’une peine quelconque et pour lequel ledit individu ne s’est pas offert de plein gré.
Toutefois, le terme « travail » ou « obligatoire » ne comprend pas :

– tout travail ou service exigé en vertu des lois sur le service militaire et afecté à des travaux de caractère militaire;
– tout travail ou service exigé d’un individu comme consèquence d’une condamnation prononcée par l’autorité judiciaire;
– tout travail ou service exigé d’un individu en cas de guerre, sinistre et de circonstance mettant en danger ou risquant de mettre en danger, la vie ou les conditions normales d’existence de l’ensemble ou d’une partie de la population;
– les travaux d’intérêt général tels qu’ils sont définis par les lois sur les obligations civiques;
– tout travaild’intérêt piblic exigé d’un individu comme conséquence d’une condamnation prononcée par lautorité judiciaire

Child Labour

Code du Travail, 1992

Art.14.‐ Les contrats sont passés librement.
Toutefois :

1° Un contrat de travail conclu avec un mineur n’est valable que si son engagement a
été autorisé par écrit par son père, ou, à défaut, la personne détenant la puissance
paternelle et s’il n’est pas soumis à l’obligation scolaire,
2° Un décret pourra en fonction des nécessités économiques, démographiques,
sociales ou sanitaires, interdire ou limiter les possibilités d’embauche des entreprises ou organiser des compensations en main d’œuvre entre les régions.

Code du Travail, 1992 amend Loi 2017-021, 2017

L.187
Les enfants ne peuvent être employés dans aucune entreprise, même comme apprentis, avant l’âge de 15 ans, sauf dérogation écrite édictée par arrêté du ministre chargé du travail, compte tenu des circonstances locales et des tâches qui peuvent leur être confiées.

Décret n° 96-178/P-RM du 13 juin 1996 portant application de diverses dispositions de la loi n° 92-20 du 23 septembre 1992 portant Code du travail en République du Mali.

Art.D.189-35.- Sous les conditions définies par le présent chapitre, il est dérogé aux dispositions rela- tives à l’âge d’admission à l’emploi, en ce qui concerne les enfants de l’un ou l’autre sexe, âgés de douze ans révolus, pour les travaux domestiques et les travaux légers d’un caractère saisonnier, tels que les travaux de cueillette et de triage effectués dans les plantations.
Aucune dérogation ne pourra être accordée qui serait de nature à porter atteinte aux prescriptions en vigueur en matière d’obligation scolaire.
Dans les centres où est normalement dispensé l’enseignement scolaire, l’âge minimum d’admission à l’emploi demeure fixé à quatorze ans, sauf autorisation individuelle accordée à titre personnel et révocable par l’inspecteur du travail, sur la demande de l’employeur.
Aucun enfant âgé de douze à quatorze ans ne peut, en outre, être employé sans l’autorisation expresse de ses parents ou de son tuteur, sauf s’il travaille dans le même établissement que ceux-ci et à leur côté.

Worst Forms of Child Labour

Code du Travail, 1992

Art.189.‐ Des décrets fixeront d’une part les conditions de travail des femmes et des femmes enceintes et notamment la nature des travaux qui leur sont interdits d’autre part la nature des travaux et les catégories d’entreprises interdits aux jeunes gens et l’âge limite auquel s’applique l’interdiction.

Décret n° 96-178/P-RM du 13 juin 1996 portant application de diverses dispositions de la loi n° 92-20 du 23 septembre 1992 portant Code du travail en République du Mali.

Art.D.189-14.- Dans les établissements de quelque nature qu’ils soient, agricoles, commerciaux ou industriels, publics ou privés, laïcs ou religieux, même lorsque ces établissements ont un caractère d’enseignement professionnel ou de bienfaisance, y compris les entreprises familiales ou chez les parti- culiers, il est interdit d’employer les enfants de l’un ou l’autre sexe âgés de moins de 18 ans à des tra- vaux excédant leurs forces, présentant des causes de danger ou qui, par leur nature et par les condi- tions dans lesquelles ils sont effectués, sont suscep- tibles de blesser leur moralité.

Art.D.189-15.- En aucun cas, les enfants ne peu- vent être employés à un travail effectif de plus de huit heures par jour.
Dans les mines, galeries souterraines, minières et carrières ne sont pas compris dans la durée fixée au paragraphe précédent, le temps de la remonte et de la descente ni des repas.

Arrêté n° 09-0151/MTFPRE-SG du 4 février 2009 complétant la liste des travaux dangereux interdits aux enfants de moins de 18 ans.

Arrêté n° 2017-4388 MTFP-SG du 29 décembre 2017 complétant la liste des travaux dangereux interdits aux enfants de moins de 18 ans.

La Traite des personnes

Loi 2012-023 relative a la lutte contre la traite des personnes et les pratiques assimilees, 2012

Article 1er

International Commitments
International Ratifications

ILO Forced Labour Convention, C029, Ratification 1960

ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, 1930, Ratification 2016

ILO Abolition of Forced Labour Convention, C105, Ratification 1962

ILO Minimum Age Convention, C138, Ratification 2002 (minimum age specified: 15 years)

ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182, Ratification 2000

Slavery Convention 1926 and amended by the Protocol, definitive signature 1973

UN Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, Accession 1973

UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol), Ratification 2002

UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, Accession 1990

UN Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, Ratification 2002

UN Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child: Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, Accession 2002

National Action Plans, National Strategies

National Action Plan to Combat Trafficking in Persons and Assimilated Practices (2018-2022)

National Plan to Combat Child Labor (PANETEM) (2011–2020)

Aims to eliminate the worst forms of child labor by strengthening child labor laws, training relevant government officials, and mobilizing funds for social programs to withdraw children from child labor. Overseen by the CNLTE. In 2017, worked with Malian lawmakers to adopt the legal amendment that increased the minimum age for work to 15 and revise the Hazardous Occupations List.

Roadmap to Combat Child Labor in Agriculture (2015–2020)

Seeks to enhance the legal framework and build the capacity of the government to prevent child labor in agriculture. Led by the Ministry of Agriculture and supported by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN. In 2017, worked to update the existing hazardous list and developed a training module for agricultural extension services to identify and combat child labor.

National Action Plan to Combat Trafficking in Persons and Associated Practices (2015–2017)

Aims to enhance the legal framework to prevent human trafficking, adequately implement the laws, and provide effective protection and care for victims. Led by the National Coordinating Committee for the Fight Against Trafficking in Persons and Associated Practices. In 2017, organized training sessions for law enforcement agencies on human trafficking.

National Policy for Promotion and Protection of Children (2015–2019)

Aims to protect children from abuse, violence, and exploitation and promotes improved access to education and livelihood services for vulnerable children, especially those affected by armed conflict. Overseen by the MPFEF. In 2017, conducted activities to increase birth registration and provided social services for children withdrawn from armed conflict.

Inter-Ministerial Circular and the Protocol on the Release and Transfer of Children Associated with Armed Groups and Armed Forces

Provides a framework that highlights the responsibility of the government to prevent children’s involvement in armed conflict, and protect and reintegrate those children who become involved. In 2017, trained child protection actors in northern Mali on best practices for referrals of former child soldiers.

National Strategic Education Sector Plan (PRODEC II) (2017–2026)

Sets out a comprehensive map to improve the quality of and access to basic and secondary education, especially in conflict-affected areas of northern Mali. Led by the Ministry of Education and supported by international donors. In 2017, secured additional funding and technical assistance from international donors to ensure effective implementation of the plan.

Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the  perpetration of forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour. These actions should be considered in wider societal efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.

Programs and Agencies for Victim Support

Policies for Assistance
Policies for assistance, human trafficking

Loi 2012-023 relative a la lutte contre la traite des personnes et les pratiques assimilees, 2012

Policies for Assistance, general

Code de protection d’enfant

Code Penal, 2001

Art.28.- Il n’y a ni crime ni délit :

1° lorsque le prévenu était en état de démence au temps de l’action ou de légitime
défense de soi-même ou d’autrui ;
2° lorsqu’il a été contraint par une force à laquelle il n’a pu résister ;
3° lorsqu’il a agi en vertu d’un commandement de la loi ou d’un ordre de l’autorité
légitime.

Loi no 01-082 du 24 août 2001 relative à l’assistance judiciaire.

Penalties
Penalties, Human Trafficking

Loi 2012-023 relative a la lutte contre la traite des personnes et les pratiques assimilees, 2012

Article 7
Article 8

Code Penal, 2001

Paragraphe 4 – Du trafic d’enfant
Art.244.- Le trafic d’enfant est l’ensemble du processus par lequel un enfant est déplacé, à l’intérieur ou à l’extérieur d’un pays dans les conditions qui le transforment en valeur marchande pour l’une au moins des personnes en présence, et quelque soit la finalité du déplacement de l’enfant :

-tout acte comportant le recrutement, le transport, le recel ou la vente d’enfant ;
-tout acte qui entraîne le déplacement de l’enfant à l’intérieur ou à l’extérieur d’un
pays.
Sera punie de la réclusion de cinq à vingt ans toute personne convaincue de trafic d’enfant.

Penalties, General

Code Penal, 2001

Paragraphe 3 – De la traite – Du gage – De la servitude
Art.242.- Quiconque aura conclu une convention ayant pour objet d’aliéner, soit à titre gratuit, soit à titre onéreux, la liberté d’une tierce personne, sera puni de cinq à dix ans de réclusion. L’argent, les marchandises et autres objets de valeur reçus en exécution de la convention ou arrhes d’une convention à intervenir, seront confisqués.
Sera puni de la même peine, le fait d’introduire dans la République du Mali des individus destinés à faire l’objet de la convention précitée, ou de faire sortir ou tenter de faire sortir des individus de la République, en vue de ladite convention à contracter à l’étranger.
Toutefois, la peine de la réclusion pourra être portée à vingt ans si la personne en ayant fait l’objet, soit à l’intérieur, soit à l’extérieur du Mali, est un enfant au dessous de quinze ans.
Dans les cas prévus au présent article, le tribunal pourra en outre, prononcer l’interdiction des droits prévus à l’article 8 du présent Code.
L’interdiction de séjour de un à vingt ans pourra également être prononcée.

Art.243.- La mise en gage des personnes, quel qu’en soit le motif, est interdite.
Est assimilée à la mise en gage, toute convention, quelle qu’en soit la forme, concomitante au mariage et engageant le sort des enfants à naître de ce mariage.
Quiconque aura mis ou reçu une personne en gage sera puni d’un emprisonnement de six mois à deux ans et d’une amende de 20.000 à 100.000 FCFA.
Toutefois, la peine sera de un à cinq ans d’emprisonnement et de 50.000 à 500.000 FCFA d’amende si la personne mise en gage est âgée de moins de quinze ans.
Sera considéré comme constituant une mise en servitude, et puni comme telle, le fait de mettre en gage une personne lorsqu’il aura pour conséquence d’obliger cette dernière à résider chez un autre individu.

Penalties,.General

Loi 2012-023 relative a la lutte contre la traite des personnes et les pratiques assimilees, 2012

Article 10
Article 11

Data Commitments

A Call to Action to End Forced Labour, Modern Slavery and Human Trafficking, Signed 2017

1.ii. Take steps to measure, monitor and share data on prevalence and response to all such forms of exploitation, as appropriate to national circumstances;

Programs and Agencies for Enforcement

Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk of exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.

Social Protection Coverage: General (at Least One)
Social Protection (Source: ILO)

The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.

If a country does not appear on a chart, this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.

Social Protection Coverage: Pension
Social Protection Coverage: Vulnerable Groups
Social Protection Coverage: Children
Social Protection Coverage: Disabled

Delta 8.7 has received no Official Response to this dashboard from Mali. If you are a representative of Mali and wish to submit an Official Response, please contact us here.