Measuring the Change
using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards.
Due to lack of nationally representative child labour data, there is no change to report.
Best Target 8.7 Data: Human Trafficking
The data visualization displays the number of identified victims of human trafficking per year in Malta. Detailed information is provided in the Measurement tab (above).
- Child labour: No ILO/UNICEF data
- Human trafficking: Case data available
Human Development Index Score: 0.895 (2019)
Mean School Years: 11.3 years (2019)
Vulnerable Employment: 9.9% (2018)
Working Poverty Rate: No data available
- ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Ratified 2019
- ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2001
- UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Ratified 2003
Social Protection Coverage
General (at least one): No data
Unemployed: 62.2% (2015)
Pension: 81.0% (2014)
Vulnerable: No data
Children: No data
Disabled: 59.8% (2016)
Poor: No data
Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.
Youth employment in Malta is permitted only to those ages 16 and up, and is regulated by the Young Persons (Employment) Regulations. There is no data available on child labour in Malta, most likely due to relatively low incidence.
The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.
Identified Victims of Human Trafficking (Source: GRETA)
According to the European Commission, Malta has experienced a limited number of cases of human trafficking, the majority of which in the past primarily involved the sexual exploitation of women. Although cases for sexual exploitation are still encountered in Malta, the majority of cases in the past four years have involved labour exploitation. Migrants constitute the most vulnerable group to trafficking in Malta.
The graph on the right shows the number of identified victims of human trafficking per year in Malta, as reported by Maltese authorities to the Group of Experts on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings (GRETA).
Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.
Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.
The chart displays information on human development in Malta between 1990 and 2019. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex.
The most recent year of the HDI, 2019, shows that the average human development score in Malta is 0.895. This score indicates that human development is very high.
HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)
Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.
As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:
“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”
The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in Malta over time.
Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in the availability of equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction towards achieving Target 8.7.
HDI Vulnerable Employment (Source: UNDP)
There are reasons to believe that certain types of labour and labour arrangements are more likely to lead to labour exploitation. According to the ILO:
“Own-account workers and contributing family workers have a lower likelihood of having formal work arrangements, and are therefore more likely to lack elements associated with decent employment, such as adequate social security and a voice at work. The two statuses are summed to create a classification of ‘vulnerable employment’, while wage and salaried workers together with employers constitute ‘non-vulnerable employment’.”
Between 1991 and 2018, Malta showed an increase in the proportion of workers in vulnerable employment as compared to those in secure employment.
Labour Productivity (Source: ILO)
“Labour productivity is an important economic indicator that is closely linked to economic growth, competitiveness, and living standards within an economy.” However, when increased labour output does not produce rising wages, this can point to increasing inequality. As indicated by a recent ILO report (2015), there is a “growing disconnect between wages and productivity growth, in both developed and emerging economies”. The lack of decent work available increases vulnerability to situations of labour exploitation.
Labour productivity represents the total volume of output (measured in terms of Gross Domestic Product, GDP) produced per unit of labour (measured in terms of the number of employed persons) during a given period.
Rates of Non-fatal Occupational Injuries (Source: ILO)
Occupational injury and fatality data can also be crucial in prevention and response efforts.
“Data on occupational injuries are essential for planning preventive measures. For instance, workers in occupations and activities of highest risk can be targeted more effectively for inspection visits, development of regulations and procedures, and also for safety campaigns.”
There are serious gaps in existing data coverage, particularly among groups that may be highly vulnerable to labour exploitation. For example, few countries provide information on injuries disaggregated between migrant and non-migrant workers.
Rates of Fatal Occupational Injuries (Source: ILO)
Data on occupational health and safety may reveal conditions of exploitation, even if exploitation may lead to under-reporting of workplace injuries and safety breaches. At present, the ILO collects data on occupational injuries, both fatal and non-fatal, disaggregating by sex and migrant status.
Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.
Groups Highly Vulnerable to Exploitation (Source: UNHCR)
Creating effective policy to prevent and protect individuals from forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour means making sure that all parts of the population are covered, particularly the most vulnerable groups, including migrants.
According to the 2016 Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: “Almost one of every four victims of forced labour were exploited outside their country of residence, which points to the high degree of risk associated with migration in the modern world, particularly for migrant women and children. “
As IOM explains: “Although most migration is voluntary and has a largely positive impact on individuals and societies, migration, particularly irregular migration, can increase vulnerability to human trafficking and exploitation.” UNODC similarly notes that: “The vulnerability to being trafficked is greater among refugees and migrants in large movements, as recognized by Member States in the New York declaration for refugees and migrants of September 2016.”
The chart displays UNHCR’s estimates of persons of concern in Malta.
Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.
“35.1. No person shall be required to perform forced labour.
35.2. For the purposes of this article, the expression “”forced labour”” does not include –
a. any labour required in consequence of the sentence or order of a court;
b. labour required of any person while he is lawfully detained by sentence or order of a court that, though not required in consequence of such sentence or order, is reasonably necessary in the interests of hygiene or for the maintenance of the place at which he is detained or, if he is detained for the purpose of his care, treatment, education or welfare, is reasonably required for that purpose;
c. any labour required of a member of a disciplined forcein pursuance of his duties as such or, in the case of a person who has conscientious objections to service asa member of a naval, military or air force, any labour that that person is required by law to perform in place of such service;
d. any labour required during a period of public emergency or in the event of any other emergency or calamity that threatens the life or well-being of the community.”
15.The minimum age for paid labour shall be prescribed by law.
“16.The State shall provide for safeguarding the labour of minors and assure to them the right to equal pay for equal work.”
“1.1. The title of these regulations is the Young Persons (Employment) Regulations.
1.2. The purpose of these regulations is to:
a. prohibit work by children;
b. establish that the minimum employment age shall not be lower than the minimum age at which compulsory full-time schooling ends;
c. regulate work by adolescents and young persons; and
d. ensure that employers guarantee that young people have working conditions which suit their age and are protected against economic exploitation and against any work likely to harm their safety, health or physical, mental, moral or social development or to jeopardise their education.
3. These regulations shall apply to any person under eighteen years of age having a contract of employment or any form of employment relationship with an employer
4. These regulations shall not apply to occasional work or short-term work involving –
a. domestic service in a private household, or
b. work in a family undertaking: Provided that, in either case, the work to be performed cannot be regarded as being harmful, damaging or dangerous to a young person.
5. These regulations shall come into force on the 5th April, 2004.
2.1. In these regulations:
”adolescent” means any young person who has reached sixteen years of age, or any other age which may from time to time be established as the school leaving age by virtue of the Education Act, but is less than eighteen years of age;
”child” means any young person, of either sex, who is under sixteen years of age, or any other age which may from time to time be established as the school leaving age by virtue of the Education Act;
“”light work” means all work which, on account of the inherent nature of the tasks which it involves and the particular conditions under which the tasks are performed:
(a) has been shown by a risk assessment, in terms of the General Provisions for Health and Safety at Workplaces Regulations, and any other relevant health and safety legislation which may be in force from time to time, carried out by the employer in accordance with the same General Provisions for Health and Safety at Workplaces Regulations, to be work which is not likely to be harmful to the safety, health or development of children; and (b) the Director of Education has no objection to the carrying out of such work on the grounds that such work is harmful to their attendance at school, their participation in vocational guidance or training programmes approved by the Minister responsible for education or by such other person duly authorised by the said Minister to act on his behalf, or their capacity to benefit from the instruction received;
“”young person” means any person under eighteen years of age. (2) Subject to the provisions of subregulation (1), terms and expressions used in these regulations shall, unless the context otherwise requires, have the meaning assigned to them in the Act.”
“3.1. Subject to subregulation (2) and (3), no person shall employ a child unless the child has been granted written permissionin terms of the provisions of the Education Act.
3.2. An employer shall apply to the Director for written authorisation to employ a child in cultural, artistic, sports or advertising activities, and the Director may issue such authorisation, in individual cases, for the employment of a child insuch activities:
the employer carries out a risk assessment, in terms ofthe General Provisions for Health and Safety atWorkplaces Regulations, and any other relevant healthand safety legislation which may be in force from timeto time, in accordance with the same General Provisionsfor Health and Safety at Workplaces Regulations, whichshows that such activities are not likely to be harmfulto the safety, health or development of the child; and(b) the Director of Education has no objection to thecarrying out of such activities on the grounds that suchwork is not likely to have an adverse effect on thechild’s attendance at school, or on his participation invocational guidance or training programmes approvedby the Minister responsible for education or by suchother person duly authorised by the said Minister to acton his behalf, or on the capacity to benefit from theinstruction received”
4.1. The working time for a child who is authorised to work in terms of regulation 3(3)(b) shall not exceed that shown in the Schedule. (2) The working time for adolescents shall not exceed eight hours a day and forty hours a week
Worst Forms of Child Labour
5.1. No child employed in terms of regulation 3(3)(b) shall perform work between 8 p.m. on any one day and 6 a.m. of the following day. (2)Subject to the provisions of subregulations (3) and (4), no adolescent shall perform work between 10 p.m. on any one day and 6 a.m. of the following day
“4.1. An employer shall ensure that any young person in his employ or to whom he has assigned work, is at all times adequately protected against any hazards which may result from the
assessment referred to in the preceding regulation, and, in particular, shall ensure that the work assigned to the young person –
a. is not beyond such young person’s physical or psychological capacity; and
b. does not involve any exposure to any of the chemical, physical or biological agents or to any of the processes listed in the Schedule, or to any other physical, chemical or biological agent which is toxic, carcinogenic, causes heritable genetic damage, causes chronically affects human health; and
c. does not involve a risk of accidents which it may be assumed cannot be recognized or avoided by young persons owing to their insufficient attention to safety or lack of experience or training; and
d. does not involve a risk to health from extremes of cold or heat, or from noise or vibration.
2. A young person may be allowed to perform work for a limited period of time with any of the physical, chemical or biological agents mentioned in the foregoing subregulation, if such work is indispensable for the young person’s vocational training, provided that at all times, the work is performed under the supervision of a competent person, and that the young person is adequately protected against risks to his health and safety.
3. It shall be the duty of an employer who employs or gives out work to a young person to ensure that such young person is at all times:
(a) properly trained for the work assigned, taking into account any health and safety hazards which may be present; and
(b) supervised by a competent person who has been trained in the work activity assigned to a young person, including the use of tools, machinery and equipment, and who is aware of the risks involved and of the preventive measures to be taken.”
248E. (1) In this sub-title, the phrase “trafficks a person” or “trafficks a minor” means the recruitment, transportation, sale or transfer of a person, or of a minor, as the case may be, including harbouring and subsequent reception and exchange or transfer of control over that person, or minor, and includes any behaviour which facilitates the entry into, transit through, residence in or exit from the territory of any country for any of the purposes mentioned in the preceding articles of this sub-title, as the case may be.
National Action Plans, National Strategies
UN Special Procedures
Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the perpetration of forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour. These actions should be considered in wider societal efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.
Programs and Agencies for Victim Support
Policies for Assistance
Assistance, Human Trafficking
“15. Assistance and support
1. A victim of an offence of trafficking in persons as defined under articles 248A to 248F, both inclusive, of the Criminal Code, as soon as he is identified as such, shall be entitled to receive assistance and support before, during and for an appropriate period of time after the conclusion of criminal proceedings in order to enable him to exercise the rights set out in the Directive and Framework Decision:
Provided that such assistance and support shall not be conditional on the victim’s willingness to cooperate in the investigation or criminal proceedings.
2. For purposes of this article:
a. the Framework Decision shall mean the Council Framework Decision 2001/220/JHA of 15 March 2001 on the standing of victims in criminal proceedings;
b. the Directive shall mean the Directive 2011/36/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 April 2011 on preventing and combating trafficking in human beings and protecting its victims, and replacing Council Framework Decision 2002/629/JHA.
3. The assistance and support measures referred to in this article shall be provided on a consensual and informed basis, and shall include at least standards of living capable of ensuring victims’ subsistence through measures such as the provision of appropriate and safe accommodation and material assistance, as well as necessary medical treatment including psychological assistance, counselling and information, and translation and interpretation services where appropriate:
Provided that the information shall cover, where relevant, information on a reflection and recovery period pursuant to Directive 2004/81/EC, and information on the possibility of granting international protection pursuant to Council Directive 2004/83/EC of 29 April 2004 on minimum standards for the qualification and status of third country nationals or stateless persons as refugees or as persons who otherwise need international protection and the content of the protection granted and Council Directive 2005/85/EC of 1 December 2005 on minimum standards on procedures in Member States for granting and withdrawing refugee status or pursuant to other international instruments or other similar national rules.”
“16. Protection of victims
1. Without prejudice to the provisions of article 10, a victim of trafficking in persons shall, without delay, have access to legal advice.
2. Where the victim does not possess sufficient financial resources to afford such advice this service shall be afforded free of charge by the advocate for legal aid.”
“17. Minors victims of trafficking
1. An advocate appointed in the interests of a minor in terms of The Civil Court (Family Section), The First Hall of the Civil Court and The Court of Magistrates (Gozo) (Superior Jurisdiction) (Family Section) Regulations shall assist and represent the interests of a minor who is a victim of trafficking in persons.
2. In cases where the age of the person cannot be determined with certainty and there are reasons to believe that the person is a minor, that person shall be presumed to be a minor and shall be entitled to receive immediate access to assistance, support and protection in accordance with article 18.”
“18. Unaccompanied victims who are minors.
1. Where a victim of trafficking in persons is an unaccompanied minor, a care order shall be issued in terms of the Children and Young Persons (Care Orders) Act to ensure that the minor is afforded all the assistance, protection and support in terms of the Directive.
2. For purposes of this article “”the Directive”” shall have the same meaning assigned to it under article 15.”
“3.1. When it appears to the Principal Immigration Officer that the third country national is co-operating with him in the fight against trafficking of human beings or, where applicable, against action to facilitate illegal immigration, he shall inform the third country national concerned of the possibilities offered under these regulations.
2. The Principal Immigration Officer may invite a nongovernmental organisation or another relevant association to give such information to the third country national concerned.
3. The Principal Immigration Officer shall grant a period of reflection, of not more than two months, with effect from the day when the information referred to in subregulation (1) is given by the Principal Immigration Officer, for the third country national to detach himself from the influence of the perpetrators of the offence so as to enable him to take an informed decision on the possibility of co-operating.
4. During the reflection period the third country national shall not be removed from Malta: Provided that the reflection period shall not create any entitlement to residence under these regulations.
5. During the period of reflection, while due regard is had to his safety and protection needs, the third country national who does not have sufficient resources shall be provided with:
i. the standards of living capable of ensuring his subsistence;
ii. access to emergency medical care; and, where applicable:
iii. attention to the needs of the most vulnerable;
iv. psychological assistance;
v. translation and interpreting services;
vi. free legal aid: Provided that in the case where the third country national is a minor, he shall have access to the public education system under the same conditions as Maltese nationals.
6. The period of reflection shall be terminated at any time by the Principal Immigration Officer for reasons relating to public policy or the protection of national security or if he establishes that the third country national concerned has actively, voluntarily and on his own initiative renewed contact with the perpetrators of the offences of trafficking of persons or facilitating illegal immigration.”
4. A third country national who is a victim of trafficking of human beings being or is the subject of an action to facilitate illegal immigration in terms of the provisions of these regulations, and who is found under circumstances which clearly indicate that he is a child or young person in need of care, shall be assisted in terms of the Children and Young Persons (Care Orders) Act as if he were a child or young person under such Act.
“5. (1) Without prejudice to any restrictions arising from public policy or public security, the Principal Immigration Officer may, at the end of the reflection period, or earlier if he is of the view that the third country national already fulfils the conditions stipulated in paragraphs (a) to (c), recommend to the Director the issuing of a residence permit for the third country national concerned when it is clear that:
(a) the permission to remain in Malta of the third country national may present an opportunity for the investigations or judicial proceedings;
(b) the third country national intends to co-operate with the Principal Immigration Officer;
(c) the third country national has severed all relations with the persons suspected of committing the offences of trafficking of persons or facilitating illegal immigration: Provided that, when the third country national concerned is a minor, the Principal Immigration Officer shall take due account of his best interests and ensure that the procedure is appropriate to his age and maturity.
(2) The residence period referred to in subregulation (1) shall be valid for a period of six months which shall be renewable if the conditions mentioned in the said subregulation continue to subsist and, in particular, taking into account the best interests of the child in cases where the third country national is a minor.
(3) The provisions of regulation 3(5) shall apply to the third country national concerned, when he does not have the necessary resources, after the issue of the residence permit and for the duration of such permit:
Provided that the third country national shall be provided with the necessary medical care or other assistance, when he does not have sufficient resources, and has special needs such as in the case of pregnant women, disabled persons, victims of sexual or other forms of violence, and minors.
(4) The third country national concerned may be granted a work permit for the duration of the residence permit, in accordance with article 11(3) of the Act, and, especially when such third country national is a minor, access to vocational training and education.
(5) Where applicable, the third country national concerned shall be granted access to programmes or schemes, provided by Government, non-governmental organisations or associations having a specific agreement with Government, aimed at the recovery of a normal social life including, where appropriate, courses designed to improve professional skills or preparation of his assisted return to the country of origin.”
Penalties, Human Trafficking
“248A.1. Whosoever, by any means mentioned in sub-article (2), traffics a person of age for the purpose of exploiting that person in:
a. the production of goods or provision of services; or
b. slavery or practices similar to slavery; or
c. servitude or forced labour; or
d. activities associated with begging; or
e. any other unlawful activities not specifically provided for elsewhere under this sub-title, shall, on conviction, be liable to the punishment of imprisonment from six to twelve years.
For the purposes of this sub-article exploitation includes requiring a person to produce goods and provide services under conditions and in circumstances which infringe labour standards governing working conditions, salaries and health and safety.
2. The means referred to in sub-article (1) are the following:
a. violence or threats, including abduction;
b. deceit or fraud;
c. misuse of authority, influence or pressure;
d. the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of the person having control over another person;
e. abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability:
Provided that in this paragraph “”position of vulnerability”” means a situation in which the person concerned has no real or acceptable alternative but to submit to the abuse involved.
3. The consent of a victim of trafficking to the exploitation, whether intended or actual, shall be irrelevant where any of the meansset forth in sub-article (2) has been used.”
248B. Whosoever, by any means mentioned in article 248A(2),trafficks a person of age for the purpose of exploiting that person inprostitution or in pornographic performances or in the productionof pornographic material or other forms of sexual exploitation shall, on conviction, be liable to the punishment laid down in article 248A(1)
“248C.1. Whosoever, by any means mentioned in article 248A(2), trafficks a person of age for the purpose of exploiting that person in the removal of any organ of the body shall on conviction be liable to the punishment of imprisonment for a term from six to twelve years.
2. For purposes of this article, the removal of organs, tissues and cells shall include the conduct referred to in article 248CA(1).”
“2.1. Whoever, in order to gratify the lust of any other person, compels by means of violence or threats, or induces by deceit, a person who has attained the age of twenty-one years to leave Malta for purposes of prostitution elsewhere or to come to Malta from elsewhere for the purposes of prostitution in these islands, shall be liable, on conviction, to imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years, with or without solitary confinement:
Provided that the punishment shall be imprisonment for a term from two to ten years, with or without solitary confinement, if the offence is committed –
(a) by an ascendant by consanguinity or affinity, by the adoptive father or mother, by the husband or the wife,
or by a brother or sister; or
(b) by means of abuse of authority, of trust or of domestic relations; or
(c) habitually or for gain.
(2) A conviction under this article shall entail the forfeiture of every authority and right granted to the offender over the person or property of the person to whose prejudice the offence shall have been committed.”
“3.1. Whoever, in order to gratify the lust of any other person, induces a person under the age of twenty-one years to leave Malta or to come to Maltafor purposes of prostitution elsewhere, or
encourages or facilitates his departure from Malta or arrival in Malta for the same purpose, shall be liable, on conviction, to imprisonment for a term from two to five years, with or without solitary confinement:
Provided that the punishment shall be imprisonment for a term from three to ten years, with or without solitary confinement, if the offence is committed
a. to the prejudice of a person who has not completed the age of twelve years; or
b. by means of violence or threats, or by deceit; or
c. by an ascendant by consanguinity or affinity, by the adoptive father or mother, by the husband or wife or tutor, or by any other person charged, even though temporarily, with the care, education, instruction, control or custody of the person under the age of twenty-one years; or
d. habitually or for gain.
3.2. A conviction under this article shall entail the forfeiture of every authority and right granted to the offender over the person or property of the person to whose prejudice the offence shall have been committed, and, in the case of the tutor, his removal from the tutorship and his perpetual disability from holding the office of tutor.”
Penalties, Child Labour
248D. Whosoever trafficks a minor for any of the purposes mentioned in articles 248A to 248CA, both inclusive, shall, on conviction be liable to the same punishment laid down in those articles, as the case may be, even if none of the means mentioned in article 248A(2) has been used: Provided that where any of the means mentioned in article 248A(2) has been used in the commission of the offence under this article the punishment for the offence shall be increased by one degree
248DB. Whosoever shall practice or engage in child labour for any of the purposes mentioned in article 248A shall, on conviction, be liable to the punishment established under article 248D. For the purposes of this article child labour shall includethe coercion of a person under age into forced or compulsory labour for any purpose whatsoever including the forced or compulsory recruitment of minors to take part in armed conflict.
“11.1. An employer who contravenes or fails to comply with any of the provisions of these regulations shall be guilty of an offence against the Act.
2.The parent of a young person who aids or abets an employer in contravening any provision of these regulations shall be guilty of an offence against the Act.
3. A person guilty of an offence under these regulations shall be liable, on conviction, to a fine (multa) of not less than five hundred and eighty-two euro and thirty-four cents (582.34) and to a further fine (multa) of not less than one hundred and sixteen euro and forty-seven cents (116.47) for every day during which the offence continues after conviction”
“6.1. Any breach of any provision of these regulations shall be deemed an offence.
6.2. The parent or person who has the custody or care of a child shall be guilty of an offence if any breach of the provisions of these regulations takes place with his knowledge or consent.”
National Statistical Office
1.ii. Take steps to measure, monitor and share data on prevalence and response to all such forms of exploitation, as appropriate to national circumstances;
Programs and Agencies for Enforcement
Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk of exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.
Social Protection Coverage: General (at Least One)
Social Protection (Source: ILO)
The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.
If a country does not appear on a chart, this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.