Data Dashboards

Marshall Islands
Measurement
Measuring the Change

using prevalence data providing the widest temporal coverage of the most complete and comparable measures available by ICLS standards.

Due to lack of nationally representative data, there is no change to report.

%
Best Target 8.7 Data: Child Labour Rate

No data available

Data Availability
  • Child labour: No ILO/UNICEF data
  • Forced labour: No nationally representative data
  • Human trafficking: No nationally representative data
Context
Human Development

Human Development Index Score: 0.698 (2018)

Mean School Years: 10.9 years (2018)

 

Labour Indicators

Vulnerable Employment: No data available

Working Poverty Rate: No data available

Government Efforts
Key Ratifications
  • ILO Protocol of 2014 to the Forced Labour Convention, P029: Not Ratified
  • ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, C182: Ratified 2019
  • UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Palermo Protocol): Not Ratified
Social Protection Coverage

General (at least one): No data

Unemployed: No data

Pension: 64.2% (2010)

Vulnerable: No data

Children: No data

Disabled: No data

Poor: No data

Measurement of child labour prevalence has evolved considerably over the past two decades. Estimates of child labour incidence are more robust and exist for more countries than any other form of exploitation falling under SDG Target 8.7.

No nationally representative data is available on child labour prevalence in Marshall Islands.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on ILO-SIMPOC methods and guidelines for defining, measuring and collecting data on child labour.

Measuring the incidence of forced labour is a much more recent endeavour and presents unique methodological challenges compared to the measurement of child labour.

No nationally representative data is available on forced labour prevalence in Marshall Islands.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page for information on new guidelines presented by the International Labour Organization and adopted by the International Conference of Labour Statisticians.

The challenges in estimating human trafficking are similar to those of estimating forced labour, though recent innovations in estimation have begun to produce prevalence estimates in developed countries.

No nationally representative data is available on human trafficking prevalence in Marshall Islands.

Visit the How to Measure the Change page to learn about measuring human trafficking prevalence, including information on collecting data through national referral mechanisms and producing prevalence statistics using Multiple Systems Estimation (MSE).

Case Data: International and Non-Governmental Organizations

Civil society organizations (CSOs) focused on human trafficking victim assistance can serve as crucial sources of data given their ability to reach a population that is notoriously difficult to sample.

Counter Trafficking Data Collaborative (CTDC): The International Organization for Migration (IOM), Polaris and Liberty Asia have launched a global data repository on human trafficking, with data contributed by counter-trafficking partner organizations around the world. Not only does the CTDC serve as a central repository for this critical information, it also publishes normed and harmonized data from various organizations using a unified schema. This global dataset facilitates an unparalleled level of cross-border, trans-agency analysis and provides the counter-trafficking movement with a deeper understanding of this complex issue. Equipped with this information, decision makers will be empowered to create more targeted and effective intervention strategies.

Prosecution Data

UNODC compiles a global dataset on detected and prosecuted traffickers, which serves as the basis in their Global Report for country profiles. This information is beginning to paint a picture of trends over time, and case-specific information can assist investigators and prosecutors.

Key aspects of human development, such as poverty and lack of education, are found to be associated with risk of exploitation. Policies that address these issues may indirectly contribute to getting us closer to achieving Target 8.7.

Human Development Index (Source: UNDP)

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of achievements in three key dimensions of human development: (1) a long and healthy life; (2) access to knowledge; and (3) a decent standard of living. Human development can factor into issues of severe labour exploitation in multiple ways.

The chart displays information on human development in Marshall Islands between 2017 and 2018. Only certain sample years have data disaggregated by sex. 

The most recent year of the HDI, 2018, shows that the average human development score in Marshall Islands is 0.698 This score indicates that human development is medium. 

 

HDI Education Index (Source: UNDP)

Lack of education and illiteracy are key factors that make both children and adults more vulnerable to exploitive labour conditions.

As the seminal ILO report Profits and Poverty explains:

“Adults with low education levels and children whose parents are not educated are at higher risk of forced labour. Low education levels and illiteracy reduce employment options for workers and often force them to accept work under poor conditions. Furthermore, individuals who can read contracts may be in a better position to recognize situations that could lead to exploitation and coercion.”

The bars on the chart represent the Education Index score and the line traces the mean years of education in Marshall Islands over time.

 

Decent work, a major component of SDG 8 overall, has clear implications on the forms of exploitation within Target 8.7. Identifying shortcomings in the availability of equitable, safe and stable employment can be a step in the right direction towards achieving Target 8.7.

Research to date suggests that a major factor in vulnerability to labour exploitation is broader social vulnerability, marginalization or exclusion.

 

Achieving SDG Target 8.7 will require national governments to take direct action against the forms of exploitation through policy implementation.

 

Official Definitions
Forced Labor

Constitution of the Marshall Islands, 2005

“Article II Bill of Rights
Section 2. Slavery and Involuntary Servitude.
(1) No person shall be held in slavery or involuntary servitude, nor shall any person be required to perform forced or compulsory labor.
(2) For the purposes of this Section, the term ‘forced or compulsory labor’ does not include: (a) any labor required by the sentence or order of a court;

(b) any other labor required of a person lawfully detained if reasonably necessary for the maintenance of the place of detention;
(c) any service required by law in lieu of compulsory military service when such service has been lawfully required of others.”

Prohibition of Trafficking in Persons Act, 2017

Ҥ1003. Definitions.
(1) For the purpose of this Law, the following definitions shall apply:
(j) ‚Forced labor or services‛ shall mean all work or service that is exacted from any person under the threat of any penalty and for which the person concerned has not offered him or herself voluntarily.”

Child Labour

Labour Minimum Conditions Bill

The Government has also drafted a Labour Minimum Conditions Bill, which contains provisions on the minimum age of admission to work and of the types of work permitted to children.

Seamen’s Protection Act, 1970

Ҥ204. Minimum age for employment.
(1) Children under the age of sixteen (16) years shall not be employed on Marshall Islands vessels engaged in foreign trade, except on vessels on which only members of the same family are employed, school-ships, or training ships.
(2) The master shall keep a register of all persons under the age of sixteen (16) years employed on board his vessel, as required by regulations. [19 TTC 1970, §204; 19 TTC 1980, §204, modified.]”

Worst Forms of Child Labour

Labour Minimum Conditions Bill

The Government has also drafted a Labour Minimum Conditions Bill, which contains provisions on the minimum age of admission to work and of the types of work permitted to children.

Ҥ1018. Prohibition of the Abduction, Sale of and Trafficking in Children.
(1) The abduction, sale of, and trafficking in children for any purpose or in any form shall be prohibited and established as punishable offenses.
(2) Abduction of children shall mean:

(a) Unlawfully removing a child from his/her place of residence by means of force, threat, deception, abuse of power, or enticement, or
(b) Unlawfully taking a child away from the legal custody of the child’s parents, guardian or care-giver, whether committed, facilitated, or coordinated inside the Republic or involving transit to or through the Republic. This includes cases of abduction in which one of the actors is a parent of the child.

(3) Sale of children shall mean any act or transaction, including the offering, delivering, or accepting of a child by whatever means, whereby the custody over the child is transferred by a person or group of persons to another for remuneration or any other consideration.
(4) Trafficking in children shall mean the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or receipt of children, whether or not by means of threat or use of force, other forms of coercion, abduction, fraud, deception, the abuse of power or a position of vulnerability, or the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of the parents, guardian, care-giver or any other person having control over the child, for the purpose of exploitation, including for the purpose of:

(a) Economic exploitation and forced or compulsory labor, including the worst forms of child labor, children’s work not in accordance with the regulations of this Law, child begging, child domestic work, and exploitative participation in sporting events;
(b) Sexual exploitation, child prostitution, child sex tourism, child pornography, and participation in sexually oriented performances and establishments;
(c) Any other illicit purposes.

(5) Principle of Non-Punishment of Child Victims

(a) A child which became victim of sexual exploitation, including:

(i) A child in prostitution,
(ii) A child victim of sex tourism,
(iii) A child victim of the production, distribution, or consumption of child pornography, and
(iv) A child victim of trafficking shall not be criminalized for any unlawful act committed as a direct result of being a child victim of exploitation, such as engaging in prostitution, using false documents, or entering the country without documentation, and no punishment may be inflicted on her/him.

(6) Child victims of abduction, sale, or trafficking shall have access to the means of protection established in Part III of this Act and other laws of the Republic. Prevention activities shall include conducting research into the root causes of child abduction, sale, and trafficking and raising awareness on the issue.”

Ҥ1003. Definitions.
(1) For the purpose of this Law, the following definitions shall apply:
(j) “”Exploitation”” shall mean:

(i) Sexual exploitation, including commercial sexual exploitation of children in the form of child prostitution, child sex tourism, child pornography, and child trafficking for these purposes;
(ii) Economic exploitation, including the worst forms of child labor, child begging, children’s work and child domestic work not in accordance with the regulations of this Act; and
(iii) Other forms of exploitation, including all forms of slavery or practices similar to slavery, debt bondage or servitude;”

Human Trafficking

Criminal Code, 1966

Ҥ251.0. Definitions.
In this Article, the definitions given in Section 213.0 apply unless a different meaning plainly is required, and:
(6) “”Trafficking in person”” means the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or receipt of person, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation. “”Exploitation”” shall include, at a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labor or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removable of organs.”

Prohibition of Trafficking in Persons Act, 2017

Ҥ1003. Definitions.
(1) For the purpose of this Law, the following definitions shall apply:
(d) “”Child”” shall mean any person below the age of eighteen;”

Ҥ1005. Trafficking in Persons.
Any person who:

(a) recruits, transports, transfers, harbors or receives another person;
(b) by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability, or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person;
(c) for the purpose of exploitation of that person;
shall be guilty of the offense of trafficking in persons, and upon conviction shall be subject to a term of imprisonment not exceeding fifteen (15) years, and a fine not exceeding ten thousand dollars ($10,000), or both.”

Ҥ1006. Exploitation.
(1) Exploitation within the meaning of this Act shall include:

(a) the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation;
(b) forced or coerced labor or services including bonded labor and debt bondage;
(c) slavery or practices similar to slavery;
(d) servitude including sexual servitude;
(e) the removal of organs;
(f) other forms of exploitation.

(2) If the person subjected to exploitation is a child, exploitation shall also include:

(a) the use of procuring or offering of a child for illicit or criminal activities;
(b) the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation;
(c) the use in armed conflict;
(d) work that, by its nature or by the circumstances in which it is carried out, is likely to harm the health or safety of children;
(e) the employment or use in work, where the said child has not reached the applicable minimum working age for the said employment or work;
(f) other forms of exploitation.”

Slavery

Prohibition of Trafficking in Persons Act, 2017

Ҥ1003. Definitions.
(1) For the purpose of this Law, the following definitions shall apply:
(p) “”Slavery”” shall mean the status or condition of a person over whom any or all the powers attaching to the right of ownership are exercised or the status or condition of a person over whom control is exercised to the extent that the person is treated like property.”

Constitution of the Marshall Islands, 2005

“Article II Bill of Rights
Section 2. Slavery and Involuntary Servitude.
(1) No person shall be held in slavery or involuntary servitude, nor shall any person be required to perform forced or compulsory labor.
(2) For the purposes of this Section, the term ‘forced or compulsory labor’ does not include:

(a) any labor required by the sentence or order of a court;
(b) any other labor required of a person lawfully detained if reasonably necessary for the maintenance of the place of detention;
(c) any service required by law in lieu of compulsory military service when such service has been lawfully required of others.”

Governments can take action to assist victims and to prevent and end the  perpetration of forced labour, modern slavery, human trafficking and child labour. These actions should be considered in wider societal efforts to reduce prevalence and move towards eradication of these forms of exploitation.

Programs and Agencies for Victim Support

Policies for Assistance
Policies for Assistance, Human Trafficking

Prohibition of Trafficking in Persons Act, 2017

Ҥ1009. Non-Prosecution of victims of trafficking in persons.
(1) A victim of trafficking in persons shall not be held criminally punishable for offenses committed by them, to the extent that such involvement is a direct consequence of their situation as trafficked persons.
(2) Notwithstanding the provisions of the Immigration Act 2006, a victim of trafficking in persons who is a foreign citizen shall not be held criminally liable for immigration offenses established under the Immigration Act, if entry into the Republic without lawful approval was occasioned by the fact that such person was a victim of an offense under this Act, and to the satisfaction of the Director of Immigration.
(3) The Director of Immigration may cause to be issued to victims of trafficking under these circumstances, with the approval of the Minister for Justice, temporary visas or other temporary authorization allowing the presence of said victims in the Republic, pending investigations and or the prosecution of said cases.
(4) Notwithstanding that, the Attorney General may exercise his or her authority to deport any victim of trafficking if he or she sees it best under the current circumstances.”

PART V- VICTIM ASSISTANCE AND PROTECTION

Policies for Assistance, General

Child Rights Protection Act, 2015

Ҥ1034. Right to Fair Compensation.
(1) A child who has been victimized by a violation of this Act or other laws of the Republic has the right to be fully compensated for any damages suffered. This shall include fair and adequate compensation for:

(a) Moral damages, resulting from physical injury and psychological harm,
(b) Material damages, including expended work during the time of exploitation,
(c) Lost opportunities of education and vocational training, and
(d) Any other costs that the child may incur such as for medical, physical, psychological, or psychiatric treatment, including long-term therapy or rehabilitation, for legal services, housing, and transportation.

(2) A child whose rights have been violated according to this Act or other laws of the Republic shall have the direct right to enforce his/her claims for compensation in criminal, civil, or administrative procedures.
(3) A child shall be informed about the right to full compensation in a manner and language that the child can understand.”

 

Penalties
Penalties, Human Trafficking

Prohibition of Trafficking in Persons Act, 2017

Ҥ1005. Trafficking in Persons.
Any person who:

(a) recruits, transports, transfers, harbors or receives another person;
(b) by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability, or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person;
(c) for the purpose of exploitation of that person;
shall be guilty of the offense of trafficking in persons, and upon conviction shall be subject to a term of imprisonment not exceeding fifteen (15) years, and a fine not exceeding ten thousand dollars ($10,000), or both.”

Ҥ1007. Trafficking in Children.
(1) Any person who:

(a) recruits, transports, transfers, harbors, arranges or receives a child;
(b) for the purpose of exploitation of that child;
shall be guilty of an offense of trafficking in persons, and upon conviction shall be subject to a term of imprisonment not exceeding twenty (20) years, and a fine not exceeding fifteen thousand dollars ($15,000), or both.

The consent of the victim or the parent or a person having legal or de facto control of a child victim of trafficking to the intended exploitation set forth in subsection (1) shall be irrelevant, and shall not constitute a defense against any prosecution under this Act.”

Penalties, Child Labour

Child Rights Protection Act, 2015

Ҥ1007. Legal Assistance and Access to Justice.
(1) Pursuant to Article II of the Constitution, a child shall be afforded legal assistance for the realization and protection of his/her rights.
(2) In order to ensure the child’s access to justice, it shall be provided that:

(a) Legal assistance is free-of-charge if the child has no legal representation;
(b) Legal assistance adheres to the principles of non- discrimination and the best interests of the child, including informing the child about the legal proceedings in a way that the child understands;
(c) The privacy of the child is protected and the child’s identity is not released to the public; and
(d) Other necessary protective measures for child victims and child witnesses.

(3) Children accused of having violated the law shall have their cases heard pursuant to the Juvenile Procedure Act.”

Ҥ1018. Prohibition of the Abduction, Sale of and Trafficking in Children.
(1) The abduction, sale of, and trafficking in children for any purpose or in any form shall be prohibited and established as punishable offenses.
(2) Abduction of children shall mean:

(a) Unlawfully removing a child from his/her place of residence by means of force, threat, deception, abuse of power, or enticement, or
(b) Unlawfully taking a child away from the legal custody of the child’s parents, guardian or care-giver, whether committed, facilitated, or coordinated inside the Republic or involving transit to or through the Republic. This includes cases of abduction in which one of the actors is a parent of the child.

(3) Sale of children shall mean any act or transaction, including the offering, delivering, or accepting of a child by whatever means, whereby the custody over the child is transferred by a person or group of persons to another for remuneration or any other consideration.
(4) Trafficking in children shall mean the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or receipt of children, whether or not by means of threat or use of force, other forms of coercion, abduction, fraud, deception, the abuse of power or a position of vulnerability, or the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of the parents, guardian, care-giver or any other person having control over the child, for the purpose of exploitation, including for the purpose of:

(a) Economic exploitation and forced or compulsory labor, including the worst forms of child labor, children’s work not in accordance with the regulations of this Law, child begging, child domestic work, and exploitative participation in sporting events;
(b) Sexual exploitation, child prostitution, child sex tourism, child pornography, and participation in sexually oriented performances and establishments;
(c) Any other illicit purposes.

(5) Principle of Non-Punishment of Child Victims

(a) A child which became victim of sexual exploitation, including:

(i) A child in prostitution,
(ii) A child victim of sex tourism,
(iii) A child victim of the production, distribution, or consumption of child pornography, and
(iv) A child victim of trafficking shall not be criminalized for any unlawful act committed as a direct result of being a child victim of exploitation, such as engaging in prostitution, using false documents, or entering the country without documentation, and no punishment may be inflicted on her/him.

(6) Child victims of abduction, sale, or trafficking shall have access to the means of protection established in Part III of this Act and other laws of the Republic. Prevention activities shall include conducting research into the root causes of child abduction, sale, and trafficking and raising awareness on the issue.”

Penalties, General

Prohibition of Trafficking in Persons Act, 2017

Ҥ1008. Forced Labor and Services.
Any person who makes use of the services or labor of a person or profits in any form from the services or labor of a person with the prior knowledge that such labor or services are performed or rendered under one more of the conditions described in Section 6 above, shall be guilty of an offense, and upon conviction shall be subject to a term of imprisonment of not more than fifteen (15) years or a fine not exceeding $10,000 or both.”

Ҥ1011. Accomplice.
(1) Any person, who knowingly participates as an accomplice in the crime of trafficking shall be guilty of an offense, and upon conviction, shall be liable to a term of imprisonment of not more than fifteen (15) years or to a fine of not more than five thousand dollars ($5,000) or both.
(2) A corporation or other entity whose management knowingly participates as an accomplice or accomplices in the crime of trafficking in persons, shall be guilty of an offense and upon conviction, shall be liable to a fine in an amount not exceeding two hundred and fifty thousand dollars ($250,000).”

Ҥ1012. Organizing and directing to commit an offense.
Any person who organizes or directs another person(s) or child(ren) to commit the crime of trafficking shall be guilty of the offense, and upon conviction shall be subject to a term of imprisonment of no less than fifteen (15) years, and a fine of not more than ten thousand dollars ($10,000) or both.

§ 1013. Attempt.
Any person who attempts to commit the crime of trafficking in persons shall be guilty of an offense, and upon conviction shall be subject to a term imprisonment of not more than seven (7) years and a fine of not more than five thousand dollars ($5,000) or both.

§1014. Aiding and Abetting
Any person who aids and abets another in the commission of an offense under this Act shall be guilty of an offense, and upon conviction, shall be subject to a term of imprisonment of not more than seven (7) years and a fine of not more than five thousand dollars ($5,000) or both.”

Ҥ1015. Unlawful handling of travel or identity documents.
(1) Any person who without lawful authority makes, produces or alters any travel or identity document, whether actual or purported, in the course or furtherance of any offense under this Act, shall be guilty of an offense and upon conviction shall be subject to a term of imprisonment of not more than fifteen (15) years, and a fine of not more than ten thousand dollars ($10,000), or both.
(2) Any person who obtains, procures, destroys, conceals, removes, confiscates, withholds, alters, replicates, possesses, or facilitates the fraudulent use of another person’s travel or identity document, with the intent to commit or to facilitate the commission of an offense under this Act, shall be guilty of an offense and upon conviction shall be subject to a term of imprisonment of not more than fifteen (15) years, and a fine of not more than ten thousand dollars ($10,000) or both.”

Labor (Non-Resident Workers) Act, 2006

Ҥ132. Employment of a non-resident worker without a work permit.
(1) Any employer who employs a person knowing that he or she does not have a work permit is guilty of an offence and is liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding five years, a fine not exceeding $10,000 or both.
(2) An information alleging an offence against subsection (1) may specify any
day on which it is alleged the person was in the employment of the employer, and it shall not be necessary to state the date on which that employment is alleged to have commenced.”

Data Commitments

A Call to Action to End Forced Labour, Modern Slavery and Human Trafficking, Not signed

1.ii. Take steps to measure, monitor and share data on prevalence and response to all such forms of exploitation, as appropriate to national circumstances;

Programs and Agencies for Enforcement

Measures to address the drivers of vulnerability to exploitation can be key to effective prevention. A broad range of social protections are thought to reduce the likelihood that an individual will be at risk of exploitation, especially when coverage of those protections extends to the most vulnerable groups.

 

Social Protection Coverage: General (at Least One)
Social Protection (Source: ILO)

The seminal ILO paper on the economics of forced labour, Profits and Poverty, explains the hypothesis that social protection can mitigate the risks that arise when a household is vulnerable to sudden income shocks, helping to prevent labour exploitation. It also suggests that access to education and skills training can enhance the bargaining power of workers and prevent children in particular from becoming victims of forced labour. Measures to promote social inclusion and address discrimination against women and girls may also go a long way towards preventing forced labour.

If a country does not appear on a chart, this indicates that there is no recent data available for the particular social protection visualized.

Social Protection Coverage: Pension
Social Protection Coverage: Vulnerable Groups
Social Protection Coverage: Poor
Social Protection Coverage: Children
Social Protection Coverage: Disabled

Delta 8.7 has received no Official Response to this dashboard from the Marshall Islands. If you are a representative of the Marshall Islands and wish to submit an Official Response, please contact us here.